4.1

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into to earthquakes/ types of faults

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4.1

  1. 1. Earthquakes occur along Faults http://neic.usgs.gov/neis/qed/
  2. 2. Fault <ul><li>A fracture, or break, in Earth’s lithosphere, along which blocks of rock move past each other </li></ul>
  3. 3. Rocks bend as stress is put on them. <ul><li>Stress - the force exerted when an object presses on, pulls on, or pushes against another object. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Some parts of a fault, rock on either side may slide along slowly and constantly </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Other parts the rocks may stick or lock together, putting stress on them </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>As stress increases, the rocks break free causing an earthquake </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Earthquake <ul><li>An earthquake is a shaking of the ground caused by the sudden movement of large blocks of rock along a fault. </li></ul>
  5. 5. Most earthquakes occur along plate boundaries <ul><li>This is where faults occur. </li></ul><ul><li>The blocks of rock that move during an earthquake are much smaller than the tectonic plates </li></ul>
  6. 6. Factors of the Strength of an Earthquake <ul><li>how much stress builds up before the rocks move. </li></ul><ul><li>the distance the rocks move along the fault. </li></ul>
  7. 7. <ul><li>80% of all earthquakes occur in a belt along the edges of the Pacific Ocean </li></ul>
  8. 8. Fault Classification <ul><li>Faults are classified by the way the rocks move </li></ul><ul><li>More than one type of fault may be present along a boundary </li></ul>
  9. 9. Normal Faults <ul><li>The block of rock above the fault plane slides down relative to the other block </li></ul><ul><li>Earthquakes along normal faults are common near divergent boundaries. </li></ul>
  10. 10. Reverse Faults <ul><li>The block above the fault plane moves up relative to the other block. </li></ul><ul><li>Occurs along convergent boundaires </li></ul>
  11. 11. Strike-Slip Faults <ul><li>Blocks of rock move sideways on either side on the of the fault plane. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Example: San Andreas fault in California </li></ul></ul>

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