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  1. 1. Volcanoes affect Earth’s land, air, and water Pages 156-162 (section B)
  2. 2. Immediate Effect of Volcanic Eruptions <ul><li>Lava Flows </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Most lava flows move slowly enough that people can move away and not be hurt. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lava flow can knock down, cover, or burn nearly everything in its path </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. Immediate Effect of Volcanic Eruptions <ul><li>Volcanic Ash </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Volcanic ash is heavy because it is made up tiny pieces of rock </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The weight of volcanic ash can cause the roofs to collapse </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Volcanic ash can clog machinery, including cars and airplanes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Can suffocate animals and people </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Immediate Effect of Volcanic Eruptions <ul><li>Mudflows </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Landslides that occur when loose rocks and soil and rocks are mixed with water </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Heat from an eruption can melt any ice and snow very quickly </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Also form as ash mixes into rivers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fast flowing mudflows have buried entire towns </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Immediate Effect of Volcanic Eruptions <ul><li>Pyroclastic flows </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Tend to rush downhill, following valleys, BUT can have enough force to climb up hills </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Can leave a thick layer of volcanic rock fragments as it passes through an area </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The most dangerous type of eruptions: in 1902 almost 30,000 people were killed within a few minutes </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Immediate Effect of Volcanic Eruptions <ul><li>Landslides </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Part of a volcano can collapse and start a landslide </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A landslide can cause a tsunami if a large amount of material falls into the ocean </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Immediate Effect of Volcanic Eruptions <ul><li>Steam explosions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Relatively uncommon, but can be devastating </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>They occur when magma comes near water or into contact with it. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A steam explosion may have caused the destruction of Krakatau, in 1883 </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Long-term Destructive Effects of Volcanic Eruptions <ul><li>Mudflows can continue to develop over time when rain mixes with the rock fragments thrown out </li></ul><ul><li>Water can fill in the crater of the volcano. The upper part of the crater is weak and easily collapse </li></ul><ul><li>When the lava cools, it forms a layer of hard rock </li></ul>
  9. 9. Long-term Positive Effects of Volcanic Eruptions <ul><li>After many years, the hardened lava can break down and it creates rich soil </li></ul><ul><li>Highly productive farmland surrounds some active volcanoes </li></ul><ul><li>Over time, repeated volcanic eruptions can build a magnificent landscape of mountains and valleys. </li></ul><ul><li>People chose to live in these areas for the natural beauty, many tourist visit for the areas as well. </li></ul>
  10. 10. Volcanic Gases and Ash affect the Air <ul><li>Sulfur dioxide, which smells like rotten eggs, is a gas common in volcanic eruptions </li></ul><ul><li>Carbon dioxide, which is odorless and colorless, can be fatal to humans </li></ul><ul><li>Gases from the volcano can help to carry ash 100’s of miles </li></ul>
  11. 11. Acid Rain <ul><li>Acid Rain - rain that contains large amounts of acid </li></ul><ul><li>Volcanic eruptions are a source of acid rain </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Human activity is the most common source of acid rain </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Volcanic Activity affects Water <ul><li>Hot springs form as magma heats water </li></ul><ul><li>In most hot spring, the water flows out in calm pool </li></ul><ul><li>Geyser- a type of hot spring that shoots water into the air. </li></ul>
  13. 13. Volcanic Activity affects Water <ul><li>Fumarole- similar to a hot spring, instead of water a fumerole releases steam and other gases </li></ul>
  14. 14. Volcanic Activity affects Water <ul><li>Deep- Sea Vent- hot spring that form at spreading centers in the ocean. </li></ul>