Safety and Efficacy of Adjusted-Dose Eptifibatide
in Patients With Acute Coronary Syndromes and
Reduced Renal Function
Chi...
Disclosures
 Chiara Melloni: None.
 Stefan K. James: Research grants and speaker fees received from Astra Zeneca, Sanofi...
Background
 Patients with acute coronary syndromes (ACS) and
reduced renal function are at increased risks of both
ischem...
Background
 Efficacy and safety of eptifibatide, a GP IIb/IIIa inhibitor,
dosed at an infusion of 2 μg/kg/min in the sett...
Objectives
 Using data from The Early GP IIb/IIIa Inhibition in Non–ST-
segment Elevation ACS (EARLY ACS) trial we aimed ...
Methods
 Study Population
8987 EARLY ACS patients with eCrCl data and study drug
infusion rates were categorized as
Stand...
Efficacy and Safety Endpoints
 Primary ischemic composite at 96 hours
 Death from any cause
 Myocardial infarction (MI)...
Statistical Analysis
 Baseline characteristics, concomitant medications, and
index procedures were summarized by eCrCl (<...
CrCl <50 ml/min
(n=1730)
CrCl ≥50 ml/min
(n=7257)
Excess dose
(n=594)
Adjusted dose
(n=1136)
Standard dose
(n=7257)
Baseli...
CrCl <50 ml/min CrCl ≥50 ml/min
Excess dose
(n=594)
Adjusted dose
(n=1136)
Standard dose
(n=7257)
In-hospital treatment (%...
CrCl <50 ml/min CrCl ≥50 ml/min
Early
eptifibatide
Delayed
eptifibatide
Early
eptifibatide
Delayed
eptifibatide
Death/MI/R...
Adjusted ORs for the Efficacy End Point Comparisons
According to Renal Function and Dosing Categories
Adjusted ORs for non-CABG TIMI major, GUSTO moderate/severe
Bleeding According to CrCl and Dosing Categories
Limitations
 Bolus doses were not considered in the dosing categories
 Possible subsequent infusion dose adjustments due...
Conclusions
 Initial infusion of eptifibatide was incorrectly dosed in
1/3 of NSTE ACS patients with eCrCl <50 ml/min
 I...
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  • The EARLY ACS trial is the first large scale RCT of eptifibatide to systematically collect safety and efficacy data in NSTE ACS pt treated according to this new regimen.. allowed patients with all degrees of renal function (except end-stage renal disease on dialysis) to be enrolled, creating the ideal dataset for evaluation of the balance between safety and efficacy of eptifibatide in patients with reduced renal function; in particular, to assess the safety and efficacy of recommendations for infusion reduction for patients with eCrCl &amp;lt;50 ml/min
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    1. 1. Safety and Efficacy of Adjusted-Dose Eptifibatide in Patients With Acute Coronary Syndromes and Reduced Renal Function Chiara Melloni, Stefan K. James, Jennifer A. White, Robert P. Giugliano, Robert A. Harrington, Kurt Huber, Paul W. Armstrong, Robert M. Califf, Frans Van de Werf, Gilles Montalescot, L. Kristin Newby From the Division of Cardiology and Duke Clinical Research Institute, Duke University Medical Center (C.M., J.A.W., R.A.H., P.T., L.K.N.), Durham, NC; Uppsala University Hospital (S.K.J), Uppsala, Sweden; TIMI Study Group, Brigham and Women’s Hospital (R.P.G.), Boston, MA; Department of Medicine (Cardiology and Emergency Medicine), Wilhelminenspital (K.H.), Vienna, Austria; University of Alberta (P.W.A.), Edmonton, Alberta, Canada; University Hospital Gasthuisberg and Leuven Coordinating Center (F.V.W.), Leuven, Belgium; Institut de Cardiologie, Pitié– Salpêtrière Hospital (G.M.), Paris, France; Duke Translational Medicine Institute, Duke University Medical Center (R.M.C.), Durham, NC.
    2. 2. Disclosures  Chiara Melloni: None.  Stefan K. James: Research grants and speaker fees received from Astra Zeneca, Sanofi Aventis, BMS, Eli Lilly, and Schering Plough.  Jennifer A. White: None.  Robert P. Giugliano: Research grant support, advisory board, and honoraria for lectures, Schering- Plough, Inc., and Merck & Co., Inc.  Robert A. Harrington: Research funding and consulting with Schering-Plough, now Merck. A complete listing of Dr. Harrington’s relationships with industry is available at http://www.dcri.duke.edu/research/coi.jsp.  Kurt Huber: Research grants from Bristol-Myers Squibb, Eli Lilly, Medtronic, Sanofi-Aventis; consulting fees from AstraZeneca, Bayer, Boehringer-Ingelheim, Bristol-Myers Squibb, Daiichi Sankyo, Fibrex, Eli Lilly, Portola, Sanofi-Aventis, Schering-Plough, The Medicines Company, and Schering Plough; lecture fees from AstraZeneca, Boehringer-Ingelheim, Boston Scientific, Bristol-Myers Squibb, Cordis / Johnson&Johnson, Daiichi Sankyo, Eli Lilly, GlaxoSmithKline, Pfizer, and Sanofi-Aventis.  Pierluigi Tricoci: Research grant and advisory board, Merck & Co., Inc.  Paul W. Armstrong: Consulting or other services that generate personal income from sanofi-aventis, Bristol-Myers Squibb Canada, Merck Frosst Canada Ltd, Abbott Laboratories, GlaxoSmithKline, Bristol- Myers Squibb/Pfizer, Regado Biosciences, and F. Hoffmann-La Roche Ltd; research grant or contract from Boehringer Ingelheim (Canada) Ltd, sanofi-aventis Canada, Eli Lilly, Schering-Plough Research Institute, Scios Inc/Ortho-Biotech, GlaxoSmithKline, Portola Pharmaceutical Inc, Uppsala Clinical Research Center and AstraZeneca, and Merck & Company Inc., that partially supports his university salary and/or research projects.  Frans Van de Werf: Research grants from Schering-Plough (now Merck) and Roche; advisory board and speakers fee from Schering-Plough, Merck, and Roche.  Gilles Montalescot: Research support from Schering-Plough, Inc., and Merck & Co., Inc.  Robert M. Califf: Research funding and consulting with Schering-Plough, now Merck (all consulting funds donated to not for profits). A complete listing of Dr. Califf’s relationships with industry is available at http://www.dcri.duke.edu/research/coi.jsp.  L. Kristin Newby: Research grant from Schering Plough and Merck & Co., Inc. through the DCRI; consulting honoraria from Schering-Plough. A complete listing of Dr. Newby’s relationships with industry is available at www.dcri.duke.edu/research/coi.jsp.
    3. 3. Background  Patients with acute coronary syndromes (ACS) and reduced renal function are at increased risks of both ischemic and bleeding complications  Platelet function and coagulation abnormalities  Improper dose adjustment of antithrombotic therapy  Dosing strategies based on estimated renal function have been developed for renally eliminated antithrombotic agents to minimize bleeding risk while preserving therapeutic benefits  Cockcroft-Gault (CG) is the recommended formula for estimation of creatinine clearance (eCrCl)
    4. 4. Background  Efficacy and safety of eptifibatide, a GP IIb/IIIa inhibitor, dosed at an infusion of 2 μg/kg/min in the setting of non– ST-segment elevation (NSTE) ACS were demonstrated in the PURSUIT trial  Patients with a serum creatinine >2 mg/dl were excluded  Dosing recommendations were determined from small clinical studies and pharmacokinetic modeling  A reduction in dose by one half (to 1 μg/kg/min) in patients with an eCrCl <50 ml/min
    5. 5. Objectives  Using data from The Early GP IIb/IIIa Inhibition in Non–ST- segment Elevation ACS (EARLY ACS) trial we aimed to:  Describe the frequency of eptifibatide dose reduction in patients with eCrCl <50 ml/min  Explore the unadjusted and adjusted relationships among treatment assignment, initial infusion dosing, risk of bleeding and ischemic complications among high-risk NSTE ACS patients
    6. 6. Methods  Study Population 8987 EARLY ACS patients with eCrCl data and study drug infusion rates were categorized as Standard dose 2 μg/kg/min when eCrCl ≥50ml/min Adjusted dose 1 μg/kg/min when eCrCl <50 ml/min Excess dose 2 μg/kg/min when eCrCl <50 ml/min
    7. 7. Efficacy and Safety Endpoints  Primary ischemic composite at 96 hours  Death from any cause  Myocardial infarction (MI)  Recurrent ischemia requiring urgent revascularization (RIUR)  Thrombotic bailout (TBO)  Secondary ischemic composite at 30 days  All-cause death or MI  Safety Endpoints  Non–coronary artery bypass graft (CABG)-related TIMI major bleeding and GUSTO moderate/severe bleeding  Non–CABG-related transfusion
    8. 8. Statistical Analysis  Baseline characteristics, concomitant medications, and index procedures were summarized by eCrCl (<50 ml/min or ≥50 ml/min) and dosing group  Rates of the efficacy and bleeding end points were examined within eCrCl groups according to randomized treatment  Odds ratios (OR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) were generated for efficacy and bleeding comparisons by treatment for each dosing category  Covariates, excluding eCrCl, from logistic regression models for major efficacy and safety outcomes in the EARLY ACS population used to adjust for differences in baseline characteristics within treatment comparisons
    9. 9. CrCl <50 ml/min (n=1730) CrCl ≥50 ml/min (n=7257) Excess dose (n=594) Adjusted dose (n=1136) Standard dose (n=7257) Baseline characteristics (%) Median age, yrs* 77.5 (72.0, 81.7) 78.0 (72.0, 82.5) 65.1 (58.4, 71.9) Female sex 56.4 46.3 27.1 Region of enrollment North America Western Europe Eastern Europe Middle East, Africa, Asia 21.0 53.2 9.4 16.3 35.6 30.5 9.2 24.6 29.9 41.0 11.5 17.5 Diabetes 32.7 40.8 28.4 Dyslipidemia 58.8 59.1 57.2 Hypertension 79.6 82.7 68.6 Prior CABG 14.0 19.6 12.5 Prior MI 30.0 35.7 26.0 Prior PCI 28.3 28.2 23.6 Baseline CrCl (ml/min)* 43.9 (37.3, 47.3) 38.8 (31.7, 44.9) 81.4 (66.3, 101.7) TIMI risk categories 0-2 3-4 >4 8.6 48.1 43.3 7.9 42.8 49.3 18.4 48.2 32.4 Baseline Characteristics by CrCl and Dose of Study Drug
    10. 10. CrCl <50 ml/min CrCl ≥50 ml/min Excess dose (n=594) Adjusted dose (n=1136) Standard dose (n=7257) In-hospital treatment (%) Aspirin 97.0 96.5 97.6 UFH or Enoxaparin None (n=498) UFH only (n=3093) Enoxaparin only (n=4767) Both UFH/enoxaparin (n=629) 4.5 33.7 55.1 6.7 7.2 39.3 48.0 5.5 5.4 33.7 53.7 7.2 Any initial UFH infusion^ (n=3481) Excess initial infusion dose 97/213 (45.5%) 146/516 (28.3%) 760/2752 (27.6%) Any enoxaparin ^ (n= 5863) Excess dose 72/425 (16.9%) 115/684 (16.8%) 515/4754 (10.8%) Clopidogrel 90.9 88.3 91.0 Beta-blocker 85.5 86.4 88.3 Statin 81.5 84.8 87.4 ACE-I 67.5 64.1 69.5 ARB 12.3 12.1 9.2 PCI 54.5 51.6 60.9 CABG 9.4 12.3 13.4 Medical management only 36.5 36.6 26.1 In-hospital Treatment by CrCl and Dose of Study Drug
    11. 11. CrCl <50 ml/min CrCl ≥50 ml/min Early eptifibatide Delayed eptifibatide Early eptifibatide Delayed eptifibatide Death/MI/RIUR/TBO within 96 hrs 106/867 (12.2%) 101/863 (11.7%) 313/3640 (8.6%) 351/3617 (9.7%) Death or MI at 30 days 132/867 (15.2%) 132/863 (15.3%) 367/3640 (10.1%) 420/3617 (11.6%) Non-CABG bleeding GUSTO moderate/severe 82/842 (9.7%) 55/846 (6.5%) 144/3591 (4.0%) 64/3580 (1.8%) TIMI major 21/852 (2.5%) 7/850 (0.8%) 48/3598 (1.3%) 29/3584 (0.8%) Transfusion 92/867 (10.6%) 71/863 (8.2%) 123/3640 (3.4%) 71/3617 (2.0%) Ischemic and Bleeding Event Rates by eCrCl Category and Treatment Assignment
    12. 12. Adjusted ORs for the Efficacy End Point Comparisons According to Renal Function and Dosing Categories
    13. 13. Adjusted ORs for non-CABG TIMI major, GUSTO moderate/severe Bleeding According to CrCl and Dosing Categories
    14. 14. Limitations  Bolus doses were not considered in the dosing categories  Possible subsequent infusion dose adjustments due to correctly recognized errors in dosing or to changes in CrCl or bleeding events were not taken into account  Secondary, non-randomized comparison of the effect of treatment according to dose  Subject to confounders for which multivariable adjustment may not have accounted
    15. 15. Conclusions  Initial infusion of eptifibatide was incorrectly dosed in 1/3 of NSTE ACS patients with eCrCl <50 ml/min  In patients with reduced renal function eptifibatide dose adjustment did not result in lower bleeding risk  Because of lack of efficacy and failure to reduce bleeding complications, our data do not support routine early eptifibatide administration among NSTE ACS patients with reduced renal function

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