Region 1 was first inhabited by the
aboriginal Negritos before they were
pushed by successive waves of Malay
immigrants that penetrated the narrow
coast. Tingguians in the interior, Ilocanos
in the north, and Pangasinense in the
south settled the region.
From the data on the population
distribution of Region 1, it is clear that
not all the inhabitants are Ilocanos.
Around one-third are non-Ilocanos and yet
there is a popular misconception that all
the inhabitants are Ilocanos.
The use of the term Ilocos Region
promotes the wrong notion that all
the residents of Region 1 are Ilocanos.
Before the administration of
Ferdinand Marcos, Pangasinan was
not a part of the region.
The Spanish arrived in the 16th century and
established Christian missions and governmental
institutions to control the native population and
convert them to the Roman Catholic Church.
Present-day Vigan City in Ilocos Sur province
became the bishopric seat of Nueva Segovia.
Ilocanos in the northern parts were less easily
swayed, however, and remained an area filled
with deep resentments against Spain. These
resentments bubbled to the surface at various
points in the Ilocos provinces' history as
insurrections, most notably that of Andres
Malong and Palaris of Pangasinan, Diego Silang
and his wife Gabriela Silang in 1764, and the
Basi Revolt in the 19th century. However, it was
the Pangasinenses in the south who were the last
to be stand against the Spaniards.
In 1901, the region came under American
colonial rule, and in 1941, under Japanese
During 1945, the combined American and
the Philippine Commonwealth troops
including with the Ilocano and
Pangasinese guerillas liberated the Ilocos
Region from Japanese forces during the
Second World War.
Several modern presidents of the Republic
of the Philippines hailed from the Region:
Elpidio Quirino, Ferdinand Marcos, and
Fidel V. Ramos.
Before the formation of the Cordillera
Administrative Region, Region 1 also
included the provinces of Abra, Mountain
Province, and Benguet. Before Region 1
was modified by Ferdinand Marcos,
Pangasinan was not part of the region
The dialect or language that is use in
this region are Ilocano and
Tagalog and English are the medium
of instruction in schools.
Ilocano is widely used by the
majority people while Pangasinense
is spoken in the central towns of
Total Area: 13,055 km2
(5,040.6 sq mi)
The population is predominantly Roman
Catholic with strong adherents of
Protestantismsuch as the Aglipayan
denomination further north of the
country. There are also adherents to other
Christian denominations, such as Iglesia
ni Cristo, Mormons, and the like. There is
also an undercurrent of traditional
animistic beliefs especially in rural areas.
The small mercantile Chinese and Indian
communities are primarily Buddhists,
Taoists, and Hindus.
located in the northwest of Luzon.
It borders to the east the regions of the
Cordillera Administrative Region and Cagayan
Valley and to the south the region of Central
To the west north is the South China Sea,
otherwise known as the West Philippine Sea.
Region I occupies the narrow plain between
the Cordillera Central mountain range and
the South China Sea.
occupies the northern portion of the Central
Luzon plain, to the north-east of the Zambales
Lingayen Gulf is the most notable body of
water in the region and it contains a number of
islands, including the Hundred Islands
To the north of the region is Luzon Strait.
The Agno river runs through Pangasinan and
empties into the Lingayen Gulf. The river flow
into a broad delta in the vicinity
of Lingayen and Dagupan City.
a leading producer of tobacco and mangos for
export in the country.
produces crops like tobacco, rice, corn,
vegetables, root crops and fruits such as
also rich in natural resources such as
limestone for cement, feldspar for ceramics,
fruits, vegetables, fish, poultry, and forest
products such as bamboo and rattan.
Other mineral resources include copper, gold,
chromite, iron, manganese and silica.
the third largest
Filipino ethnolinguistic group.
Aside from being referred to as
Ilocanos, from "i"-from, and "looc"-
bay, they also refer to themselves
as Samtoy, from the Ilocano phrase
"sao mi ditoy", meaning 'our
The word "Ilocano" came from the
word "Iloco" or "Yloco.“
eighth largest Filipino
Pangasinan means "land of salt" or
"place of salt-making"; it is derived
from asin, the word for "salt" in
the Pangasinan language.
The Pangasinan people are also
called taga-Pangasinan, which
means "from Pangasinan" in the
oIgorot is the collective name of
several Austronesian ethnic groups from
theCordillera, Northern Luzon, Philippines.
They inhabit the six provinces
of Abra, Apayao,Benguet, Kalinga,Ifugao,
and Mountain Province; plus the lone city of
They can be roughly divided into two
subgroups: the larger group lives in the south,
central and western areas, and is very adept
at rice terrace farming; the smaller group lives
in the east and north.
The word "Igorot" is archaic Tagalog for
It is derived from the prefix i- ("dweller
of") and golot ("mountain range").
The word has been variously spelled
during the Spanish colonial
era as Igolot, Ygolot, and Igorrote.
The names Ifugao or Ipugao (also
meaning "mountain people") are used
more frequently within the Igorots
who live in the secluded mountains of Ilocos Sur.
refers today to the mountain-dwelling people of
Abra, Ilocos Sur, and Ilocos Norte.
The name may have been derived from the term "tingue"
or "tinggi", which means mountaineers or mountains.
refers to "The People of the Mountains" as used during
the early Spanish period living in places such
as Basilan, Bohol, Zambales and Mindanao which later was
used exclusively to the ethnic groups living in
Today, the Tingguian group is divided into two, the
"valley Tingguian", occupying the village communities
where there are also Ilocano settlers, and the "mountain
Tingguian", distributed in sparsely populated areas in
highland regions of northern and eastern Abra.
Trivia: Head-Shaped Apayao
Ever wondered why, when you look at a map, the province of
Apayao is shaped like a man’s head? Si Marcos daw ang may
According to an activist Ilokano friend, the ex-
President/dictator/thief wanted to be immortalized as someone
who watched over his beloved Ilocos so he had the Kalinga-
Apayao (these two used to be one province) boundaries redrawn
to resemble his head. So now, we have a head-shaped Apayao
looking towards the Ilocos provinces.
We’re not sure if our friend’s story is true but it is not impossible
for Marcos to redraw a map just so he will be as immortal as the
gods. After all, isn’t his body still preserved and displayed for
curious onlookers? And didn’t he build that stupid a-la Mt.
Rushmore bust of his in Tuba, Benguet so we will gaze upon his
likeness forever and ever.
the economy in the northern portion of the region
is anchored in the agricultural sector.
The economy in Pangasinan is driven by agro-
industrial businesses , such as milkfish (bangus)
cultivation and processing, livestock raising, fish
paste processing (bagoong), and others. At the
same time the importance of trading, financial
services, and educational services in the economy
cannot be denied.
Income in the Ilocos provinces or northern
portion mostly come from cultivating rice,
tobacco, corn, sugarcane, and fruits; raising
livestock such as pigs, chicken, goats, and
carabaos (water buffalos).
The distribution of the economic activity in the
region may be seen from the collection of tax
revenue of the national government. The bulk of
the collections come from Pangasinan, which
posted 61% of the total.
The service and light manufacturing industries
are concentrated in the cities. Dagupan City is
mostly driven by its local entrepreneurs, which
have started to expand its network up to the
San Fernando City in La Union also has an
international shipping port and the upgraded
and soon to be developed San Fernando
International Airport. While Laoag City in Ilocos
Norte has an international airport.
The tourism industry, driven by local airlines
and land transportation firms in the area
like Farinas Transit Company and Partas,
focuses on the coastal beaches and on eco-
tourism. There are fine sands stretching along
Bauang, La Union and the rest of the region.
Opportunities to engage in other water sports
and activities abound. Eco-tourism takes
advantage of the marine and forest resources in
the region and displays the natural beauty of the
he region is also rich in crafts, with renowned
blanket-weaving and pottery.
The Ilocanos' burnay pottery is well known for its
dark colored clay
Capital Laoag City
Governor Ma. Imelda Josefa R.
Vice Governor Eugenio Barba
Dialects and Languages
Ilocano, Tagalog, English
The province specializes in the
following products and industries:
Agriculture - rice, corn, garlic,
legumes, root crops, tobacco, and
other fruits and vegetables
Fishery - tilapia and assorted fishes
Livestock - swine and cattle
Cottage industries - loom weaving,
furniture, ceramics, iron works
Manufacturing and food processing –
salt, empanada, bagoong, patis, basi
(native Ilocano wine), vinegar, longganisa,
chicharon, bagnet, chichacorn (cornick),
jewelry, garments, cereal processing,
packaging, mechanized processing
Wind Power Ilocos Norte's position on the
northwest corner of Luzon makes it ideal
for wind power generation. There is
currently a 25 Megawatt wind farm in
Ilocos Norte, and several more wind
energy projects are being planned.
oLaoag City – capital
Capital Vigan City
Type Province of the Philippines
Governor Luis "Chavit" Singson
Vice Governor Deogracias Savellano
The people are engaged in farming,
producing food crops, mostly rice,
corn, vegetable, root crops, and
fruits. Non-food crops include
tobacco, cotton, and tiger grass.
Cottage industries include loom
weaving, furniture making, jewelry
making, ceramics, blacksmithing,
and food processing.
o Candon City
o Vigan City - capital
Capital San Fernando City
Governor Manuel "Manoling"
(580.7 sq mi)
Area rank 70th out of 80
The economy is diversified with service,
manufacturing, and agricultural
industries spread throughout the
province. The Port of San Fernando
operates as an increasingly active
shipping point, and the former American
airbase Wallace Air Station, having been
converted into a business and industrial
area, helps to facilitate such commercial
Tourism to the province is driven by
airlines and passenger coach bus
lines like regionally owned Farinas
Transit Company and Partas.
Tourists often flock to the beaches of
Bauang, or to the more secluded
ones further north for snorkeling,
surfing or other water sports; the
more northerly beaches near San
Juan specifically cater to both local
surfers as well as portions of the
world surfing circuit.
Cities and Municipalities of La Union:
o San Fernando City - capital
Governor Amado Espino
Vice Governor Jose Calimlim, Jr.
(2,072.9 sq mi)
Area rank 17th out of 80
Population (2007) Total 2,645,395
Pangasinan has export earnings of around $5.5
The 1200 megawatt Sual Coal-Fired Power
Plant,and 345 megawatt San Roque Multi-
Purpose Dam, located in the municipalities of
San Manuel and San Nicolas are the primary
sources of energy of the province.
Pangasinan is a major fish supplier in Luzon,
and a major producer of salt in the Philippines. It
has extensive fishponds, mostly for raising
bangus, or "milkfish", along the coasts of the
Lingayen Gulf and the South China Sea.
Pangasinan's aquaculture includes oyster and
sea urchin farms
The major crops in Pangasinan are
rice, mangoes, corn, and sugar cane.
Pangasinan has a land area of
536,819 hectares, and 44 percent of
the total land area of Pangasinan is
devoted to agricultural production
Pangasinan has 593 banking and financing
Pangasinan has a labor force of about 1.52
million, and 87 percent of the labor force
are gainfully employed.
The Department of Trade and Industry in the
Philippines has identified the following
potential investment areas in Pangasinan:
Santiago Island Marine Park
Oyster processing facility
Bagoong technology and processing center
Tannery and leather production center
Oyster and aquaculture farming
Handicraft and furniture making
Manufacture of construction bricks
Cities and Municipalities of Pangasinan:
Ilocos empanada is one of my favorite
Philippine snacks. Every time I go to
Ilocos, I make sure to get my share of
Ilocosempanada, especially the one in
Batac, which is reputably where the
best empanada is served.
Bukayo is an after-dinner sugar fix, one
of the products made from buko (young
coconut) that originated from Lingayen. It
is a favorite dessert not just by the
children but also by adult Filipinos. It is
made by simmering coco meat strips and
then mixing it with white of brown sugar,
thus, resulting to a sweet tasting delight.
Palitaw (from litaw, the Tagalog word for
"float" or "rise") is a small, flat, sweet rice
cake eaten in the Philippines. They are
made from malagkit (sticky rice) washed,
soaked, and then ground.
Scoops of the batter are dropped into
boiling water where they float to the
surface as flat discs - an indication that
When served, the flat discs are dipped in
grated coconut, and presented with a
separate dip made of sugar and
toasted sesame seeds.
Tupig is a native delicacy made with
glutinous rice and grated coconuts
wrapped in wilted banana leaves and
cooked over live coals. Tupig-making is an
important source of livelihood in
The Vigan Royal Bibingka is not the
usual puffy bibingka that everybody is
familiar with. It is a sticky rice cake closer
to a cross of tikoy and cassava cake.
Long before the commercialization by the
bibingka bakers of Vigan, bibingka then
were baked in circular clay pot lined with
banana leaf under flaming charcoals and
covered with sheet iron on top with
flaming charcoal for even cooking.
Ilocos Norte - La Paz Sand Dunes (La
Paz, Laoag City)
The La Paz Sand Dunes or Bantay
Bimmaboy consists of an area of
approximately 85 square kilometers (52
square miles) of protected sandy coastal
desert and beach close to Laoag City, the
capital of the province of Ilocos Norte in
The area is known locally by the name
Bantay Bimmaboy, a name which refers to
the common perception that the dunes
resemble pigs in shape. The area is also
popularly known as the Desert of the
North and is a popular location for shooting
Paoay Lake (Nagbacalan , Paoay, Ilocos
Perhaps the most prominent feature of
the municipality is Paoay Lake. Legend
has it that it was the site of a
prosperous barangay called San Juan de
Sahagun (Saint John of Sahagun).
The materialism of its people has angered
God so He sent an earthquake that sank
On the shores of the lake lies a mansion
that belongs to the Marcoses
called Malacañang of the North. Adjacent
to the mansion is the Paoay Golf Course.
This water falls was discovered in the
year 1998 when the local government was
looking for a good water source and took a
photo of this natural wonder.
The name Kaangriaan was derived from
the Ilocano word “naangri”which means
stinky. The reason for arriving at this
term is that there were some bat caves
and the bat droppings made it stinky in
means “a mountain with a hole.”
A hole was found at the middle of the hill
where the waves were free to flash into its
walls just like an open shore until it was
wrecked by an earthquake during the 80’s.
It is also called “the underground sea” for
on top of the cave is a lustrous vegetative
cover. Inside the cave can hear the
echoing sound of the waves, the chirping
of the birds ameliorate by the cool breeze
of the air.
Kapurpurawan Rock Formation
(Poblacion, Burgos, Ilocos Norte)
“White Rock Formation” in the Poblacion,
Burgos, Ilocos Norte. This top Philippine
trekking spot attracts thousands of
tourists every year and is known locally
as the Kapurpurawan Rock Formation
(Kapurpurawan means white in the
native Ilocano dialect). Let's go over the
main attractions of this popular outdoor
adventure travel destination.
Ilocos Sur - Tirad Pass (historical site)
Declared as a National Shrine, it is
located in the Municipality of
Gregorio Del Pilar. Tirad Pass was
the last stand of the Filipino
Revolutionary Forces under the
command of General Emilio
Aguinaldo. The Battle of Tirad Pass
was led by the youngest Filipino
General Gregorio del Pilar.
National Museum - Padre Burgos House
This museum is the ancestral house and
birthplace of priest patriot Fr. Jose
Burgos. Known as Padre Burgos House, it
is one of the notable historic structures of
Vigan, the capital of the province of Ilocos
It is a two-story structure located near the
Provincial Capitol and close to St. Paul’s
Metropolitan Cathedral. It was renovated
by the Filipinas Foundation, Inc. and
inaugurated on May 3, 1975.
Pinsal Falls is a Philippine waterfall that
is located in the town of Santa Maria in
the province of Ilocos Sur.
With its romantic atmosphere, Pinsal
Falls is a popular location for filming
Philippine movies as well as a favorite
spot for swimming and for picnicking. The
pools at the top of the falls are famous as
The biggest of these pools figures in a local
legend as it is said to be the footprint that
was left by an Ilocano giant who was
running off in search of his wife. There is also a
famous spring with boiling-hot water at the top of
St. Paul’s Metropolitan Cathedral
Vigan Cathedral (also known as St Paul's
Metropolitan Cathedral) faces Plaza
Salcedo, and is an imposing creamy-white
building built in the "earthquake baroque"
style with thick buttresses to support it
through earthquakes and typhoons.
A separate belltower (or belfry) was built
15 meters away from the main building --
so that if one structure was destroyed in
an earthquake, then the other might still
The belltower is about 25 meters high and
it is surmounted by a large bronze
weathercock that is said to symbolize St
the Bacsil Ridge, located in San
Fenanado City, La Union, is a monument
built to signify the heroic deeds of
the Ilocanos who fought the fierce battles
that ensued during World War II.
The Battle of Bacsil Ridge, which took
place in March 1945, was the turning
point in the anti-Japanese campaign and
is considered as the key that led to the
Filipino's victory in the Battle of Bessang
Passon June 14, 1945.
Museo de La Union is located at the
Provincial Capitol ground in San
Fernando, La Union, Philippines.
the museum showcases archeological finds
in La Union which date back to
Prehispanic Philippines. It is open during
weekdays from 8 am to 5 pm. Visits during
Saturdays can be arranged beforehand
with the museum's management.
Located about eight km north of San
Fernando City, near the quiet, small town
of San Juan. It's pristine waters attracts
foreign anglers because of bountiful
catches of sword fish and tuna from the
sea. The long, clean and wide beach that
stretches along the coast, have good
surfing conditions thus earning it's name:
San Juan Beach is known for its consistent
intermediate quality surf, it is blessed
with two seasons from July to October and
November to March and is one of the most
popular surfing destinations in the
The Basilica of Our Lady of Charity or the
Agoo Cathedral is located in the heart of
the town of Agoo and looms like a big
mother to this progressive La Union town.
The church was founded in 1578 by two
eager and enthusiastic Franciscan priests,
Fray John Baptist Lucarelli of Pesaro,
Italy and Fray Sebastian de San Francisco
of Baesa, Spain when they were assigned
in our country for their evangelical
Pangasinan - HUNDRED ISLANDS
The Hundred Islands National Park in
Brgy. Lucap, Alaminos City, Pangasinan
is 250 kms. from Manila.
This National Park covers a land area of
1,884 hectares with 123 islands. However,
only three (3) islands have been developed
for tourists namely: Governor, Quezon,
and Children's Island.
located Malabobo, Pangasinan,
Located about 7 kilometers uphill climb
along the highway in Malabobo,
Mangatarem, the forest park declared as a
National Park in 1940 is suitable for
special interest activities. Mangatarem is
178.47 kilometers away from Manila.
With cottages and swimming pools.
Lingayen Beach, located in the capital of
Pangasinan Province, is a very relaxing
place. With it's long shoreline, pristine
waters and cool, fine gray sand, it is fast
becoming a destination of Manila
residents in search of recreation.
The province itself has always been
famous because this was the landing site
of Gen. Douglas McArthur when he
returned to the Philippines to liberate
Luzon in 1945. Facilities like picnic sheds
and bathhouses were put up by the
government about 20 meters away from