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Overview
• To frame current issues and patterns within
their historical context
• To highlight actions towards equity
• To...
Flow
• Introduction & overview
• Conversation & community building
• Presentation of history
• Reflection & analysis
• Que...
At your table:
• Please share your names, where you are
coming from today, and your pronouns, if you
want.
• What brought ...
Queer Youth & Schools
1 in 10 LGB youth report
missing school in the last 30
days due to safety concerns.
40% of LGB youth...
0
5
10
15
20
25
30
35
40
45
50
Vermont
Maine
WestVirginia
NewHampshire
Wyoming
NorthDakota
Kentucky
Montana
Idaho
Missouri...
Student vs. Staff Demographics, CT
92.2%
White
3% Black
3.50%
Hispanic
1.10%
Asian 0.10%
Other
Teachers by Racial Groups 2...
Gloria Ladson-Billings
From the Achievement
Gap to the Education
Debt: Understanding
Achievement in U.S.
Schools
Available...
Some ways to listen to history:
• Laws are only made to stop people from doing
something they are already doing (and often...
100,000-60,000 years ago
First Peoples inhabit
western hemisphere
according to
Indigenous scholars.
White scholars put
thi...
~6,000-4,500 BCE
The First Peoples move into
the area that is currently
known as New England
~4500 BCE to present
The Mahican, Minisink, Mohegan,
Pequot, Nipmuc, and Quiripi Peoples
live on and tend the land that is...
1614, 1633
1614 Dutch sailor travels up
Connecticut River, 1633 Dutch
set up a fort and church on
the land that is current...
1619
The first enslaved Africans
are brought to the British
Colony of Virginia (current US
commonwealth of Virginia)
1637
Captain John Mason leads
colonists to victory in war
with the Pequots and
expands the European
colonization of what i...
1638
Thomas Hooker founds the
Latin School to educate white
young men in Greek and Latin
in preparation for entering
the m...
1646
William Plaine is executed in
New Haven for having had sex
with another man. Several more
men will be executed in CT ...
1666
In May 1666, the Connecticut Colony
adopts county government and
establishes four counties: Fairfield,
Hartford, New ...
1701
Connecticut Colony passes “An Act for the
Liberty to Erect a Collegiate School,” hoping to
create an institution “whe...
1779
Thomas Jefferson proposes a two-
track educational system, with
different tracks in his words for “the
laboring and t...
1785
The Continental Congress passes a law
calling for a survey of the “Northwest
Territory” which included what was to
be...
1790
Pennsylvania state constitution calls
for free public education but only for
poor children. It is expected that rich
...
Table Talk
• What are your reactions to the history so far?
• What were the original purposes of public
education?
• How d...
1805
New York Public School Society is formed by
wealthy businessmen to provide education
for poor children. Schools are r...
1817
The Connecticut Asylum for
the Education and Instruction
of Deaf and Dumb Persons
opens in Hartford for white
student...
1833
Prudence Crandall opens
boarding school for
African American girls in
Canterbury, CT. White
animosity against this
sc...
1820-1860
The percentage of people working in agriculture
plummets as family farms are gobbled up by larger
agricultural b...
1830’s
By this time, most
southern states have
laws forbidding
teaching people in
slavery to read. Even
so, around 5%
beco...
1840’s
Over a million Irish immigrants arrive
in the United States, driven out of
their homes in Ireland by the potato
fam...
1848
Massachusetts Reform School at
Westboro opens, where children who
have refused to attend public schools
are sent. Thi...
1848
The war against Mexico ends with the
signing of the Treaty of Guadalupe-Hidalgo,
which gives the United States almost...
1864
Congress makes it illegal for Native
Americans to be taught in their native
languages. Native children as young as
fo...
June 19, 1865
The day the last enslaved African
Americans learned of their legal right
to freedom, more than two years
aft...
1865-1877
African Americans mobilize to
bring public education to their
communities. After the Civil
War, and with the leg...
1877-1900
Reconstruction ends in 1877 when
federal troops, which had occupied
the South since the end of the Civil
War are...
1882 - 1943
President Arthur signs the Chinese
Exclusion Act, prohibiting the
immigration of Chinese people into the
U.S. ...
1893-1913
Size of school boards in the country’s 28
biggest cities is cut in half. Most local district
based positions are...
1896
Plessy v. Ferguson decision. The U.S.
Supreme Court rules that the state of
Louisiana has the right to require
“separ...
1898
The U.S. ends the Spanish-American
War and signs the Treaty of Paris with
Spain. As part of the treaty, Puerto Rico,
...
Table Talk
• What are your reactions to this part of the
history?
• What are the unfolding purposes and tensions
in public...
1905
The U.S. Supreme Court
requires California to extend
public education to the
children of Chinese
immigrants.
1912
New Mexico enters the union as an
officially bilingual state, authorizing
funds for voting in both Spanish
and Englis...
1917
Smith-Hughes Act passes, providing
federal funding for vocational
education. Big manufacturing
corporations push this...
1920’s-1940’s
In the 1920s, many African Americans
move from the rural South to work in
factories in the North. In 1937, t...
1920
All non-Native women are given the right to vote.
1921
San Antonio's Orden Hijos de América
(Order of the Sons of America)
organizes Latino workers to raise
awareness of ci...
1924
An act of Congress makes Native Americans
U.S. citizens for the first time, suffrage being a
right of citizenship.
1930-1950’s
The NAACP brings a series of
suits over unequal teachers’
pay for Blacks and whites in
southern states. At the...
1932
A survey of 150 school districts
reveals that three quarters of them
are using so-called intelligence
testing to plac...
1942-1946
Executive Act 9066 orders the forced
removal of over 120,000 Japanese
Americans to internment camps. Those
about...
1945
At the end of World War 2, the G.I. Bill of
Rights gives thousands of working class men
college scholarships for the ...
1947
Mexican-American parents
sue several California school
districts, challenging the
segregation of Latino
students in s...
1948
Educational Testing Service is formed, merging
the College Entrance Examination Board, the
Cooperative Test Service, ...
1954
Brown v. Board of
Education of Topeka.
The Supreme Court
unanimously agrees
that segregated
schools are
“inherently u...
1957
A federal court orders integration
of Little Rock, Arkansas public
schools. Governor Orval Faubus
sends his National ...
Table Talk
• What are your reactions to this part of the
history?
• What are the emerging patterns of control
and resistan...
1965
President Johnson
signs the Elementary
and Secondary
Education Act,
providing funding for
the inclusion of some
stude...
1968
Latinx high school students in Los
Angeles stage citywide walkouts
protesting unequal treatment by the
school distric...
1968 & 1969
The Black Panthers and the Young Lords begin free
breakfast-before-school programs for African American,
Latin...
1973
US Supreme Court rules that a
free public education is not a
“fundamental right” under the
14th amendment/Constitutio...
1974
Milliken v. Bradley. A Supreme Court
made up of Richard Nixon’s
appointees rules that schools may
not be desegregated...
1975
The Education for All
Handicapped Children Act
and the Individuals with
Disabilities Education Act
establishes the ri...
1980’s
The federal Tribal Colleges Act establishes a
community college on every Indian reservation, which
allows young peo...
1994
Proposition 187 passes in California,
making it illegal for children of
undocumented immigrants to attend
public scho...
1996
Sheff v. O'Neill Supreme Court decision that
state must afford Connecticut's school children
with a equal educational...
1996
California passes Proposition 209,
which outlaws affirmative action in
public employment, public
contracting and publ...
1997, 2011
Connecticut amends General Statue
10-15c to include “sexual
orientation” to the list of identities
protected fr...
2007
Report finds that
Connecticut's achievement
gap is largest in the country
based on income.
2010
The Texas School Board adopts
revisions to the Texas social studies
curriculum. The revised curriculum
plays down the...
2011
Public Act 11-181 calls for the creation
of a coordinated, comprehensive
system of early care, education and
developm...
2011
The Arizona state-legislature passes bill (HB
2281) that effectively bans the Ethnic
Studies program in Tucson’s larg...
2015
138,930 copies of this
book were sold to
school districts in
Texas
Source:
http://www.newsweek.com/company-
behind-te...
Table Talk
• What are your reactions to the history?
• How does this history connect to the issue(s)
you identified as bei...
Questions & Discussion
Poverty Rate in Schools
Lisa Graustein's "The Historical Roots of Inequity and Resistance in Public Education"
Lisa Graustein's "The Historical Roots of Inequity and Resistance in Public Education"
Lisa Graustein's "The Historical Roots of Inequity and Resistance in Public Education"
Lisa Graustein's "The Historical Roots of Inequity and Resistance in Public Education"
Lisa Graustein's "The Historical Roots of Inequity and Resistance in Public Education"
Lisa Graustein's "The Historical Roots of Inequity and Resistance in Public Education"
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Lisa Graustein's "The Historical Roots of Inequity and Resistance in Public Education"

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Lisa Graustein's "The Historical Roots of Inequity and Resistance in Public Education," from CT CORE presentation 2/4/2017

Published in: Government & Nonprofit
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Lisa Graustein's "The Historical Roots of Inequity and Resistance in Public Education"

  1. 1. Overview • To frame current issues and patterns within their historical context • To highlight actions towards equity • To engage in deeper understanding of the intertwined complexities of public education
  2. 2. Flow • Introduction & overview • Conversation & community building • Presentation of history • Reflection & analysis • Questions & Discussion
  3. 3. At your table: • Please share your names, where you are coming from today, and your pronouns, if you want. • What brought you here today? • What are the education issues that you care about most?
  4. 4. Queer Youth & Schools 1 in 10 LGB youth report missing school in the last 30 days due to safety concerns. 40% of LGB youth have seriously considered suicide, 29% have attempted in the last 12 months. This most recent national study did not include transgender or genderqueer youth. 0% 5% 10% 15% 20% 25% 30% 35% 40% Queer youth Straight youth Bullied at School
  5. 5. 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 Vermont Maine WestVirginia NewHampshire Wyoming NorthDakota Kentucky Montana Idaho Missouri Iowa Hawaii Arkansas Ohio SouthDakota Utah Indiana Alabama Minnesota Wisconsin Oregon Michigan Tennessee Washington Pennsylvania Florida Louisiana Nebraska NewYork Kansas Mississippi Oklahoma SouthCarolina DistrictofColumbia Massachusetts RhodeIsland NewMexico NewJersey Connecticut NorthCarolina Virginia Colorado Georgia Illinois Alaska Texas Delaware Arizona Maryland Nevada California Teacher Student Diversity Index by Percentage
  6. 6. Student vs. Staff Demographics, CT 92.2% White 3% Black 3.50% Hispanic 1.10% Asian 0.10% Other Teachers by Racial Groups 2015 59.6% White13% Black 20.4% Hispanic 4.5% Asian 0.4% AI/AN/H/ PI 2.1% Two or more races Students by Racial Groups 2012- 2013
  7. 7. Gloria Ladson-Billings From the Achievement Gap to the Education Debt: Understanding Achievement in U.S. Schools Available at: http://ed618.pbworks.com/f/From%2520Achievement% 2520Gap%2520to%2520Education%2520Debt.pdf
  8. 8. Some ways to listen to history: • Laws are only made to stop people from doing something they are already doing (and often doing a fair amount of) • Resistance is in response to rules – spoken or unspoken – that one group exerts on another • Pay attention to who is missing and ask why? • Listen for the messages being given – explicitly or implicitly
  9. 9. 100,000-60,000 years ago First Peoples inhabit western hemisphere according to Indigenous scholars. White scholars put this date at 12,000 years ago. Image: Dr. Paulette Steeves
  10. 10. ~6,000-4,500 BCE The First Peoples move into the area that is currently known as New England
  11. 11. ~4500 BCE to present The Mahican, Minisink, Mohegan, Pequot, Nipmuc, and Quiripi Peoples live on and tend the land that is currently called Connecticut.
  12. 12. 1614, 1633 1614 Dutch sailor travels up Connecticut River, 1633 Dutch set up a fort and church on the land that is currently known as Hartford.
  13. 13. 1619 The first enslaved Africans are brought to the British Colony of Virginia (current US commonwealth of Virginia)
  14. 14. 1637 Captain John Mason leads colonists to victory in war with the Pequots and expands the European colonization of what is currently known as Connecticut.
  15. 15. 1638 Thomas Hooker founds the Latin School to educate white young men in Greek and Latin in preparation for entering the ministry.
  16. 16. 1646 William Plaine is executed in New Haven for having had sex with another man. Several more men will be executed in CT over the next century until the punishment for gay sex becomes life imprisonment.
  17. 17. 1666 In May 1666, the Connecticut Colony adopts county government and establishes four counties: Fairfield, Hartford, New Haven, and New London, with four others added in 1785. The county governments operate jails and courts, give out liquor licenses, and deal with highway and boundary disagreements between towns.
  18. 18. 1701 Connecticut Colony passes “An Act for the Liberty to Erect a Collegiate School,” hoping to create an institution “wherein Youth maybe instructed in the Arts and Sciences who [through] the blessing of Almighty God may be fitted for employment in both Church & Civil State.” It enrolls only white men who can afford tuition.
  19. 19. 1779 Thomas Jefferson proposes a two- track educational system, with different tracks in his words for “the laboring and the learned.” Scholarship would allow a very few of the laboring class to advance, Jefferson says, by “raking a few geniuses from the rubbish.”
  20. 20. 1785 The Continental Congress passes a law calling for a survey of the “Northwest Territory” which included what was to become the state of Ohio. The law created “townships,” reserving a portion of each township for a local school. From these “land grants” eventually came the U.S. system of “land grant universities,” the state public universities that exist today. The Native Americans living on these lands are forcibly removed.
  21. 21. 1790 Pennsylvania state constitution calls for free public education but only for poor children. It is expected that rich people will pay for their children’s schooling.
  22. 22. Table Talk • What are your reactions to the history so far? • What were the original purposes of public education? • How does this history connect to the issue(s) you identified as being most important?
  23. 23. 1805 New York Public School Society is formed by wealthy businessmen to provide education for poor children. Schools are run on the “Lancasterian” model, in which one “master” can teach hundreds of students in a single room. The master gives a rote lesson to the older students, who then pass it down to the younger students. These schools emphasize discipline and obedience qualities that factory owners want in their workers.
  24. 24. 1817 The Connecticut Asylum for the Education and Instruction of Deaf and Dumb Persons opens in Hartford for white students with a charter from the CT general assembly. Later renamed the American School for the Deaf, it becomes one of the centers of deaf culture and language in the US. Black students are not admitted until after 1865.
  25. 25. 1833 Prudence Crandall opens boarding school for African American girls in Canterbury, CT. White animosity against this school results in CT "Black Codes" and the eventual closure of the school due to multiple physical attacks.
  26. 26. 1820-1860 The percentage of people working in agriculture plummets as family farms are gobbled up by larger agricultural businesses and people are forced to look for work in towns and cities. At the same time, cities grow tremendously, fueled by new manufacturing industries, the influx of people from rural areas and many immigrants from Europe. During the 10 years from 1846 to 1856, 3.1 million immigrants arrive a number equal to one eighth of the entire U.S. population. Owners of industry needed a docile, obedient workforce and look to public schools to provide it.
  27. 27. 1830’s By this time, most southern states have laws forbidding teaching people in slavery to read. Even so, around 5% become literate at great personal risk.
  28. 28. 1840’s Over a million Irish immigrants arrive in the United States, driven out of their homes in Ireland by the potato famine. Irish Catholics in northern cities struggle for local neighborhood control of schools as a way of preventing their children from being force-fed a Protestant curriculum.
  29. 29. 1848 Massachusetts Reform School at Westboro opens, where children who have refused to attend public schools are sent. This begins a long tradition of “reform schools,” which combine the education and juvenile justice systems.
  30. 30. 1848 The war against Mexico ends with the signing of the Treaty of Guadalupe-Hidalgo, which gives the United States almost half of what was then Mexico. This includes all of what is now the U.S. Southwest, plus parts of Utah, Nevada and Wyoming and most of California. The treaty guarantees citizenship rights to everyone living in these areas, mostly Mexicans and Native people. It also guarantees the continued use of the Spanish language, including in education.
  31. 31. 1864 Congress makes it illegal for Native Americans to be taught in their native languages. Native children as young as four years old are taken from their parents and sent to Bureau of Indian Affairs off-reservation boarding schools, whose goal, as one BIA official put it, is to “kill the Indian to save the man.”
  32. 32. June 19, 1865 The day the last enslaved African Americans learned of their legal right to freedom, more than two years after the Emancipation Proclamation was signed into law.
  33. 33. 1865-1877 African Americans mobilize to bring public education to their communities. After the Civil War, and with the legal end of slavery, African Americans in the South make alliances with white Republicans to push for many political changes, including for the first time rewriting state constitutions to guarantee free public education. In practice, white children benefit more than Black children.
  34. 34. 1877-1900 Reconstruction ends in 1877 when federal troops, which had occupied the South since the end of the Civil War are withdrawn. Whites regain political control of the South and lay the foundations of legal segregation.
  35. 35. 1882 - 1943 President Arthur signs the Chinese Exclusion Act, prohibiting the immigration of Chinese people into the U.S. for fear of “endangering the good order of certain localities.” Later versions of this act severely restrict immigration, deny Chinese women the right to immigrate, and result in the deportation of 1000’s of people.
  36. 36. 1893-1913 Size of school boards in the country’s 28 biggest cities is cut in half. Most local district based positions are eliminated, in favor of city-wide elections. This means that local immigrant communities lose control of their local schools. Makeup of school boards changes from small local businessmen and some wage earners to professionals (like doctors and lawyers), big businessmen and other members of the richest classes.
  37. 37. 1896 Plessy v. Ferguson decision. The U.S. Supreme Court rules that the state of Louisiana has the right to require “separate but equal” railroad cars for Blacks and whites. This decision means that the federal government officially recognizes segregation as legal. One result is that southern states pass laws requiring racial segregation in public schools.
  38. 38. 1898 The U.S. ends the Spanish-American War and signs the Treaty of Paris with Spain. As part of the treaty, Puerto Rico, Guam, and the Philippines come under U.S. military control. Public school systems are begun in Puerto Rico as part of U.S. control. Puerto Ricans do not gain citizenship until 1917.
  39. 39. Table Talk • What are your reactions to this part of the history? • What are the unfolding purposes and tensions in public edcuation? • How does this history connect to the issue(s) you identified as being most important?
  40. 40. 1905 The U.S. Supreme Court requires California to extend public education to the children of Chinese immigrants.
  41. 41. 1912 New Mexico enters the union as an officially bilingual state, authorizing funds for voting in both Spanish and English, as well as for bilingual education. Article XII of the state constitution also prohibits segregation for children of "Spanish descent."
  42. 42. 1917 Smith-Hughes Act passes, providing federal funding for vocational education. Big manufacturing corporations push this, because they want to remove job skill training from the apprenticeship programs of trade unions and bring it under their own control.
  43. 43. 1920’s-1940’s In the 1920s, many African Americans move from the rural South to work in factories in the North. In 1937, the Home Owners’ Loan Corporation (HOLC) issues a map "redlining" areas with a high concentration of minorities as riskier for mortgage defaults. Due to this and this use of restrictive covenants, blacks are nearly eliminated from the suburban housing market.
  44. 44. 1920 All non-Native women are given the right to vote.
  45. 45. 1921 San Antonio's Orden Hijos de América (Order of the Sons of America) organizes Latino workers to raise awareness of civil rights issues and fight for fair wages, education and housing.
  46. 46. 1924 An act of Congress makes Native Americans U.S. citizens for the first time, suffrage being a right of citizenship.
  47. 47. 1930-1950’s The NAACP brings a series of suits over unequal teachers’ pay for Blacks and whites in southern states. At the same time, southern states realize they are losing African American labor to the northern cities. These two sources of pressure resulted in some increase of spending on Black schools in the South.
  48. 48. 1932 A survey of 150 school districts reveals that three quarters of them are using so-called intelligence testing to place students in different academic tracks. Later research will validate that these tests do not measure intelligence.
  49. 49. 1942-1946 Executive Act 9066 orders the forced removal of over 120,000 Japanese Americans to internment camps. Those about receive their degrees from the University of California system don't. (It is not until the 2000's that survivors of the camps get their diplomas).
  50. 50. 1945 At the end of World War 2, the G.I. Bill of Rights gives thousands of working class men college scholarships for the first time in U.S. history. However, the ability of Black men living in the South to access colleges is significantly limited. While the legislation was race-neutral, the impact was a significant increase in the disparity between white and Black men accessing college educations.
  51. 51. 1947 Mexican-American parents sue several California school districts, challenging the segregation of Latino students in separate schools. The California Supreme Court rules in the parents' favor in Mendez v. Westminster, arguing segregation violates children's constitutional rights. The case is an important precedent for Brown vs. Board of Education.
  52. 52. 1948 Educational Testing Service is formed, merging the College Entrance Examination Board, the Cooperative Test Service, the Graduate Records Office, the National Committee on Teachers Examinations and others, with huge grants from the Rockefeller and Carnegie foundations. These testing services found their work on and continued the work of eugenicists like Carl Brigham (originator of the SAT) who did research “proving” that immigrants were feeble-minded.
  53. 53. 1954 Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka. The Supreme Court unanimously agrees that segregated schools are “inherently unequal” and must be abolished.
  54. 54. 1957 A federal court orders integration of Little Rock, Arkansas public schools. Governor Orval Faubus sends his National Guard to physically prevent nine African American students from enrolling at all-white Central High School. Reluctantly, President Eisenhower sends federal troops to enforce the court order not because he supports desegregation, but because he can’t let a state governor use military power to defy the U.S. federal government.
  55. 55. Table Talk • What are your reactions to this part of the history? • What are the emerging patterns of control and resistance? • How does this history connect to the issue(s) you identified as being most important?
  56. 56. 1965 President Johnson signs the Elementary and Secondary Education Act, providing funding for the inclusion of some students with disabilities in public education.
  57. 57. 1968 Latinx high school students in Los Angeles stage citywide walkouts protesting unequal treatment by the school district. Prior to the walkouts, Latinx students were routinely punished for speaking Spanish on school property, not allowed to use the bathroom during lunch, and actively discouraged from going to college. Walkout participants are subjected to police brutality and public ridicule; 13 are arrested on charges of disorderly conduct and conspiracy. However, the walkouts eventually result in school reform and an increased college enrollment among Latinx youth.
  58. 58. 1968 & 1969 The Black Panthers and the Young Lords begin free breakfast-before-school programs for African American, Latinx, and other youth who are struggling with food insecurity and school systems that do not provide adequate food.
  59. 59. 1973 US Supreme Court rules that a free public education is not a “fundamental right” under the 14th amendment/Constitution in San Antonio Independent School District v. Rodriguez
  60. 60. 1974 Milliken v. Bradley. A Supreme Court made up of Richard Nixon’s appointees rules that schools may not be desegregated across school districts. This effectively legally segregates students of color in inner- city districts from white students in wealthier white suburban districts.
  61. 61. 1975 The Education for All Handicapped Children Act and the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act establishes the right to public education of students with disabilities and require schools to provide individualized or special education for students with disabilities.
  62. 62. 1980’s The federal Tribal Colleges Act establishes a community college on every Indian reservation, which allows young people to go to college without leaving their families.
  63. 63. 1994 Proposition 187 passes in California, making it illegal for children of undocumented immigrants to attend public school. Federal courts hold Proposition 187 unconstitutional, but anti-immigrant feeling spreads across the country.
  64. 64. 1996 Sheff v. O'Neill Supreme Court decision that state must afford Connecticut's school children with a equal educational opportunity, unimpaired by racial and ethnic isolation.
  65. 65. 1996 California passes Proposition 209, which outlaws affirmative action in public employment, public contracting and public education. Other states jump on the bandwagon with their own initiatives and right wing elements hope to pass similar legislation on a federal level.
  66. 66. 1997, 2011 Connecticut amends General Statue 10-15c to include “sexual orientation” to the list of identities protected from discrimination in public schools. “Gender identity or expression” is not added until 2011.
  67. 67. 2007 Report finds that Connecticut's achievement gap is largest in the country based on income.
  68. 68. 2010 The Texas School Board adopts revisions to the Texas social studies curriculum. The revised curriculum plays down the role of Thomas Jefferson among the founding fathers, questions the separation of church and state, and claims that the U.S. government was infiltrated by Communists during the Cold War.
  69. 69. 2011 Public Act 11-181 calls for the creation of a coordinated, comprehensive system of early care, education and development system. In 2013, School Governance Councils are created, in compliance with 11-181 to enable parents, school staff, students (where appropriate), and community leaders to work together to improve student achievement.
  70. 70. 2011 The Arizona state-legislature passes bill (HB 2281) that effectively bans the Ethnic Studies program in Tucson’s largest school district. The new law prohibits any curricula that: Promote the overthrow of the United States government; promote resentment toward a race or class of people; are designed primarily for pupils of a particular ethnic group; advocate ethnic solidarity instead of the treatment of pupils as individuals.
  71. 71. 2015 138,930 copies of this book were sold to school districts in Texas Source: http://www.newsweek.com/company- behind-texas-textbook-calling-slaves- workers-apologizes-we-made-380168
  72. 72. Table Talk • What are your reactions to the history? • How does this history connect to the issue(s) you identified as being most important? • What would you like to see addressed going forward?
  73. 73. Questions & Discussion
  74. 74. Poverty Rate in Schools

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