Science

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Science

  1. 1. The Artificial Heart By Leigha Miller
  2. 2. Artificial Heart <ul><ul><li>Many of those with heart disease used transplantation, first performed in 1967, as the only option to cure the inoperable condition, but many died while waiting for a donor heart to become available. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The solution was an artificial heart to keep the patient alive until a real heart could be transplanted. There were even hopes that an artificial heart could be implanted permanently. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Attempts began in 1957 and again in 1969 but by 1982, Dr. Robert Jarvik had developed a plastic-and-aluminum heart composed of two polyurethane pumps (ventricles) with air chambers and six titanium valves. Slightly larger than its human counterpart but weighing the same, the Jarvik-7 functioned like a natural heart as the ventricles pushed blood from the inlet valve to the outlet valve. </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. Artificial Heart <ul><ul><li>The first experimenters were animals such as sheep and calves. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The first human tester was a man named Dr. Barney Clark, a 61-year-old retired dentist from Seattle. Clark lived, but immobilized due to the 375 pound plastic heart and he also suffered infections and blood clots, resulting in a number of strokes as well as pneumonia and vomiting. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>112 days after the transplant, Clark died from circulatory collapse, shock, and multiorgan collapse; everything had failed, except for the artificial heart. </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Artificial Heart <ul><ul><li>The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved another six Jarvik-7 transplants. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The longest living transplant survivor was a man named William J. Schroeder, who received his implant on November 25, 1984, and died 620 days later. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The FDA then ruled that artificial hearts should only be used as temporary devices until a new heart would arrive. </li></ul></ul>

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