Trends In ITFaculty: Mehek WaswaniG.S College of Commerce& Economics
Learning Objective Conceptual Understandings and Applications Data Mining Data Warehousing Knowledge Management E-Commerce E-Learning E-Business E-Governance.
Data Mining• Data mining is the process of extractingpatterns from data• As more data are gathered, with the amount ofdata doubling every three years, data mining isbecoming an increasingly important tool totransform these data into information. It iscommonly used in a wide range ofprofiling practices, such as marketing,surveillance, fraud detection and scientificdiscovery.
Data mining commonly involves fourclasses of task• Classification - Arranges the data into predefinedgroups. For example an email program mightattempt to classify an email as legitimate or spam.Common algorithms include Decision Tree Learning• Clustering - Is like classification but the groups arenot predefined, so the algorithm will try to groupsimilar items together.• Regression - Attempts to find a function whichmodels the data with the least error.• Association rule learning - Searches forrelationships between variables.
Application• Data mining can yield exciting results for almostevery organization that collects data on itscustomers , markets , products and processes• Data mining incustomer relationship management applicationscan contribute significantly to the bottom line.• HRM(Human Resource Management)• Market Basket Analysis• Science & Engineering• Games
Data WareHousing• Data warehouses often hold largeamounts of information which aresometimes subdivided into smallerlogical units called dependent datamarts.• A data warehouse is an algorithmand tool to collect data from differentsources and to store them in a singlerepository to facilitate the decisionmaking process .
Simple conceptualization of a datawarehouse architectureThe interconnected layers are as follows:Operational database layerThe source data for the data warehouse - Anorganizations Enterprise Resource Planningsystems fall into this layer.Data access layerThe interface between the operational andinformational access layer - Tools toextract, transform, load data into the warehousefall into this layer.Metadata layer
Simple conceptualization of a datawarehouse architectureThe data directory - This is usually moredetailed than an operational system datadirectory. There are dictionaries for theentire warehouse and sometimesdictionaries for the data that can beaccessed by a particular reporting andanalysis tool.Informational access layerThe data accessed for reporting andanalyzing and the tools for reporting andanalyzing data - Business intelligencetools fall into this layer.
Inmon states that the data warehouse isSubject-oriented• The data in the data warehouse is organized so thatall the data elements relating to the same real-worldevent or object are linked together.• Non-volatile• Data in the data warehouse is never over-written ordeleted - once committed, the data is static, read-only, and retained for future reporting.• Integrated• The data warehouse contains data from most or all ofan organizations operational systems and this data ismade consistent.
Application’s Of Data Warehouse• Data warehouse provides a common datamodel for all data of interest regardless of thedatas source. This makes it easier to reportand analyze information than it would be ifmultiple data models were used to retrieveinformation such as sales invoices, orderreceipts, general ledger charges, etc.• Data warehouses can work in conjunction withand, hence, enhance the value of operationalbusiness applications, notablycustomer relationship management (CRM)systems.
Applications of Data Warehousing• Because they are separate fromoperational systems, data warehousesprovide retrieval of data without slowingdown operational systems• Data warehouses facilitate decision supportsystem applications such as trend reports(e.g., the items with the most sales in aparticular area within the last two years),exception reports, and reports that showactual performance versus goals.
Knowledge ManagementKnowledge is something that applies to factsor ideas acquired by study,investigation,observation or experienceKnowledge management (KM) comprises arange of practices used in an organisation to identify, create, represent, distribute andenable adoption of insights and experiences Such insights and experiences compriseknowledge, either embodied in individuals orembedded in organisational processes orpractice.
Applicaton of Knowledge Management• datainformationknowledge• The value of KM• It is important to manage knowledge assetsbecause –– Organizations compete increasingly on the baseof knowledge (the only sustainable competitiveadvantage)– Most of our work is information based (and oftenimmersed in a computing environment)– Our products, services, and environment aremore complex than ever before– Workforces are increasingly unstable leading toescalating demands for knowledgereplacement/acquisition
Applications of Knowledge Management• 1.Formalization of human knowledge• 2. Extracting hidden knowledge• 3. Providing the right users with the rightinformation at the right time• 4. Transforming raw data into meaningfulinformation used for decision making• 5.Improved knowledge about problem domain• 6.Easy integration with other systems andmethods• 7. Capturing knowledge assets from scattereddata sources and providing possibility ofintegrating KM with decision making systems
E-Commerce• Electronic commerce, commonly knownas (electronic marketing) e-commerce oreCommerce, consists of the buying andselling of products or services overelectronic systems such as the Internetand other computer networks.• E-Commerce is delivery of Iinformation,product/service or paymentsover telephone lines, computer network orother electronic means
E_Commerce• In present scenario E-Commerce is playing veryessential role in the online business. Although itis one of the best & cheapest intermediate forreaching out to new customers in the onlinemarket, if e-commerce implemented effectively,it also offers a smart way of doing onlinebusiness & expanding it more.• An online business eCommerce podium isplanned & implemented to make the most of itsreach to potential customers and provide themwith a convenient, satisfying & protectedshopping experience.
E-Commerce• E-Commerce helps to Increase the sales revenue tothe business• Business people can spend less money and earnhigh profits with e-commerce• It is very Easier to scale up online• Easily we can track the segment of customers whoare happy with purchasing goods through online• Avoid losing sales to competitors who are online• Instantaneous global sales presence in quick time• We can Operate the business in 24 *7 basis• Easily we can increase our business customers• We set up shop anywhere in the world, self-governing of geographical locations• Inexpensive way to turn your Web site into arevenue center
E-Commerce• Reduce Customer Support costs via e-mail marketing &customary newsletters• We can create customized mailing list• Easily we can drive free traffic to the website• Instantly we can develop our business across theinternet by using various e-commerce strategies• Customers can easily buy their products by usingdifferent payment gateways• Develop more shopping carts by using e-commerce• We can easily promote our business website by usingvarious promotional activities such as Search EngineOptimization, Pay Per Click Management, EmailMarketing, Social Media Optimization, Online BannerAdvertisement, Online Branding and AffiliateManagement etc
E-Learning• E-learning (or electronic learning oreLearning) encompasses forms oftechnology-enhanced learning (TEL) orvery specific types of TEL such as onlineor Web-based learning .• E-learning fosters self paced learningwhereby students can learn at the ratethey prefer
Application of E-LearningE-Learning can provide for major benefits for theorganizations and individuals involved.• Improved performance: A 12-year meta-analysis ofresearch by the U.S. Department of Educationfound that higher education students in onlinelearning generally performed better than those inface-to-face courses.• Increased access: Instructors of the highest calibrecan share their knowledge across borders, allowingstudents to attend courses across physical,political, and economic boundaries. Recognizedexperts have the opportunity of making informationavailable internationally, to anyone interested atminimum costs. For example, the MITOpenCourseWare program has made substantialportions of that universitys curriculum and lecturesavailable for free online.
Application of E-Learning• Convenience and flexibility to learners: Inmany contexts, eLearning is self-paced and thelearning sessions are available 24x7. Learnersare not bound to a specific day/time to physicallyattend classes. They can also pause learningsessions at their convenience.• To develop the skills and competenciesneeded in the 21st century, and in particularto ensure that learners have the digitalliteracy skills required in their discipline,profession or career
E-Governance• E-Government (short for electronicgovernment, also known as e-gov, digitalgovernment, online government ortransformational government) is used torefer to the use of information andcommunication technology to provide andimprove government services, transactionsand interactions with citizens, businesses,and other aims of government.
• The primary delivery models of e-Government can be divided into:• Government-to-Citizen or Government-to-Customer (G2C)• Government-to-Business (G2B)• Government-to-Government (G2G)• Government-to- Employees (G2E)Applications of E-Governance
Applications of E-Governance• Within each of these interaction domains, fourkinds of activities take place:• pushing information over the Internet, e.g:regulatory services, general holidays, publichearing schedules, issue briefs, notifications, etc.• two-way communications between the agencyand the citizen, a business, or anothergovernment agency. In this model, users canengage in dialogue with agencies and postproblems, comments, or requests to the agency.• conducting transactions, e.g: lodging tax returns,applying for services and grants.• governance, e.g: online polling, voting, andcampaigning