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0132656094 pp01 1

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0132656094 pp01 1

  1. 1. Roots of Applied Behavior Analysis Chapter 1 Applied Behavior Analysis for Teachers 9th edition Paul A. Alberto and Anne C. Troutman© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.All rights reserved
  2. 2. Overview: Roots of Applied Behavior Analysis  Requirements for explaining human behavior  Explanations of human behavior  Biophysical  Biochemical  Developmental  Cognitive  Behavioral  Historical Development of Behaviorism  Respondent Conditioning  Associationism  Behaviorism  Operant ConditioningApplied Behavior Analysis for Teachers, 9th edition © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.Alberto and Troutman 1-2 All Rights Reserved
  3. 3. Usefulness Criteria • Inclusive: • Does the explanation account for a substantial quantity of behavior? • Verifiable: • Is the explanation testable? • Predictive Utility: • Does the explanation provide reliable answers about what people are likely to do under certain circumstances? • Parsimonious: • Is it the simplest explanation?Applied Behavior Analysis for Teachers, 9th edition © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.Alberto and Troutman 1-3 All Rights Reserved
  4. 4. Biophysical and Biochemical Explanations of Human Behavior  Biophysical  Genetic and Hereditary Effects  Dominant Genetic Inheritance  Recessive Genetic InheritanceApplied Behavior Analysis for Teachers, 9th edition © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.Alberto and Troutman 1-4 All Rights Reserved
  5. 5. Dominant Genetic Inheritance Affected Unaffected Mother Father (An) (nn) Affected Normal Affected Normal (An) (nn) (An) (nn) Each child has a 50% chance of inheriting the “A” gene (dominant abnormal gene) or the “n” gene (normal gene) from the affected parent. Abnormal Gene Passage Normal Gene PassageApplied Behavior Analysis for Teachers, 9th edition © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.Alberto and Troutman 1-5 All Rights Reserved
  6. 6. Recessive Genetic Inheritance Carrier Carrier Mother Father (Na) (Na) Normal Carrier Carrier Affected (NN) (Na) (Na) (aa) Each child has a 25% chance of inheriting two “a” genes (recessive abnormal genes) and inheriting two “N” genes (normal genes). Each child also has a 50% chance of being carriers of the abnormal gene. Abnormal Gene Passage Normal Gene PassageApplied Behavior Analysis for Teachers, 9th edition © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.Alberto and Troutman 1-6 All Rights Reserved
  7. 7. Biophysical and Biochemical Explanations of Human Behavior  Biophysical  Genetic and Hereditary Effects  Dominant Genetic Inheritance  Recessive Genetic Inheritance  Biochemical  Brain DamageApplied Behavior Analysis for Teachers, 9th edition © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.Alberto and Troutman 1-7 All Rights Reserved
  8. 8. Usefulness of Biophysical and Biochemical Explanation of Human Behavior Theoretical Inclusiveness Verifiability Predictive Parsimony Explanation Utility Biophysical and Poor Fair Poor Poor BiochemicalApplied Behavior Analysis for Teachers, 9th edition © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.Alberto and Troutman 1-8 All Rights Reserved
  9. 9. Developmental Explanations of Human Behavior  Psychoanalytic Theory (Freud)  Progression through crucial stages  Abberrant behavior if person fixates on a particular stage  A Stage Theory of Cognitive Development (Piaget)  Assimilation  The tendency to adapt the environment to enhance personal functioning.  Accommodation  The tendency to change behavior to adapt to the environment.  Equilibration  The process of maintaining a balance between assimilation and accommodation.Applied Behavior Analysis for Teachers, 9th edition © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.Alberto and Troutman 1-9 All Rights Reserved
  10. 10. A Comparison of Freudian and Piagetian Theories Freud’s Psychoanalytic Theory Piaget’s Stage Theory of Cognitive Development Age Stage Age Stage Birth to 2 years Oral Stage: Gratification centered Birth to 1 ½ Sensorimotor Intelligence: Infant is around the mouth years preoccupied with differentiating himself from the rest of the world and establish representations of objects. 2 to 4 years Anal Stage: Child derives gratification 1 ½ to 4 or 5 Preoperational Thought- from withholding and controlling feces. years Representational Thinking: Child This corresponds with toilet training. develops language, however is still unable to take another person’s point of view. 4 to 6 years Phallic Stage: Gratification contents 5 to 7 years Preoperational Thought – Intuitional around genitalia. Child becomes attached Thinking: Child begins to understand to parent of the opposite sex and develops conservation, attends to more than one aspect hostility to parent of same sex. of an object at a time, understands reversibility of some operations. 6 years to Puberty Latency Stage: Child identifies with the 7 to 11 years Concrete Operations: Organizes parent of the same sex and plays primarily perceptions and symbols; able to classify with other children of the same sex in sex- along several dimensions simultaneously; stereotyped activities. cannot solve abstract problems. Puberty Genital Stage: Child becomes 12 years to Adult Formal Operations: Deals with interested in members of the opposite sex. abstractions, hypothetical situations, and can think logically.Applied Behavior Analysis for Teachers, 9th edition © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.Alberto and Troutman 1-10 All Rights Reserved
  11. 11. Usefulness of Developmental Explanation of Human Behavior Theoretical Inclusiveness Verifiability Predictive Parsimony Explanation Utility Developmental Good Poor Fair PoorApplied Behavior Analysis for Teachers, 9th edition © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.Alberto and Troutman 1-11 All Rights Reserved
  12. 12. Cognitive Explanations of Human Behavior  Gestalt Psychology  Bruner – Discovery Learning  ConstructivismApplied Behavior Analysis for Teachers, 9th edition © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.Alberto and Troutman 1-12 All Rights Reserved
  13. 13. Usefulness of Cognitive Explanation of Human Behavior Theoretical Inclusiveness Verifiability Predictive Parsimony Explanation Utility Cognitive Good Poor Poor PoorApplied Behavior Analysis for Teachers, 9th edition © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.Alberto and Troutman 1-13 All Rights Reserved
  14. 14. Behavioral Explanation of Human Behavior  All behavior is learned.  Behavior must be measurable and observable  A behaviorist focus is on the “present environmental conditions, both antecedent and consequent, maintaining behavior and on establishing and verifying functional relations between such conditions and behaviors”Applied Behavior Analysis for Teachers, 9th edition © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.Alberto and Troutman 1-14 All Rights Reserved
  15. 15. Important Concepts of Behavioral Explanation  Positive Reinforcement  Negative Reinforcement  Punishment  ExtinctionApplied Behavior Analysis for Teachers, 9th edition © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.Alberto and Troutman 1-15 All Rights Reserved
  16. 16. Important Concepts of Behavioral Explanation  Antecedent Control  Stimulus Control  Setting Events  Kazdin’s (2000) 3 types of setting events: social, physiological, and environmental  Baily et al’s (1988) subdivision of environmental setting events: instructional dimensions, physical dimensions, social dimensions, and environmental change  Modeling and ShapingApplied Behavior Analysis for Teachers, 9th edition © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.Alberto and Troutman 1-16 All Rights Reserved
  17. 17. Usefulness of Behavioral Explanation of Human Behavior Theoretical Inclusiveness Verifiability Predictive Parsimony Explanation Utility Behavioral Fair Good Good GoodApplied Behavior Analysis for Teachers, 9th edition © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.Alberto and Troutman 1-17 All Rights Reserved
  18. 18. Usefulness of Explanations of Human Behavior Theoretical Inclusiveness Verifiability Predictive Parsimony Explanation Utility Biophysical/ Biochemical Poor Fair Poor Poor Developmental Good Poor Fair Poor Cognitive Good Poor Poor Poor Behavioral Fair Good Good GoodApplied Behavior Analysis for Teachers, 9th edition © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.Alberto and Troutman 1-18 All Rights Reserved
  19. 19. Historical Development of Behaviorism Respondent Conditioning (Ivan Pavlov)  Classical or Respondent Conditioning – the process of pairing stimuli so that an unconditioned stimulus elicits a response (reflexive behaviors) Food (UCS) Stage 1: Tone (CS) Salivation (UCR) Stage 2: Tone (CS) Salivation (CR) Associationism (Edward Thorndike)  Associations between situations and responses  Law of Effect  Law of ExerciseApplied Behavior Analysis for Teachers, 9th edition © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.Alberto and Troutman 1-19 All Rights Reserved
  20. 20. Historical Development of Behaviorism  Behaviorism (John Watson)  Coined term “behaviorism”  Focused on observable behaviors – emotional responses  Watson & Rayner (1920) – baby Albert  Operant Conditioning (B.F. Skinner)  Voluntary behaviors  The arrangement of environmental variables to establish a functional relation between a voluntary behavior and its consequences.Applied Behavior Analysis for Teachers, 9th edition © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.Alberto and Troutman 1-20 All Rights Reserved
  21. 21. Applied Behavior Analysis “The process of applying sometimes tentative principles of behavior to the improvement of specific behaviors, and simultaneously evaluating whether or not any changes noted are indeed attributed to the process of application.” (Baer, Wolf, & Risley, 1968, p.91)Applied Behavior Analysis for Teachers, 9th edition © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.Alberto and Troutman 1-21 All Rights Reserved
  22. 22. 7 Characteristics of Research to Qualify as Applied Behavior Analysis Identified by Baer, Wolf, & Risley (1968) 1) Applied – behavior selected for change must be socially important 2) Behavioral – behavior must be observable and measurable 3) Analytic – intervention must demonstrate control over the behavior 4) Technological – written in such a way that it is easily replicated 5) Effective – demonstrate a meaningful change in the desired behavior 6) Conceptually Systematic – use appropriate terminology and behavioral concepts 7) Generality – must demonstrate maintenance and generalization of the behaviorApplied Behavior Analysis for Teachers, 9th edition © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.Alberto and Troutman 1-22 All Rights Reserved

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