His Backround and family• Ion Creangă was born in Humulesti . The family had reached a significantposition within their community: Ştefan sin Petre had made a steady incomefrom his itinerant trade in wool, while his wife was the descendant of theCreangăs of Pipirig, a family of community leaders. The latters membersincluded Moldavian Metropolitan , as well as Smarandas father, VornicDavid, and her uncle Ciubuc Clopotarul, a monk at Neamţ Monastery Proud ofthis tradition, it was her who insisted for her son to pursue a career in theChurch. According to his own recollection, the future writer was born on March1, 1837—a date which has since been challenged. Creangăs other statementsmention March 2, 1837, or an unknown date in 1836.The exactitude of otheraccounts is equally unreliable: community registers from the period gave thedate of June 10, 1839, and mention another child of the same name being bornto his parents on February 4, 1842 (the more probable birth date of Creangăsyounger brother Zahei). The imprecision also touches other aspects of hisfamily life: noting the resulting conflicts in data, Călinescu decided that it wasnot possible for one to know if the writers parents were married to each other(and, if so, if they were on their first marriage), nor how many children theyhad together. At a time when family names were not legally required, andpeople were primarily known by various nicknames and patronymics, the boywas known to the community as Nică, a hypocorism formed from Ion, or moreformally as Nică al lui Ştefan a Petrei ("Nică of Ştefan of Petru", occasionallyNic-a lui Ştefan a Petrei)
Biography• Ion Creangă was a Moldavian-born Romanian writer, raconteur andschoolteacher. A main figure in 19th century Romanian literature, he is bestknown for his Childhood Memories volume, his novellas and short stories,and his many anecdotes. Creangăs main contribution to fantasy andchildrens literature includes narratives structured around eponymousprotagonists ("Harap Alb", "Ivan Turbincă", "Dănilă Prepeleac"), as well asfairy tales indebted to conventional forms ( "The Goat and Her ThreeKids"). Widely seen as masterpieces of the Romanian language and localhumor, his writings occupy the middle ground between a collection offolkloric sources and an original contribution to a literary realism of ruralinspiration. They are accompanied by a set of contributions to eroticliterature, collectively known as his "corrosives".• A defrocked Romanian Orthodox priest with an unconventional lifestyle,Creangă made an early impact as an innovative educator and textbookauthor, while pursuing a short career in nationalist politics with the group.His literary debut came late in life, closely following the start of his closefriendship with Romanias national poet Mihai Eminescu and their commonaffiliation with the influential conservative literary society Junimea.Although viewed with reserve by many of his colleagues there, andprimarily appreciated for his records of oral tradition, Creangă helpedpropagate the groups cultural guidelines in an accessible form. Latercriticism has often described him, alongside Eminescu, and Ioan Slavici, asone of the most accomplished representatives of Junimist literature.
Ion Creangă as a deaconIon CreangăHis signatureCreangăs house in Humulesti
Was a Wallachian-born Romanian playwright, short story writer, poet, theater manager,political commentator and journalist. He is considered one of the greatest Romanianplaywrights and writers, a leading representative of local humor, and a mainrepresentative of Junimea, an influential literary society with which he parted during thesecond half of his life.Ion Luca Caragiale was born into a family of Greek descent, whose members firstarrived in Wallachia soon after 1812, during the rule of Prince Ioan Gheorghe Caragea—Ştefan Caragiali, as his grandfather was known locally, worked as a cook for the court inBucharest.Ion Lucas father, who reportedly originated from the Ottoman capital ofIstanbul, settled in Prahova County as the curator of the Mărgineni Monastery (which, atthe time, belonged to the Greek Orthodox Saint Catherines Monastery of Mount Sinai).Known to locals as Luca Caragiali, he later built a reputation as a lawyer and judge inPloieşti, and married Ecaterina, the daughter of a merchant from the Transylvanian townof Braşov.Her maiden name was given as Alexovici (Alexevici)or as Karaboa (Caraboa). Sheis known to have been Greek herself,and, according to historian Lucian Nastasă, some ofher relatives were Hungarian members of the Tabay family.The Caragiali couple also had adaughter, named Lenci.Biography
Literary debut• Ion Luca made his literary debut in 1873, at the age of 21, withpoems and humorous chronicles printed in G. Dem. Teodorescusliberal-inspired satirical magazine Ghimpele. He published relativelyfew articles under various pen names—among them Car., thecontraction of his family name, and the more elaborate Palicar.Hemostly performed basic services for the editorial staff and its printingpress, given that, after Luca Caragiali died in 1870, he was the soleprovider for his mother and sister.Following his return to Bucharest,he became even more involved with the radical and republican wingof the liberal trend—a movement commonly referred to as "theReds". In June 1874, Caragiale amused himself at the expense of N.D. Popescu-Popnedea, the author of popular almanacs, whose tastehe questioned. In 1878, Caragiale and Maiorescu left for Iaşi, wherethey attended Junimea s 15th anniversary, and where Caragialeread his first draft of the celebrated play O noapte furtunoasă.
Biography• Mircea Eliade (March 13.1907 – April 22, 1986) was a Romanian historianof religion, fiction writer, philosopher, and professor at the University ofChicago . He was a leading interpreter of religious experience, whoestablished paradigms in religious studies that persist to this day. Histheory that hierophanies form the basis of religion, splitting the humanexperience of reality into sacred and profane space and time, has provedinfluential.One of his most influential contributions to religious studieswas his theory of Eternal Return, which holds that myths and rituals donot simply commemorate hierophanies, but, at least to the minds of thereligious, actually participate in them.• His literary works belong to the fantastic and autobiographical genres.The best known are the novels Maitreyi ("La Nuit Bengali" or "BengalNights"), Noaptea de Sânziene ("The Forbidden Forest"), Isabel şi apelediavolului ("Isabel and the Devils Waters") and Romanul AdolescentuluiMiop ("Novel of the Nearsighted Adolescent"), the novellas DomnişoaraChristina ("Miss Christina") and Tinereţe fără tinereţe ("Youth WithoutYouth"), and the short stories Secretul doctorului Honigberger ("The Secretof Dr. Honigberger") and La Ţigănci ("With the Gypsy Girls").
Adolescence and literary debut• After completing his primary education at the school on Mântuleasa Street, Eliadeattended the Spiru Haret National College in the same class as Arşavir Acterian,Haig Acterian and Petre Viforeanu (and several years the senior of NicolaeSteinhardt , who eventually became a close friend of Eliades). Among his othercolleagues was future philosopher Constantin Noica and Noicas friend, future arthistorian Barbu Brezianu.• As a child, Eliade was fascinated with the natural world, which formed the settingof his very first literary attempts, as well as with Romanian folklore and theChristian faith as expressed by peasants. Growing up, he aimed to find and recordwhat he believed was the common source of all religious traditions. The youngEliades interest in physical exercise and adventure led him to pursuemountaineering and sailing , and he also joined the Romanian Boy Scouts.• With a group of friends, he designed and sailed a boat on the Danube , fromTulcea to the Black Sea. In parallel, Eliade grew estranged from the educationalenvironment, becoming disenchanted with the discipline required and obsessedwith the idea that he was uglier and less virile than his colleagues. In order tocultivate his willpower, he would force himself to swallow insects and only sleptfour to five hours a night. At one point, Eliade was flunking four subjects, amongwhich was the study of Romanian language.• Instead, he became interested in natural science and chemistry, as well as theoccult, and wrote short pieces on entomological subjects. Despite his fathersconcern that he was in danger of losing his already weak eyesight, Eliade readpassionately. One of his favorite authors was Honoré de Balzac , whose work hestudied carefully. Eliade also became acquainted with the modernist short storiesof Giovanni Papini and social anthropology studies by James George Frazer.
Biography• Lucian Blaga was a commanding personality of the Romanian culture ofthe interbellum period. He was a philosopher and writer highly acclaimed for hisoriginality, a university professor and a diplomat. He was born on 9 May 1895in Lancrăm, near Alba Iulia,Romania, his father being an Orthodox priest. He didnot speak any words until he was four, and he later described his early childhood,in an autobiographical work "The Chronicle and the Song of Ages", as "under thesign of the incredible absence of word". In the poem "Self-Portrait" he describeshimself : "Lucian Blaga is silent like a swan.“• His elementary education was in Sebeş (1902–1906), after which he attended the"Andrei Şaguna" Highschool in Braşov (1906–1914), under the supervision of arelative, Iosif Blaga, who happened to be the author of the first Romanian treatiseon the theory of drama. At the outbreak of the First World War, he begantheological studies at Sibiu, where he graduated in 1917. He published his firstphilosophy article on the Bergson theory of subjective time. From 1917 to 1920, heattended courses at the University of Vienna, where he studied philosophy andobtained his PhD.• Upon returning to the re-unified Romania, he contributed to the Romanian pressin Transylvania, being the editor of the magazinesCulture in Cluj ,and TheBanat in Lugoj.
• 1.The God WaitsThrough the stubble-fieldmice and calvesare playingand the grapevinesholdlittle toadson their palms.A dandelionbetween my lips,I wait for herto come.I just want topass my clean,stretched-out fingersthrough her hair,through her hairand then through the cloudsand to gather from them,like from a spinning bundle,wisps of lightning,just as, in the fall,you glean gossamerfrom the air.• 2.The soul of the villageGirl, put your hands on my kneesI think eternity was born in thevillageHere all thoughts are slowerAnd your heart pumps more seldomAs if it were not beating within yourchest,But deep down underground.Here can be healed the thirst forredemptionAnd if your feet are bleedingJust sit on humid ground.Now that the evening comesThe soul of the village flies nearbyLike the aroma an freshly cut grassLike smoke rising from the strawroofsLike a dance of young animals onhigh tombs.
Biography• Mihai Eminescu born Mihail Eminovici; January 15, 1850 – June15, 1889) was a Romantic poet, novelist and journalist, oftenregarded as the most famous and influentialRomanian poet.Eminescu was an active member ofthe Junimea literary society and he worked as an editor for thenewspaper Timpul ("The Time"), the official newspaper ofthe Conservative Party 1880–1918).His poetry was first publishedwhen he was 16 and he went to Vienna to study when he was 19.The poets Manuscripts, containing 46 volumes and approximately14,000 pages, were offered by Titu Maiorescu as a gift to theRomanian Academy during the meeting that was held on January25, 1902.[Notable works includeLuceafărul (The Vesper/The EveningStar/The Lucifer/The Daystar), Odă în metru antic (Ode in AncientMeter), and the fiveLetters (Epistles/Satires). In his poems hefrequently used metaphysical, mythological and historical subjects.In general his work was influenced by the Germanphilosopher Arthur Schopenhauer
Family• His father was Gheorghe Eminovici from Călineşti,a Romanian village in Suceava county, Bucovina, which was thenpart of the Austrian Empire (while his father came from Banat). Hecrossed the border into Moldavia, settling in Ipotești, near the townof Botoșani. He married Raluca Iuraşcu, an heiress of an oldaristocratic Moldavian family. In a register of the members ofJunimea, Eminescu himself wrote down the date of his birth asDecember 22, 1849 and in the documents of the Gymnasiumfrom Cernăuţi, where Eminescu studied, the date of December 14,1849 is written down as his birthday. Nevertheless, Titu Maiorescu,in his work Eminescu and His Poems (1889) quoted N. D. Giurescusresearches and adopted his conclusion regarding the date and placeof Mihai Eminescus birth, as being January 15, 1850, in Botoșani.This date resulted from several sources, amongst which there was afile of notes on christenings from the archives of the Uspenia(Domnească) Church of Botoșani; inside this file, the date of birthwas „January 15, 1850” and the date of christening was the 21st, ofthe same month. The date of his birth was confirmed by the poetselder sister, Aglae Drogli, who affirmed that the place of birth wasthe village of Ipotești
Poetry• His most notable poems are:• Doina (the name is a traditional type of Romanian song), 1884• Lacul (The Lake), 1876• Luceafărul (The Vesper), 1883• Floare albastră (Blue Flower), 1884• Dorinţa (Desire), 1884• Sara pe deal (Evening on the Hill), 1885• O, rămii (Oh, Linger On), 1884• Epigonii (Epigones), 1884• Scrisori (Letters or "Epistles-Satires")• Şi dacă (And if...), 1883• Odă (în metru antic) (Ode (in Ancient Meter), 1883• Mai am un singur dor (I Have Yet One Desire),1883• La Steaua (At Star),1886
His signatureMihai EminescuEminescu houseRomanian banknotes