Sec1.fa1 -Principles & Practice of First Aid


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Sec1.fa1 -Principles & Practice of First Aid

  1. 1.  What is First Aid  Aims of First Aid  First Aider INTRODUCTION
  2. 2. WHAT IS FIRST AID  Immediate assistance or treatment given to the injured or ill, before the arrival of an ambulance, doctor, or other appropriately qualified person.
  3. 3. AIMS OF FIRST AID  Preserve life.  Prevent the condition from becoming worse.  Promote recovery.
  4. 4. A FIRST AIDER IS…  Highly trained.  Examined and regularly re-examined.  Up-to-date in knowledge and skills.
  5. 5. FIRST AIDER’S RESPONSIBILITIES  To asses a situation quickly & safely, and summon appropriate help.  To protect casualties and others at the scene from possible danger.  To identify, as far as possible, the injury or nature of illness affecting a casualty.
  6. 6. FIRST AIDER’S RESPONSIBILITIES  To give each casualty early and appropriate treatment, treating the most serious conditions first.  To arrange for removal of casualty to hospital, or to his or her home.  To remain with a casualty until appropriate care is available.
  7. 7. FIRST AIDER’S RESPONSIBILITIES  To report your observations to those taking over care of the casualty, and to give further assistance if required.  To prevent cross-infection between yourself and the casualty as much as possible.
  8. 8. GIVING CARE WITH CONFIDENCE First Aider can create confidence and assurance by:  Being in control, both yourself and the situation.  Acting calmly and logically.  Being gentle, but firm with your hands and speaking to the casualty kindly but purposefully.
  9. 9. BUILDING UP TRUST Talk to the casualty throughout your examination & treatment.  Explain what you are going to do.  Try to answer questions honestly to allay fear as much as you can. If you do not know the answer, say so.  Continue to reassure the casualty even when your treatment is complete.  Continue to talk to the casualty and hold his or her hand. Never let the person feel alone.
  10. 10. PROTECTING YOURSELF AGAINST INFECTION  Always carry protective gloves.  Cover your own sores or skin wounds with a waterproof plaster.  Wear a plastic apron when dealing with large amount of the casualty’s body fluid.  Wear plastic glasses to protect your eyes against splashes.
  11. 11. PROTECTING YOURSELF AGAINST INFECTION  Take care not to prick yourself with any sharp objects found on or near the casualty.  If your eyes, nose, mouth or any wound is splashed by the casualty’s blood, wash thoroughly with soap and water and consult a doctor.  Use a mask or face shield for mouth-to-mouth ventilation.  Dispose of blood & waste safely after treating the casualty.
  12. 12. ACTION AT AN EMERGENCY Effective first aid usually begins before any direct contact with the casualty. Remember:  Control your feelings and take a moment to think.  Do not place yourself in danger.  Use your common sense.  Do not attempt too much alone.  Be aware of potential dangers such as gas/petrol.
  13. 13. FIRST AID PRIORITIES Assess the situation  Observe what has happened quickly and calmly.  Look for dangers to yourself and the casualty.  Never put yourself at risk. Make the area safe  Protect the casualty from danger.  Be aware of your limitations.
  14. 14. FIRST AID PRIORITIES Get help  Call for ambulance immediately after primary assessment.
  15. 15. Making the call  Dial 995.  Give your name and contact number.  Location of incident.  The type and gravity of incident.  The number, sex, and approximate ages of the casualties and anything you know about their condition.  Details of any hazards (Gas, chemical, weather) FIRST AID PRIORITIES
  16. 16. THE FIRST AIDER SHOULD… Preserve life  Pay strict attention to safety.  Follow Airway, Breathing, Circulation of resuscitation.  Control any major bleeding.
  17. 17. THE FIRST AIDER SHOULD… Limit the effects of the condition  Make diagnosis after a thorough examination.  Give priority to seriously injured casualties.  Treat multiple injuries in order of priority. Consider the possibility of ‘hidden’ secondary conditions. Promote recovery of the casualty  Relief any discomfort, pain or anxiety.  Arrange for appropriate medical attention.
  18. 18. INITIAL ASSESSMENT  Quickly perform a brief examination of the casualty.  Perform checks before making diagnosis.  Prepare to resuscitate the casualty.  Do not move casualty with suspected head or neck injuries unnecessarily.
  19. 19. INITIAL ASSESSMENT  Check for consciousness.  Open airway.  Check for breathing.  Check for circulation.  Check for bleeding.
  20. 20. MAKING A DIAGNOSIS  The diagnosis is made on the basis of the history and clues to any medical condition and signs & symptoms.
  21. 21. HISTORY  The full story of how the incident happened, how the injury was sustained, or how the illness began and continued, including any previous conditions.
  22. 22. HISTORY  When did the casualty last had something to eat or drink?  Does the casualty have any illness or is on any medication?  The amount of force involved and how was it applied to the body?  The environment – was the casualty in a hot & stuffy/cold room or exposed to wind or rain?
  23. 23. HISTORY  The casualty’s age and state of health.  Establish who the casualty is and where he or she lives.  Make a note of all information, including the time of injury and your examination.
  24. 24. SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS  Signs are details of a casualty’s condition that you can see, feel, hear or smell.  Symptoms are sensations that the casualty experiences, and may be able to describe if she is conscious.
  25. 25. LOOKING FOR SIGNS Apply your senses  Look for bleeding.  Discoloration.  Deformity.  Feel the strength and rhythm of the pulse.  Listen to the breathing.  Look for any variation in the alignment of a bone.
  26. 26. ASSESSING SYMPTOMS Ask the casualty if he or she has any abnormal sensations.  Is there any pain?  Where is the pain?  What type of pain?  Any nausea, giddiness, heat, cold, weakness or thirst?  Any other symptoms?
  27. 27. EXAMINING A CASUALTY  Expose casualty if necessary.  Check for any bleeding or signs of life threatening injuries.