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CHINA’S SEARCH FOR
POLITICALAND SOCIAL
ORDER
From Chaos to Unification
Period of the Warring States
• Lasted from 403 – 221 B.C.E.
• There were seven powerful
states vying for domination.
• Yan...
The Search for Order During the Chaos
• During the Period of the Warring States, people desired and
sought social and poli...
Philosophical Systems
• There were three main philosophical systems that
gained importance in China during this time.
• Co...
Confucianism
• Founded by Kong Fuzi (551-479 B.C.E.)
• Emphasized morality and leading by
example
• He sought to create ju...
Virtues of Confucianism
• Xiao
• Filial piety
• Respecting your parents and family elders
• Taking care of them
• Supporti...
Virtues of Confucianism (cont’d)
• Yi
• Honesty
• Uprightness
• Zhong
• Conscientiousness
• Loyalty
• Doing your best
• Sh...
Virtues of Confucianism (cont’d)
• Zhi
• Knowledge
• Wisdom
• Xin
• Faithfulness
• Integrity
“To be able under all circums...
Daoism
• Founded by Laozi (6th century B.C.E.)
• Emphasizes inaction and harmony
• Daosists believe that less government i...
Virtues of Daoism
• Wuwei
• The main virtue of Daoism
• Translates as “without action” or “action through inaction”
• The ...
Legalism
• Founders were Shang Yang, Han Feize and other Legalists
(390 B.C.E. – 338 B.C.E.)
• Did not address ethics or m...
Tools of Legalism
• Fa
• Translates as “law or principle”
• Law must be made public.
• Laws must be clearly understandable...
Tools of Legalism (cont’d)
• Shi
• Translates “legitimacy, power or charisma”
• The position holds the power, not the rule...
Conclusion
• The people of China mainly concentrated on three philosophical
systems in their efforts to bring political an...
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China’s search for political and social order

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History Project 2012

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China’s search for political and social order

  1. 1. CHINA’S SEARCH FOR POLITICALAND SOCIAL ORDER From Chaos to Unification
  2. 2. Period of the Warring States • Lasted from 403 – 221 B.C.E. • There were seven powerful states vying for domination. • Yan • Zhao • Qi • Wei • Han • Chu • Largest territory • Qin • Most Powerful • The state of Qin eventually conquered them all bringing the Period of the Warring States to an end.
  3. 3. The Search for Order During the Chaos • During the Period of the Warring States, people desired and sought social and political order. • Some people withdrew from society. • Concerned themselves only with their individual tranquility • Some people searched for order within society. • Considered the proper roles of people in society • Explored philosophical systems as a possible means of restoring order
  4. 4. Philosophical Systems • There were three main philosophical systems that gained importance in China during this time. • Confucianism • Daoism • Legalism • These philosophies greatly influenced China’s culture in two ways. • Political traditions • Cultural traditions
  5. 5. Confucianism • Founded by Kong Fuzi (551-479 B.C.E.) • Emphasized morality and leading by example • He sought to create junzi, individuals who were well educated with superior morality. • He hoped that by creating junzi, they would gain influence and become leaders, bringing order and morality to the government and people of China. • Aside from his political beliefs, he also emphasized morality and ethics which are represented in the virtues of Confucianism.
  6. 6. Virtues of Confucianism • Xiao • Filial piety • Respecting your parents and family elders • Taking care of them • Supporting them in old age • Honoring them after death • Ren • Benevolence • Charity • Humanity • Li • Correct behavior • Politeness • Ceremony • Worship
  7. 7. Virtues of Confucianism (cont’d) • Yi • Honesty • Uprightness • Zhong • Conscientiousness • Loyalty • Doing your best • Shu • Reciprocity • Consideration for others • Altruism
  8. 8. Virtues of Confucianism (cont’d) • Zhi • Knowledge • Wisdom • Xin • Faithfulness • Integrity “To be able under all circumstances to practice five things constitutes perfect virtue; these five things are gravity, generosity of soul, sincerity, earnestness and kindness.” - Kong Fuzi, also known as Confucius
  9. 9. Daoism • Founded by Laozi (6th century B.C.E.) • Emphasizes inaction and harmony • Daosists believe that less government is better and do not involve themselves with politics. • Main focuses of Daoism • Nature • Health and longevity • The relationship between humanity and the cosmos • Achieving harmony with the universe
  10. 10. Virtues of Daoism • Wuwei • The main virtue of Daoism • Translates as “without action” or “action through inaction” • The “Three Treasures” or “Three Jewels” • Ci • Compassion • Love • Kindness • Jian • Moderation • Economy • Restraint • Wei tianxia xian • Translates “Not dare to be first in the world” • Humility • Modesty
  11. 11. Legalism • Founders were Shang Yang, Han Feize and other Legalists (390 B.C.E. – 338 B.C.E.) • Did not address ethics or morality • Emphasized military and agriculture as the main contributors to a state’s strength • Legalism philosophy had tools instead of virtues.
  12. 12. Tools of Legalism • Fa • Translates as “law or principle” • Law must be made public. • Laws must be clearly understandable. • Laws should reward or punish according to behavior. • All people under the law must be treated the same in accordance with it. • Shu • Translates “method, tactic or art” • The ruler must keep secrets to ensure that others do not take control. • The ruler must keep his motivations hidden so that they can not be used by people to advance within the organization.
  13. 13. Tools of Legalism (cont’d) • Shi • Translates “legitimacy, power or charisma” • The position holds the power, not the ruler. • The ruler must analyze trends, context and facts to keep his power as ruler.
  14. 14. Conclusion • The people of China mainly concentrated on three philosophical systems in their efforts to bring political and social order to the chaos during the Period of The Warring States. • Confucianists sought to attain order through activism. • Daoists sought order through inactivity. • Legalists sought to bring about order through governmental control and enforcement. • In the end, it was Legalism that ended the Period of the Warring States and Unified China.

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