Evaluation of Training & Development


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HDFC Training Evaluation Process

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Evaluation of Training & Development

  1. 1. Evaluation of Training & Development Presented By, Janhavi Rege – MMS 131 Ruchi Gupta – eMBA 12112 Megha Thakkar – eMBA 12058 Supriya Semwal – PGDM 12119
  2. 2. Training Cycle
  3. 3. What is a training needs analysis?  A training need is a shortage of skills or abilities, which could be reduced or eliminated by means of training and development.  Training needs analysis identifies training needs at employee, departmental or organizational level in order to help the organization to perform effectively.
  4. 4. How can a need to identified? • Complaints from staff, customers/clients • Poor quality work • Frequent errors • Large staff turnover • Deadlines not being met • Conflict amongst staff • New equipment systems Indicators of a need
  5. 5. Telling only Unidirectional Blah blah blah…and more blah blah… Zzz ? Teaching Bidirectional Can somebody tell me what addiction is? Addiction is a brain disease Why? Let’s use some examples
  6. 6. Conduct Training •Training does not need to be limited to a four walled room; •It can be taken outside for demonstrative training, such as Fire Extinguisher training where you would use a live fire, OR •Waste Water Operator training where you could be in an actual wastewater treatment plant.
  7. 7. What Is Evaluation A program evaluation is the systematic collection of information about the activities, characteristics, and outcomes of programs to make judgments about the program, improve program effectiveness, and/or inform decisions about future programming.
  8. 8. Types of Evaluation Formative Evaluation Summative Evaluation What is it? •Formative evaluation occurs while a training program is forming or occurring. Summative evaluation takes place after the training program has occurred. When? •At the time of incident •End of the Course •End of the day/weekly •Mid-point in the course Why? •Analyze strengths & weakness towards improving •Feedback •Document achievement •Evidence of regular formative evaluation
  9. 9. How to Conduct Formative Evaluation • Review the training materials with one or two trainees. • Hold group discussions with the trainees to gain feedback. • Use the materials in a situation similar to that of an actual training program to see how the materials work. • Assess the materials with managers and supervisors who oversee trainees participating in training program. • Observe trainee behavior. • Give short tests to trainees.
  10. 10. How To Conduct Summative Evaluation • Ask trainees for their opinions about the training program after it has been delivered. • Test trainees to learn how well they grasped the information. • Ask participants to demonstrate how they would use the information learned in training. • Conduct surveys or interviews with each participant to gain better understanding of what they learned. • Measure changes in production and quality of work that has been accomplished after the training program.
  11. 11. Five Steps of Training Evaluation
  12. 12. • Learn from Experience for Future Improvement • To decide who should participate in future programs • To establish a database that can assist management in making decisions
  13. 13. "The Four Levels of Learning Evaluation.“ Donald L. Kirkpatrick Model • The model was defined in 1959 by Donald L. Kirkpatrick. • Kirkpatrick redefined the evaluation model with his 1998 book "Evaluating Training Programs. • The idea behind the model is for an organization to have meaningful evaluation of learning in the organization. • The degree of difficulty increases as you move through the levels.
  14. 14. Level 1: Reaction • Kirkpatrick refers to Level 1 as a measure of customer satisfaction. • Most of the forms that people fill out at the end of a class or workshop are instruments for measuring Level 1.
  15. 15. Guidelines that Kirkpatrick recommends to get maximum benefit from reaction 1. Determine what you want to find out 2. Design a form that will quantify reactions 3. Encourage written comments and suggestions 4. Get a 100 percent immediate response 5. Get honest responses 6. Develop acceptable standards 7. Measure reactions against standards and take the appropriate action 8. Communicate reactions as appropriate.
  16. 16. Level 2: Learning • Kirkpatrick defines learning as the extent to which participants change attitudes, increase knowledge, and/or increase skill as a result of attending a program. • So to measure learning we need to determine the following:  What knowledge was learned  What skills were developed or improved  What attitudes were changed
  17. 17. Guidelines for evaluating learning 1.Use a control group if it is practical 2. Evaluate knowledge, skills, and/or attitudes both before and after the program. Use a paper and pencil test to measure knowledge and attitudes and use a performance test to measure skills. 3. Get a 100 percent response 4. Use the results of the evaluation to take appropriate action.
  18. 18. Level 3: Behaviour • Level three can be defined as the extent to which a change in behaviour has occurred because someone attended a training program. • In order for change in behaviour to occur, four conditions are necessary:     The person must have a desire to change The person must know what to do and how to do it The person must work in the right climate The person must be rewarded for changing
  19. 19. Guidelines for evaluating behaviour 1.Use a control group if that is practical 2. Allow time for a change in behaviour to take place 3. Evaluate both before and after the program if that is practical 4. Survey and/or interview one or more of the following: trainees, their immediate supervisors, their subordinates and others who often observe their behaviour. 5. Get a 100 percent response 6. Repeat the evaluation at appropriate times 7. Consider cost versus benefits
  20. 20. Level 4: Results • This involves measuring the final results that occurred because a person attended a training session. • This can include increased production, improved work quality, reduced turnover, etc. • It is important to determine whether the conditions set forth above in Level 3 have been met.
  21. 21. Guidelines for evaluating results 1.Use a control group if it is practical 2. Allow time for results to be achieved 3. Measure both before and after the program if it is practical 4. Repeat the measurement at appropriate times 5. Consider cost versus benefit 6. Be satisfied with evidence if proof is not possible
  22. 22. Various evaluation tools can be selected depending on the purposes and methods of evaluation. •Questionnaires •Surveys •Tests •Interviews •Focus group discussions •Observations •Performance records
  23. 23. • Keep responses anonymous • Distribute questionnaire forms in advance • Pre-Test & Post-Test
  24. 24. Questions can fall into the following categories: Questionnaire • Keep responses anonymous • Distribute questionnaire forms in advance • Pre/post(Tests)
  25. 25. Questions & Scales • 5-point and 7-point scales are the most used options in questionnaires as they give respondents the ability to discriminate between choices. • Note that coding the response options with numbers can assist in data entry and analysis.
  26. 26. How to deliver a questionnaire • Written Questionnaires • Web-based Questionnaires • Phone Questionnaire
  27. 27. Advantages of questionnaires • Economy - Expense and time involved in training interviewers and sending them to interview are reduced by using questionnaires. • Uniformity of questions - Each respondent receives the same set of questions phrased in exactly the same way. Questionnaires may, therefore, yield data more comparable than information obtained through an interview. • Standardization - If the questions are highly structured and the conditions under which they are answered are controlled, then the questionnaire could become standardized.
  28. 28. Disadvantages • Respondent’s motivation is difficult to assess, affecting the validity of response. • Unless a random sampling of returns is obtained, those returned completed may represent biased samples. • An individual may hide his real attitude and express socially acceptable opinions.
  29. 29. • Limitations of Surveys • While there are many benefits of surveys, they also have some limitations. For instance, a survey only gathers information about the questions asked. In contrast, during an interview, the interviewer can explore important subjects in depth, as they are uncovered. Generally speaking, surveys are effective only when those surveyed have at least a moderate degree of literacy. Although oral surveys are possible, they are usually impractical.
  30. 30. Interview Advantages • Allows the interviewer to clarify questions. • Allows the informants to respond in any manner they see fit. • Allows the interviewers to observe verbal and non-verbal behavior of the respondents. • Means of obtaining personal information, attitudes, perceptions, and beliefs.
  31. 31. Interview Disadvantages • Unstructured interviews often yield data too difficult to summarize or evaluate. • Training interviewers, sending them to meet and interview their informants, and evaluating their effectiveness all add to the cost of the study.
  32. 32. Observation
  33. 33. Data Input Recommendations Data Analysis Program Description Appendices Using figures to present data Evaluation report outline Reporting
  34. 34. MEASURING TRAINING EFFECTIVENESS & IMPACT 1.Prior to training • The number of people that say they need it during the needs assessment process • The number of people that sign up for it 2.At the end of the training • • • • • The number of people that attend the session The number of people that paid to attend the session A measurable change in the knowledge or skill at the end of training Ability to solve a “mock” problem at the end of training Willingness to try to use the skill/knowledge at the end of the training
  35. 35. 3.Delayed Impact • Customer satisfaction at X weeks after the end of training • Customer satisfaction at X weeks after the training when the customers know the actual costs of the training. • Retention of knowledge at X weeks after the end of training • Ability to solve a mock problem at X weeks after end of the training • Willingness to try the skill/knowledge at X weeks after the end of the training
  36. 36. 4.On the Job Behaviour Change • Trained individuals that self –report that they changed their behaviour / used the skill or knowledge on the job after the training ( Within X months ) • Trained individuals who’s managers report that they changed their behaviour / used the skill or knowledge on the job after the training ( Within X months ) • Trained individual’s whose manager’s report that their job performance changed ( as a result of their changed behaviour / skill) either through improved performance appraisal scores or specific notations about the training on the performance appraisal form ( within X months ) • Trained individuals that have observable /measurable ( improved sales , quality , speed etc.) improvement in the actual job performance as a result of their changed behaviour/skill ( within X months ) • The performance of employees that are managed by ( or are part of the same team with) individuals that went through the training
  37. 37. RESISTANCE TO TRAINING EVALUATION • There is nothing to evaluate. • No one really cares about Evaluating Training. • Evaluation is a threat to my job.
  38. 38. DIFFERENT WAYS TO OVERCOME THE RESISTANCE TO TRAINING & DEVELOPMENT EVALUATION • The employees /trainees should be made aware that every training programme is designed with some goals or objectives in mind. • And some type of knowledge, skill and attitude change is expected from the participants. • While long term results are important in making business decisions, the day to day purpose of evaluation should be used as a feedback mechanism to guide efforts to reward success
  39. 39. • HDFC Life, one of India's leading private life insurance companies, offers a range of individual and group insurance solutions. • It has 25 retail and 9 group products in its portfolio. • There are 10 optional rider benefits catering to the savings, investment, protection and retirement needs of customers. • HDFC life have 600 branches in India touching customers in over 900 cities and towns.
  40. 40. HDFC Vision & Values Our Vision 'The most obvious choice for all'. Our Values Values that we observe while we work: • Integrity • Innovation • Customer centric • People Care "One for all and all for one" • Team work • Joy and Simplicity
  41. 41. Analyzing Training Needs • Organizational • Entire organization, single division or department • At this level you prepare for future need • Job/Task • Single job category • Indicated by low productivity • Individual • Individual employee • Indicated by poor review or employee assistance request
  42. 42. Think About it • Would you internally train, use prepackaged programs, or outsource for the following topics: • Sexual Harassment (WHY?) • Technical training on a manufacturing line (WHY?)
  43. 43. Step 2. Design • Identify Target Audience • Learning Styles: Visual, Auditory, Kinesthetic • Identify and talk with Stakeholders • Develop Training Objectives • Develop course Content • Consider Learning Curves • Develop Evaluation Criteria
  44. 44. Think About It: • Think of this class, Training and Organizational Development as a prolonged training program. Can you think of a training objective for this class. Remember be SPECIFIC!!!
  45. 45. Step 3. Development • Decide on the Training Materials • Leader guides, Manuals, Handouts • Decide on Media Use • Computer, Television, DVD player, etc. • Instructional Methods • Active (Facilitation, Case Studies, Simulations, Vestibule, Socratic Seminar) • Passive (Lecture, Presentation, Conference) • Experiential (Demonstration, One-on-One, Performance)
  46. 46. THINK ABOUT IT What type of training instructional method would you use in these circumstances: Passive, Active, Experiential? • You want to have a training program that helps employees build stronger analytical and problem solving skills. • You want to have a training program that will help employees in the human resource department with the newly installed HRIS software. • You want to have a training program for hundreds of employee on new organizational policies and procedures
  47. 47. Program Delivery Mechanisms • Classroom • Self-Study • Programmed instruction • E-learning THINK ABOUT IT:
  48. 48. Step 4. Implementation • Facility • Depends on type of training, number of participants, and budget • Onsite or offsite • Theater-style, classroom style, banquet-style, chevron style, conference style, ushaped style seating • Trainers • Skills, knowledge, and/or abilities with training material • Schedule • Feasibility of shutting down operations, employee availability, trainer availability, multiple sessions • Arrange for delivery • Training materials, needed media products • If offsite • Ensure everyone has a ride • All expenses have been paid
  49. 49. THINK ABOUT IT What would you do (onsite vs. offsite training)? • The organization for which you are trainer is currently not to doing to well financially. • The only onsite training facility is directly across from the work plant, and it is extremely noisy and distracting. Recently you accidentally overheard a conversation between the vice president of HR and Budget management about how they feel that you are a drain on HRs’ budget. • The training material that you are to present is extremely important and needs to be clearly understood. • What would you do, would just deal with the noise of the plant or would you argue for more money? If so, what points would you argue?
  50. 50. Final Step!!!!! Evaluation • Goals/Outcomes of Training Transfer of Training How do you evaluate these training outcomes???? Productivity/Efficiency Employee Knowledge Safety/Quality
  51. 51. Common Models of Training Evaluation • Donald Kirkpatrick 4 levels of training evaluations in US Training and Development Journal: • Reaction Evaluation Method – Survey (provides trainer feedback not organizational impact) • Learning Evaluation Method – Test (provides effectiveness of training info. but no feedback) – Experimental design: Pre-test/post-test, Post-test/control group • Behavior Evaluation Method – Observations, interviews, or surveys 6 wks-6months later – Provides info. if new skills were transferred to job • Results Evaluation Method – Impact on business – Compares objective statements (turnover, sales, costs)
  52. 52. Training Evaluation Metrics • Cost-Benefit Analysis Typical Costs -Trainer’s salary and time -Trainee’s salary and time -Material for training -Expenses for trainer and trainees -Cost of facilities and equipment -Lost productivity Typical Benefits -Increase in production -Trainer’s salary and time -Reduction in errors and -Trainee’s salary and time accidents -Material for training -Reduction in turnover -Expenses for trainer and -Less supervision necessary trainees -Ability to use new capabilities -Cost of facilities and -Attitude change equipment -Lost productivity
  53. 53. Benchmarking • Gather training data from your organization (performance data, sales, efficiency, etc) • Gather training data on similar organization (ASTD, or American Productivity & Quality Center and the Saratoga Institute)
  54. 54. THINK ABOUT IT What type of Kirkpatrick’s evaluation methods would you use? (Reaction Eval. Method, Learning Eval. Method, Behavior Eval. Method, or Results Eval. Method) • You work for organization whose upper management does not see the benefit in having training programs other than the initial orientation. You finally convinced them to give you resources to create an interview training program for managers. • The HR department has become somewhat fearful that departmental hiring managers will violate some employment laws. Therefore, you are instructed to put together a training program for managers on basic human resources employment law. Be sure that they walk away knowing the laws, otherwise there might be some lawsuits!! • You have just completed a brand new training program aimed at decreasing unnecessary work steps for a production line. You want to pilot test the program, so you recruit a few employees from the line and a couple of their managers to go through the training.
  55. 55. Evaluation in HDFC • Smiley Sheets • Feedback forms • Pre-training assessment • Post-training assessment
  56. 56. The Three DOMAINS
  57. 57. AFFECTIVE DOMIAN EMOTIONAL LEARNING: FEELING – Concerned with attitudes, appreciations, interests, values and adjustments.
  58. 58. PSYCHOMOTOR DOMAIN PHYSICAL LEARNING: DOING - Emphasizes speed, accuracy, dexterity, and physical skills.
  59. 59. COGNITIVE DOMAIN RATIONAL LEARNING: THINKINGEmphasis upon knowledge, using the mind, and intellectual abilities.
  60. 60. Level 1. Knowledge When was this picture taken? Where was this picture taken? Question cues: List, define, tell, label
  61. 61. Level 2. Comprehension What is happening in this picture? Why are these boys dressed like this? Question cues: Describe, name, identify, discuss
  62. 62. Level 3. Application How would you describe the photograph to others? What caption would you write for this photograph (say, in a newspaper)? Question cues: Modify, solve, change, explain
  63. 63. Level 4. Analysis What do you know about their lives based on this photo? Question cues: Analyze, separate, compare, contrast
  64. 64. Level 5. Synthesis What might these boys say about their work in an interview setting? What might they say about their future? Question cues: Create, construct, plan, role-play
  65. 65. Level 6. Evaluation What is the significance of this photo for the time period depicted? Compare this photo with one of three boys from today of the same age. How are their lives similar? How are they different? Question cues: Give opinion, criticize, discriminate, summarize
  66. 66. Challenges in HDFC • Getting an honest feedback • Problems arising in pre-test and post-test training methods • Test should be conducted in the right manner • Trainees are resistant to evaluation