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Measuring the Success of Your Corporate
Citizenship Programs
Susan L. Santos, PhD, MS, Senior Teaching Fellow, Boston College Center for Corporate Citizenship
© 2018 Center for Corporate Citizenship
Why Is Measurement Important?
2
• Management expects consistent reporting from all departments.
• To provide a strategic link between CC and the Business.
• To communicate to internal stakeholders the value of the CC function;
programs and business benefits.
• To communicate the value of CC programs and initiatives to key external
stakeholders.
• To maintain/increase your budget.
• For program improvement.
• To ensure programs achieve desired results and deliver maximum business
and social value.
© 2018 Center for Corporate Citizenship
Measurement Context
3
• While companies continue to invest in Citizenship initiatives and believe it
delivers “value”- historically measurement to demonstrate the value has not
been a “top priority”.
• Companies tend to focus on “counting” activities and outputs rather than
measuring outcomes and impacts (and we often confuse the difference!)
• Few companies look at overall CC contribution.
• Some companies have looked at social impacts of major program initiatives.
• Some companies are focused on demonstrating quantitative business and
social impacts of CC activities (ROI) but it is difficult to do.
© 2018 Center for Corporate Citizenship
Measurement Context
4
• Resources exist for process measures (e.g., satisfaction, number of
employees involved) but relatively few frameworks/tools that specifically
measure the business impact of corporate community involvement
initiatives.
• There are frameworks to measure business value impacts but many are
based on proprietary models developed by companies/ consultancies.
• To measure impact, measurement systems should be built into the CC
initiatives from the very start.
• Ideally, if resources exist, it is more effective to measure both business and
social impact instead of one or the other.
© 2018 Center for Corporate Citizenship
Measurement Hurdles
5
That isn’t really
measurable, is it?
How do I know that it’s
my CC efforts that lead
to the business/social
benefits?
Who has the
time/resources? What should I be
measuring?
© 2018 Center for Corporate Citizenship
Steps to Measurement
6
2
Determine
Outcomes
and Impact
3
Decide
What to
Measure
4
Select
Methods
and Tools
1
Identify
Goals and
Objectives
© 2018 Center for Corporate Citizenship
Logic Model
7
Many program evaluators use the logic model as the process for both strategic
planning and program evaluation.
The focus is often on one program, but can also be applied to a set of programs
if the objectives are the same.
© 2018 Center for Corporate Citizenship
The Logic Model for Evaluation
8
…for which we will
need…
In order to undertake
this project and
achieve the
aforementioned
outputs, we will
conduct the
following activities…
Those changes will
be a consequence of
our work in XYZ,
demonstrated by
these products of our
inputs.
In the journey to
systemic changes we
will see the following
changes to XYZ in 1-3
then 4-6 years.
We wish to effect
systemic changes for
XYZ in 7-10 years.
Resources
/Inputs Activities Outputs Outcomes Impact
Your planned work Your intended results
© 2018 Center for Corporate Citizenship
The Logic Model
9
Resources
/Inputs Activities Outputs Outcomes Impact
Your planned work Your intended results
• Staff
• Volunteers
• Time
• Money
• Research Base
• Materials
• Equipment
• Technology
• Partners
• Conduct workshops,
meetings
• Deliver services
• Develop products,
curriculum, resources
• Train
• Assess
• Facilitate
• Partner
• Work with media
• # of participants
trained
• #
instructional/service
hours provided
• # of people served/in
attendance
• # meetings held
• # materials
produced/distributed
• Participants know
more and can apply
knowledge
effectively
• Additional skills
shown in volunteers
• Those served
through volunteer
effort are better able
to do X
• Behavior change
• Create more social and
business value
• Improve global
conditions
• Altered status
• Engaged employees
advocate on behalf of
the company
• Civic, environmental,
social
© 2018 Center for Corporate Citizenship
Logic Model for Evaluation
10
Inputs Outputs
Activities Participation
Outcomes – Impact
Short Term Medium Term Long Term
S
I
T
U
A
T
I
O
N
Assumptions External Factors
P
R
I
O
R
I
T
I
E
S
What we
Invest
Staff
Volunteers
Time
Money
Research
Base
Materials
Equipment
Technology
Partners
What We Do
Conduct
workshops,
meetings
Deliver services
Develop products,
curriculum,
resources
Train
Assess
Facilitate
Partner
Work with media
Who We Reach
Participants
Government
Decision-makers
Customers
Employees
Other
Stakeholders
What the
short term
results are
Learning
Awareness
Knowledge
Attitudes
Skills
Opinions
Aspirations
Motivations
What the
medium term
results are
Action
Behavior
Practice
Decision-
making
Policies
Social Action
What the
ultimate
impact(s) is
Conditions
Social
Economic
Civic
Environmental
© 2018 Center for Corporate Citizenship
Something to Think About…
11
• Activity and output metrics alone cannot indicate that positive societal or
business changes are being achieved or if unintended harm is being caused.
• For program initiatives such as signature projects, companies usually share a
strong connection with the cause and are concerned about the social
impacts of their efforts.
• In developing programs it’s important to articulate the process by which
changes/results are expected to occur.
• Think about how “success” is defined and track whether and how the
programs are affecting beneficiaries.
• Work toward measuring Outcomes and Impacts.
© 2018 Center for Corporate Citizenship
Outcomes/Impact
12
What Difference Did It Make?
Outcomes/impacts can be shorter term or longer
term. Benefits derived for participants and/or
community during and after program activities.
For example:
• New knowledge
• Increased skills
• Opinion/attitudes changed
• Modified behaviors
• Improved conditions
(altered status)
• Acquired permits/received
approvals
• Improved name
recognition
• Increased trust
• ROI
© 2018 Center for Corporate Citizenship
Levels of Outcomes/Impact
13
Initial
• Benefits most closely related to program’s outputs.
• The first benefits or changes participants experience.
• Usually changes in awareness, knowledge, attitudes, or skills.
• Not an end, but a means to an end.
Intermediate
• Changes in behavior that result from participants’ new knowledge,
attitudes, or skills.
• Link a program’s initial outcomes to the desired longer term impacts.
Long-term
• Ultimate impacts a program desires to achieve for the community,
participants, company, or society.
© 2018 Center for Corporate Citizenship
Determining Impacts Logical Linkages
14
Example of Series Of If-Then Relationships
IF THEN IF THEN IF THEN
Program
Invests time
and money
Resource
Inventory can
be developed
Resource
Inventory can be
disseminated
Families will
know what is
available
Families will
access
services
Families will
have needs met
© 2018 Center for Corporate Citizenship
Determining Impacts Logical Linkages
15
Example of Series Of If-Then Relationships
IF THEN IF THEN IF THEN
Program
Invests time
and money
Volunteer Day
for tree planting
will be
organized
Volunteers plant
specific trees
around specific
buildings
Trees provide
shade,
insulation
Less
Air
conditioning
Less energy
consumption,
reduced energy
$, reduced
greenhouse
gases
(condition
improved
altered status)
© 2018 Center for Corporate Citizenship
Measuring Business Value
Inputs
Annual Paid Staff
240 hours
Annual Volunteer
# of Employees 156
# of Employee Hours 780
Annual Costs
Rewards $1,500.
Reproduction $3,500.
Replacement kit $10,000.
Total $15,000.
Per Event $96.
Per Child $3.80
Key Activities
• Paid staff work with
schools, community event
planners, camp leaders,
youth group advocates to
plan safety educational
events
• Work with employees to
plan safety educational
events
• Coordinate employee
volunteers with safety
educational events
• Volunteer staff set-up
event, deliver safety
lessons, pack up event
Outputs
• 3900 children reached
Outcomes Impacts
Youth are more:
• More safety conscious
• More aware of safety issues
• Engaged in safe behaviors
• Influence caregivers to
“look for the UL Mark”
Employee volunteers have greater:
• Morale, pride in company and
knowledge of company’s positive traits
• Confidence in company’s future
resulting in loyalty toward company and
professional pride
• Retention
• Engagement
• Communication skills
• Awareness of company’s mission
• Sense of personal accomplishment
• Productivity
• Advocacy for company’s
mission
Parents, community members and other external stakeholders involved with
Safety Ambassador’s have:
• Stronger view of UL brand
• Awareness of products bearing UL
Mark
• Safety consciousness
• UL labeled product
purchases
• Advocates for UL Mark
© 2018 Center for Corporate Citizenship
UL Impact Assessment Questions
17
Morale: If you participated in any UL-sponsored or UL-organized volunteer opportunity during 2009, how did it
impact your job satisfaction? (5-point scale: Significantly increased my job satisfaction; Somewhat increased my
job satisfaction; Neither increased nor decreased my job satisfaction; Somewhat decreased my job satisfaction;
Significantly decreased my job satisfaction; I did not participate)
Morale: I would recommend UL to others as a good place to work. (5-point scale: Strongly agree; Agree; Neither
agree nor disagree; Disagree; Strongly disagree)
Organizational pride: I am proud to say I work at UL. (Same scale as above)
Organizational pride: UL’s mission is one that I believe in. (Same scale as above)
Engagement: I’m willing to contribute beyond what is required in my job to help UL succeed. (Same scale as
above)
Note: Responses to the last four questions are compared among participants in signature programs (treatment
group) and non-participants (comparison group).
© 2018 Center for Corporate Citizenship
Link Between Outcomes & Impacts
18
Group Exercise
1. At your table read the scenario provided or pick a specific CI/CC program being
done by one of your companies. Talk about the goals of the program: social and
business related (5 min.)
2. As a group – prepare an “If-Then” grid on flip chart paper to show the logical
linkages between the desired social and business outcomes and impacts (20 min.)
Note: It is possible to have a grid for both business and social impacts. Your grid can
also be longer than what was provided as a template.
3. Leaving one person at your table to discuss what your group did, do a “Library Tour”
of the other groups to see what their “If-Then” grids look like (5 min.)
4. Return to your tables and make any final changes to your grids (5 min.)
5. Discuss as a group which social/business outcomes or impacts would be
worthwhile to measure and why
© 2018 Center for Corporate Citizenship
Group Exercise: Determining Impacts
19
IF THEN IF THEN IF THEN
INPUTS ACTIVITIES OUTPUTS OUTCOMES/IMPACTS
© 2018 Center for Corporate Citizenship
Concluding Thoughts
20
1. Make measurement a part of your strategic planning process. Plan to
measure and measure to plan!
2. Measures should be tied to your strategic goals and objectives – if you don’t
know what you were trying to achieve how can you measure it!
3. Measurement indicators should be built into the routines of program
initiatives rather than appended as afterthoughts.
4. Meaningful measurement should be oriented toward longer term outcomes
and impacts, not just outputs.
5. Consider the timeframe involved to measure impacts
6. You have many things you can measure… think about what will help make
the best case! Get buy in.

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Measure your way to major impact

  • 1. Measuring the Success of Your Corporate Citizenship Programs Susan L. Santos, PhD, MS, Senior Teaching Fellow, Boston College Center for Corporate Citizenship
  • 2. © 2018 Center for Corporate Citizenship Why Is Measurement Important? 2 • Management expects consistent reporting from all departments. • To provide a strategic link between CC and the Business. • To communicate to internal stakeholders the value of the CC function; programs and business benefits. • To communicate the value of CC programs and initiatives to key external stakeholders. • To maintain/increase your budget. • For program improvement. • To ensure programs achieve desired results and deliver maximum business and social value.
  • 3. © 2018 Center for Corporate Citizenship Measurement Context 3 • While companies continue to invest in Citizenship initiatives and believe it delivers “value”- historically measurement to demonstrate the value has not been a “top priority”. • Companies tend to focus on “counting” activities and outputs rather than measuring outcomes and impacts (and we often confuse the difference!) • Few companies look at overall CC contribution. • Some companies have looked at social impacts of major program initiatives. • Some companies are focused on demonstrating quantitative business and social impacts of CC activities (ROI) but it is difficult to do.
  • 4. © 2018 Center for Corporate Citizenship Measurement Context 4 • Resources exist for process measures (e.g., satisfaction, number of employees involved) but relatively few frameworks/tools that specifically measure the business impact of corporate community involvement initiatives. • There are frameworks to measure business value impacts but many are based on proprietary models developed by companies/ consultancies. • To measure impact, measurement systems should be built into the CC initiatives from the very start. • Ideally, if resources exist, it is more effective to measure both business and social impact instead of one or the other.
  • 5. © 2018 Center for Corporate Citizenship Measurement Hurdles 5 That isn’t really measurable, is it? How do I know that it’s my CC efforts that lead to the business/social benefits? Who has the time/resources? What should I be measuring?
  • 6. © 2018 Center for Corporate Citizenship Steps to Measurement 6 2 Determine Outcomes and Impact 3 Decide What to Measure 4 Select Methods and Tools 1 Identify Goals and Objectives
  • 7. © 2018 Center for Corporate Citizenship Logic Model 7 Many program evaluators use the logic model as the process for both strategic planning and program evaluation. The focus is often on one program, but can also be applied to a set of programs if the objectives are the same.
  • 8. © 2018 Center for Corporate Citizenship The Logic Model for Evaluation 8 …for which we will need… In order to undertake this project and achieve the aforementioned outputs, we will conduct the following activities… Those changes will be a consequence of our work in XYZ, demonstrated by these products of our inputs. In the journey to systemic changes we will see the following changes to XYZ in 1-3 then 4-6 years. We wish to effect systemic changes for XYZ in 7-10 years. Resources /Inputs Activities Outputs Outcomes Impact Your planned work Your intended results
  • 9. © 2018 Center for Corporate Citizenship The Logic Model 9 Resources /Inputs Activities Outputs Outcomes Impact Your planned work Your intended results • Staff • Volunteers • Time • Money • Research Base • Materials • Equipment • Technology • Partners • Conduct workshops, meetings • Deliver services • Develop products, curriculum, resources • Train • Assess • Facilitate • Partner • Work with media • # of participants trained • # instructional/service hours provided • # of people served/in attendance • # meetings held • # materials produced/distributed • Participants know more and can apply knowledge effectively • Additional skills shown in volunteers • Those served through volunteer effort are better able to do X • Behavior change • Create more social and business value • Improve global conditions • Altered status • Engaged employees advocate on behalf of the company • Civic, environmental, social
  • 10. © 2018 Center for Corporate Citizenship Logic Model for Evaluation 10 Inputs Outputs Activities Participation Outcomes – Impact Short Term Medium Term Long Term S I T U A T I O N Assumptions External Factors P R I O R I T I E S What we Invest Staff Volunteers Time Money Research Base Materials Equipment Technology Partners What We Do Conduct workshops, meetings Deliver services Develop products, curriculum, resources Train Assess Facilitate Partner Work with media Who We Reach Participants Government Decision-makers Customers Employees Other Stakeholders What the short term results are Learning Awareness Knowledge Attitudes Skills Opinions Aspirations Motivations What the medium term results are Action Behavior Practice Decision- making Policies Social Action What the ultimate impact(s) is Conditions Social Economic Civic Environmental
  • 11. © 2018 Center for Corporate Citizenship Something to Think About… 11 • Activity and output metrics alone cannot indicate that positive societal or business changes are being achieved or if unintended harm is being caused. • For program initiatives such as signature projects, companies usually share a strong connection with the cause and are concerned about the social impacts of their efforts. • In developing programs it’s important to articulate the process by which changes/results are expected to occur. • Think about how “success” is defined and track whether and how the programs are affecting beneficiaries. • Work toward measuring Outcomes and Impacts.
  • 12. © 2018 Center for Corporate Citizenship Outcomes/Impact 12 What Difference Did It Make? Outcomes/impacts can be shorter term or longer term. Benefits derived for participants and/or community during and after program activities. For example: • New knowledge • Increased skills • Opinion/attitudes changed • Modified behaviors • Improved conditions (altered status) • Acquired permits/received approvals • Improved name recognition • Increased trust • ROI
  • 13. © 2018 Center for Corporate Citizenship Levels of Outcomes/Impact 13 Initial • Benefits most closely related to program’s outputs. • The first benefits or changes participants experience. • Usually changes in awareness, knowledge, attitudes, or skills. • Not an end, but a means to an end. Intermediate • Changes in behavior that result from participants’ new knowledge, attitudes, or skills. • Link a program’s initial outcomes to the desired longer term impacts. Long-term • Ultimate impacts a program desires to achieve for the community, participants, company, or society.
  • 14. © 2018 Center for Corporate Citizenship Determining Impacts Logical Linkages 14 Example of Series Of If-Then Relationships IF THEN IF THEN IF THEN Program Invests time and money Resource Inventory can be developed Resource Inventory can be disseminated Families will know what is available Families will access services Families will have needs met
  • 15. © 2018 Center for Corporate Citizenship Determining Impacts Logical Linkages 15 Example of Series Of If-Then Relationships IF THEN IF THEN IF THEN Program Invests time and money Volunteer Day for tree planting will be organized Volunteers plant specific trees around specific buildings Trees provide shade, insulation Less Air conditioning Less energy consumption, reduced energy $, reduced greenhouse gases (condition improved altered status)
  • 16. © 2018 Center for Corporate Citizenship Measuring Business Value Inputs Annual Paid Staff 240 hours Annual Volunteer # of Employees 156 # of Employee Hours 780 Annual Costs Rewards $1,500. Reproduction $3,500. Replacement kit $10,000. Total $15,000. Per Event $96. Per Child $3.80 Key Activities • Paid staff work with schools, community event planners, camp leaders, youth group advocates to plan safety educational events • Work with employees to plan safety educational events • Coordinate employee volunteers with safety educational events • Volunteer staff set-up event, deliver safety lessons, pack up event Outputs • 3900 children reached Outcomes Impacts Youth are more: • More safety conscious • More aware of safety issues • Engaged in safe behaviors • Influence caregivers to “look for the UL Mark” Employee volunteers have greater: • Morale, pride in company and knowledge of company’s positive traits • Confidence in company’s future resulting in loyalty toward company and professional pride • Retention • Engagement • Communication skills • Awareness of company’s mission • Sense of personal accomplishment • Productivity • Advocacy for company’s mission Parents, community members and other external stakeholders involved with Safety Ambassador’s have: • Stronger view of UL brand • Awareness of products bearing UL Mark • Safety consciousness • UL labeled product purchases • Advocates for UL Mark
  • 17. © 2018 Center for Corporate Citizenship UL Impact Assessment Questions 17 Morale: If you participated in any UL-sponsored or UL-organized volunteer opportunity during 2009, how did it impact your job satisfaction? (5-point scale: Significantly increased my job satisfaction; Somewhat increased my job satisfaction; Neither increased nor decreased my job satisfaction; Somewhat decreased my job satisfaction; Significantly decreased my job satisfaction; I did not participate) Morale: I would recommend UL to others as a good place to work. (5-point scale: Strongly agree; Agree; Neither agree nor disagree; Disagree; Strongly disagree) Organizational pride: I am proud to say I work at UL. (Same scale as above) Organizational pride: UL’s mission is one that I believe in. (Same scale as above) Engagement: I’m willing to contribute beyond what is required in my job to help UL succeed. (Same scale as above) Note: Responses to the last four questions are compared among participants in signature programs (treatment group) and non-participants (comparison group).
  • 18. © 2018 Center for Corporate Citizenship Link Between Outcomes & Impacts 18 Group Exercise 1. At your table read the scenario provided or pick a specific CI/CC program being done by one of your companies. Talk about the goals of the program: social and business related (5 min.) 2. As a group – prepare an “If-Then” grid on flip chart paper to show the logical linkages between the desired social and business outcomes and impacts (20 min.) Note: It is possible to have a grid for both business and social impacts. Your grid can also be longer than what was provided as a template. 3. Leaving one person at your table to discuss what your group did, do a “Library Tour” of the other groups to see what their “If-Then” grids look like (5 min.) 4. Return to your tables and make any final changes to your grids (5 min.) 5. Discuss as a group which social/business outcomes or impacts would be worthwhile to measure and why
  • 19. © 2018 Center for Corporate Citizenship Group Exercise: Determining Impacts 19 IF THEN IF THEN IF THEN INPUTS ACTIVITIES OUTPUTS OUTCOMES/IMPACTS
  • 20. © 2018 Center for Corporate Citizenship Concluding Thoughts 20 1. Make measurement a part of your strategic planning process. Plan to measure and measure to plan! 2. Measures should be tied to your strategic goals and objectives – if you don’t know what you were trying to achieve how can you measure it! 3. Measurement indicators should be built into the routines of program initiatives rather than appended as afterthoughts. 4. Meaningful measurement should be oriented toward longer term outcomes and impacts, not just outputs. 5. Consider the timeframe involved to measure impacts 6. You have many things you can measure… think about what will help make the best case! Get buy in.