Poor awareness in scope and level as well as measures to respond to CC . This exists at levels, from officials in sectors and localities, to vulnerable communities. R aising awareness of all levels is obviously first priority . 2) Weak coordination to respond to CC in developing policies, plans and programs in sectors/regions . There are still not awareness of the necessity to integrate CC issues into policies/plans. Sectors already face “ mainstreaming overload ” (HIV, Gender, Poverty, EIA etc.). Too many important issues => Methodology, strategy and policy for mainstreaming are needed 3) Lacks of tools and methodologies to provide consultancy to the decision makers . This happens also with experts in the sectors levels as well as in vulnerable communities Training and knowledge upgrading; collecting and utilizing data on CC; developing tools/ methodologies for analysis and adaptation with CC are important activities that should be done immediately . 4) Lacks of knowledge . Knowledge of VN on trend of CC and its impacts to socio-economic activities is still limited Research, training/capacity, International cooperation on impact assessment and adaption/mitigation is needed.
Mekong ARCC Interim Results Workshop: Climate Change in Vietnam and Respond [Keynote]
Workshop on Climate Change Impact and Adaptation Study: Interim Results CLIMATE CHANGE IN VIETNAM AND RESPOND Tran Thuc,Director General, Vietnam Institute of Meteorology, Hydrology and Environment email@example.com Hanoi, 31 October 2012
CONTENTS1) Climate Change in Viet Nam2) Climate Change Scenarios3) Vietnam Response to Climate Change
Climate Change in Viet Nam Temperature Over the past 50 years, annual average temperature has increased 0.5oC. Temp in the North increased faster than in the South. Temp inland increased faster than in coastal areas and islands.
Climate Change in Viet Nam Temperature Min temperature increases faster than max. temperatureMax Temperature Min Temperature
Climate Change in Viet Nam Number of Day with Max. Temp > 35oC (1961-2007)Increased trends most of VN, except South-Central and
Climate Change in Viet NamNumber of Day with min. Temp < 1 3oC (1961-2007) Tm < 20oC Tm < 20oCIncreased trends in Min. temperature
Climate Change in Viet Nam Rainfall 19hrs 30/10/08 Off-season Station to 1hrs 1/11/08 extreme rainfall Ha Noi 408 occur more Ha Dong 572 frequently, Hung Yen 158 profound event Hai Duong - was the rainfall in Ha Noi and its Hoa Binh 129 surround in Bac Giang 136 11/2008. Hiep Hoa 186• Decreasing in the North• Increasing in the South
Climate Change in Viet NamDaily Max. Rainfall (1961-2007) • Increases in North-West, Central- Highlands, South-Central, South. • Decreases in other regions.
Climate Change in Viet Nam Cold Front• Frequency of cold front decreases significantly.• But, extreme cold front appeared more frequent: 38 days in 2008, recently a damage cold spell lasted nearly 1 month Number of damage cold days reduces
Climate Change in Viet Nam TẦN SỐ XTNĐ TRÊN CÁC ĐOẠN BỜ BIỂN HAI THỜI KỲ Typhoon 40 • Landing area of typhoon 30 retreated southward; 20Cơn • Change in frequency of 10 typhoon is not clear, but 0 frequency of very strong BB TNT BTT ĐN - BĐ PY - BT NB typhoon (> level 12) 1961- 90 THẬP KỶ 1991 - 05 increases.
Climate Change in Viet Nam Drought Drought occure more frequently. Dry seasons in 2009-2010, 2010-2011, serious drought appeared in North delta South-Central; Central Highlands; and South delta. Dry and deficient water was significantly in dry season of 2010-2011. Water level, discharge, and water reserves in water reservoir have minimum levels.
Sea Level Rise in Vietnam Water Level Measurement
Xu thế mực nước biển trung bình năm trạm Bãi Cháy 10.0 5.0Mực nước (cm) 0.0 -5.0 Sea Level Rise -10.0 -15.0 -20.0 1962 1966 1970 1974 1978 1982 1986 1990 1994 1998 2002 2006 Năm Xu thế mực nước biển trung bình năm trạm Hòn Dáu 20 15 Mực nước (cm) 10 5 0 -5 -10 1966 1970 1974 1978 1982 1986 1990 1994 1998 2002 2006 Năm Xu thế mực nước biển trung bình năm trạm Cồn Cỏ 10 Data from gauging stations 8 6 4 Mực nước (cm) 2 0 -2 -4 -6 -8 -10 1991 1995 1999 2003 2007 Năm Xu thế mực nước biển trung bình năm trạm Cửa Việt 10 8 6 4 • Sea level has increased aboutMực nước (cm) 2 0 -2 -4 -6 -8 -10 1977 1981 1985 1989 1993 1997 2001 2005 2.8 mm/year; Năm Xu thế mực nước biển trung bình năm trạm Sơn Trà 10 5 Mực nước (cm) 0 -5 -10 -15 -20 1978 1982 1986 1990 1994 1998 2002 2006 Năm Xu thế mực nước biển trung bình năm trạm Quy Nhơn 20 15 Mực nước (cm) 10 5 0 -5 -10 -15 -20 1993 1996 1999 2002 2005 2008 Năm Xu thế mực nước biển trung bình năm trạm Phú QUýháy 20 15 10Mực nước (cm) 5 0 -5 -10 -15 -20 1986 1990 1994 1998 2002 2006 Năm Xu thế mực nước biển trung bình năm trạm Vũng Tàu 20 15 10 Mực nước (cm) 5 0 -5 -10 -15 -20 1978 1982 1986 1990 1994 1998 2002 2006 Năm Xu thế mực nước biển trung bình năm trạm Phú Quốc 10 8 6 4 Mực nước (cm) 2 0 -2 -4 -6 -8 -10 1986 1990 1994 1998 2002 2006 Năm Xu thế mực nước biển trung bình năm trạm Rạch Giá 10.0 5.0 0.0 Mực nước (cm) -5.0 -10.0 -15.0 -20.0 1978 1982 1986 1990 1994 1998 2002 2006 Năm
Sea Level RiseSatellite Data In the whole East Sea: SLR about 4.7 mm/year (1993- 2009); In the coastal area of Vietnam: SLR about 2.9 mm / year;
Climate Change Scenarios• Temperature in Winter: XII-II • Yearly Average Temperature• Temperature in Spring: III-V • Extreme Temperature in Winter• Temperature in Summer: VI-VII • Extreme Temperature in Summer• Temperature in Autumn: IX-XI • Annual Extreme Temperature Number of Days with Temperature > 35oCMức tăng nhiệt độ mùa đông Mức tăng nhiệt độ mùa đông Mức tăng nhiệt độ mùa đông kịch bản phát thải thấp kịch bản phát thải trung bình kịch bản phát thải cao
Climate Change Scenarios• Rainfall in Winter: XII-II • Annual Rainfall• Rainfall in Spring: III-V • Maximum Daily Rainfall• Rainfall in Summer: VI-VII• Rainfall in Autumn: IX-XI (a) (b) (c)
Sea Level Rise Scenarios• Low emission scenario (B1): 49-64cm.• Average emission scenario (B2): 57-73cm.• High emission scenario (A1FI): 78-95cm.
Inundation Map(Sea Level Rise 1m)Area: 20.876 Km2 (6,3%)If sea level rise 1 m:•39% area of Mekong Delta, over 10%area of Red River Delta, over 2,5% ofcoastal area of the Central, over 20%area of Ho Chi Minh city will beinundated.•35% population of Mekong Delta, over9% population of Red River delta, about9% population of the Central, 7%population of HCM City are directlyaffected.•4% of the railway system, 9% ofnational highways, 12% of provincialhighways unaffected.
Red River Delta Tỉnh % Q Ninh 11.3 Ha Noi 0.3 Ha Nam 6.0 Hai Phong 17.4 Hung Yen 3.3 Hai Duong 7.2 Bac Ninh 1.6 Ninh Binh 10.2 Thai Binh 31.2 Nam Dinh 24.4 Vinh Phuc 0.0
NATIONAL TARGET PROGRAM TO RESPOND TO CCIdentify the extent of CC and assess CC Identify the extent of CC and assess CC Strategic objectives:impacts on sector, area and locality Strategic objectives: impacts on sector, area and locality Assess CC impacts on Assess CC impacts onIdentify measures to respond to CC sectors and regions sectors and regions Identify measures to respond to CC and develop feasible and develop feasiblePromote scientific and technological Promote scientific and technological action plans toactivities to respond to CC action plans to activities to respond to CC effectively respond to effectively respond toEnhance organizational structure, Enhance organizational structure, CC in the short and CC in the short andinstitutional capacity and development and institutional capacity and development and long-term to ensureimplementation of policies long-term to ensure implementation of policies sustainable sustainableEnhance public awareness and develop Enhance public awareness and develop development of VN. development of VN.human resources human resources To take opportunities To take opportunitiesPromote international cooperation Promote international cooperation to develop towards aa to develop towardsMainstream CC issues into socio- low-carbon economy, low-carbon economy, Mainstream CC issues into socio- and to join theeconomic, sectoral and local development economic, sectoral and local development and to join thestrategies, plans and planning strategies, plans and planning international internationalDevelop and implement action plans of community’s efforts in community’s efforts in Develop and implement action plans of mitigating CC.sectors and localities to respond to CC sectors and localities to respond to CC mitigating CC.
Results of Two Year Implementationat Central level:•Training and education programmes at all levels;•CC awareness prgrogram;•Framework to integrate CC issues into development plans;•CC impacts assessment, adaptation measures identification,and Action Plans development.•National Strategy on Climate Change•National Action Plan on Climate Change•Scientific and technological research program on CC•CC and sea level rise scenario•International cooperation, negotiation and fund raising
Results of Two Year Implementationat local level:Two pilot provinces (Quang Nam, Ben Tre);Six coastal provinces in Mekong River Delta (Ca Mau, KienGiang, Bac Lieu, Soc Trang, Can Tho, Ho Chi Minh City).Other projects under the SP-RCC.
DIFFICULTIES IN IMPLEMENTATION1) Poor awareness (scope, level, measures) at all levels and sectors (from officials to communities);2) Weak coordination for mainstreaming CC in national/local policies & plans due to "mainstreaming overload";3) Lack of tools and methodologies for policy development;4) Lack of knowledge.
Vietnam National Strategy on Climate Change1) Respond to Natural Disasters and Monitor CC Impacts2) Food and Water Security3) Adapt to Sea Level Rise in Vulnerable Areas4) Protection and Sustainable Development of Forest, Increasing Carbon Removals and Biodiversity Conservation5) GHG Emission Reduction to Protect Global Climate System6) Strengthen role of the Government in responding to CC7) Develop effective community response to CC8) Develop scientific and technological advances to respond to CC9) Enhance international cooperation10) Diversify financial resources and investments on CC.