Science and Public Policy


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Science and Public Policy

  1. 1. Science and Public Policy The Inevitable Connections between Science and Politics
  2. 2. A Basic Diagram
  3. 3. Recent News Damage to the Insula Disrupts Addiction to Cigarette Smoking Science Vol. 315. no. 5811 26 January 2007 pp. 531 - 534 Division of Cognitive Neuroscience, Department of Neurology, University of Iowa Carver College of Medicine Laboratory of Computational Neuroimaging, Department of Neurology, University of Iowa Carver College of Medicine Cognitive Neuroscience Imaging Center, University of Southern California Brain and Creativity Institute, University of Southern California National Institute on Drug Abuse National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke Star Tribune January 26 2007
  4. 4. Important Scientific Concerns – Who decides what’s important? Stem Cell Research Climate Change . . . Genomic Research Renewable Energy • Ethanol • Biodiesel Clean Coal Technology
  5. 5. Resources Federal Spending (Heritage Foundation) Federal Spending (Cato Institute) Federal Spending on HIV/AIDS (National Academies Press) The Economic Effects of Federal Spending on Infrastructure and Other Investments (Congressional Budget Office) Trends in Research Investment Cause Concern For U.S. Global Leadership in Certain Fields (National Academies) Federal spending on research and development has been declining (Brad DeLong UCLA) Federal spending: the good times have stopped rolling (Chronicle of Higher Education) Failure to pass federal spending bills could affect scientific research (Medical News Today)
  6. 6. Funding for Scientific Research Corporate Research • Individuals employed in corporations • Individuals working in educational institutions, nonprofit corporations, government entities sponsored/financed by corporations Government Research • Individuals employed in federal government agencies • Individuals working in educational institutions, nonprofit corporations, and governments sponsored/financed by the federal government
  7. 7. National Science Foundation Survey Data NSF Research Support Category UMN Research Expenditures UMN Rank among 17 “peers” #1 Research Expenditures Federally Sponsored Research $308 Million 10th $625 Million (U Washington) State & Local Government Sponsored Research $50 Million 4th $80 Million (U Florida) Institutional Research Support $70 Million 13th $210 Million (U Wisconsin) Industry Sponsored Research $22 Million 12th $86 Million (Penn State U) All Other Sources $76 Million 3rd $123 Million (UCLA)
  8. 8. Declining Federal R&D Budget: A Big Problem • Federal sources provide >70% of UMN research funding • 2007 NIH budget expected to increase just 0.7% • For third year in a row will fail to keep pace with inflation
  9. 9. Corporations 3M Products and Services Dow Chemicals • Dow AgroSciences • Breast Implants on Trial (PBS) Monsanto Merck GlaxoSmithKline • Advair
  10. 10. Research Sponsored by the Federal Government A federal grant is an award of financial assistance from a federal agency to a recipient to carry out a public purpose of support authorized by a law of the United States Twenty-six Federal agencies annually offer over 1,000 grant programs Grant categories
  11. 11. National Institutes of Health Part of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Composed of 27 Institutes and Centers Primary federal agency for conducting and supporting medical research Provides leadership and direction to programs designed to improve the health of the Nation by conducting and supporting research • in the causes, diagnosis, prevention, and cure of human diseases • in the processes of human growth and development • in the biological effects of environmental contaminants • in the understanding of mental, addictive and physical disorders • in directing programs for the collection, dissemination, and exchange of information in medicine and health, including the development and support of medical libraries and the training of medical librarians and other health information specialists
  12. 12. National Institutes of Health Invests over $27 billion annually in medical research 10% of the budget, supports projects conducted by nearly 6,000 scientists in its own laboratories, most of which are on the NIH campus in Bethesda, Maryland >80% of its funding is awarded through almost 50,000 competitive grants to more than 212,000 researchers at over 2,800 universities, medical schools, and other research institutions in every state and around the world Office of Behavioral and Social Science Research NIH Office of Budget
  13. 13. National Science Foundation An independent federal agency created by Congress in 1950 "to promote the progress of science; to advance the national health, prosperity, and welfare; to secure the national defense…" Annual budget of about $5.58 billion Funding source for approximately 20% of all federally supported basic research conducted by America's colleges and universities In many fields such as mathematics, computer science and the social sciences, NSF is the major source of federal backing NSF supports all fields of fundamental science and engineering, except medical sciences Mission to keep the United States at the leading edge of discovery in areas from astronomy to geology to zoology
  14. 14. National Science Foundation How NSF Works Organizational Chart NSF Funding NSF Partners Awards to Minnesota 2006 NSF Publications NSF for the Research & Education Community
  15. 15. National Academies National Academy of Sciences National Academy of Engineering Institute of Medicine National Research Council
  16. 16. Agencies that Conduct and Sponsor Research National Atmospheric and Oceanic Administration NOAA Research NOAA Organization US Geological Survey US Fish & Wildlife Service DOE Office of Science – Homepage NPS: Nature & Science
  17. 17. Agriculture Agricultural Research Service (USDA) Food & Nutrition (USDA) Forestry Research & Development (Forest Service) Experimental Forests & Ranges (Forest Service) North Central Research Station (Forest Service)
  18. 18. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) relies on sound science to safeguard both human health and the environment The Office of Research and Development (ORD) is the scientific research arm of EPA ORD conducts research on ways to prevent pollution, protect human health, and reduce risk The work at ORD laboratories, research centers, and offices across the country helps improve the quality of air, water, and soil Applied science at ORD builds our understanding of how to protect and enhance the relationship between humans and the ecosystems of Earth EPA Research & Development
  19. 19. American Association for the Advancement of Science Science and Policy Annual Report Science Online The science inside e-book series
  20. 20. Funding in the Executive Branch Budget of the United States Government • The President’s FY09 Budget • State by State Budget Information • Strengthening Health Care Office of Management and Budget • OMB Circulars Council of Economic Advisers • Economic Report of the President Federal Budget (The Concord Coalition) United States Federal Budget (Wikipedia)
  21. 21. Funding in the Legislative Branch Senate Committees Senate Committee on Appropriations Senate Budget Committee Democrats Senate Budget Committee Republicans Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation • Committee Jurisdiction
  22. 22. Funding in the Legislative Branch House Committees Committee on the Budget Committee on Appropriations Joint Economic Committee Committee on Science and Technology • Committee Jurisdiction • Tracking R & D Funding
  23. 23. Funding in Agency Action Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry Agricultural Research Service Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms, and Explosives Bureau (Justice) Arthritis and Musculoskeletal Interagency Coordinating Committee Federal Trade Commission (FTC) Fish and Wildlife Service Food and Nutrition Service Food Safety and Inspection Service Food, Nutrition and Consumer Services Foreign Agricultural Service
  24. 24. Science in Legislation Chemical and Biological Weapons Control and Warfare Elimination Act of 1991 Chemical Diversion and Trafficking Act of 1988 Chemical Safety Information, Site Security and Fuels Regulatory Relief Act 1999 Chemical Weapons Convention Implementation Act of 1998 Toxic Substances Control Act 1976 Hazard Mitigation and Relocation Assistance Act of 1993 Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendments of 1984 Hazardous Liquid Pipeline Safety Act of 1979 Hazardous Materials Transportation Act 1975 Hazardous Materials Transportation Act Amendments of 1976 Hazardous Materials Transportation Authorization Act of 1994 Hazardous Materials Transportation Control Act of 1970
  25. 25. The Toxic Substances Control Act Principal legislation regulating industrial chemicals in commerce Passed in 1976, TSCA gives the EPA broad authority to screen and regulate both new and existing chemicals Many chemicals are subject to additional regulations based on their intended uses Under TSCA, EPA has the authority to limit or prohibit the manufacture and distribution of a substance if it is found to pose an unreasonable risk Congressional Findings (Legal Information Institute) Annual Report (Legal Information Institute) Regulations and Chemical Safety (American Chemical Council)
  26. 26. Funding in Legislation Public Laws Status of Appropriation Legislation 2007
  27. 27. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) Promotional Presentation
  28. 28. Center for Science and Public Policy Natural Resources Defense Council
  29. 29. Sponsored Research at the University of Minnesota Office of the Vice-President for Research Funding Opportunities Managing Sponsored Projects at the University of Minnesota Research News Online Levels and Trends in Sponsored Research FY 1998 2007 Annual BoR PresentationFINAL.ppt
  30. 30. Top Institutions for Federal Research and Development Spending (Chronicle of Higher Education) Trends in Spending on Research (University of Michigan)
  31. 31. Genetically Modified Organisms Diamond v. Chakrabarty, 447 U.S. 303 (1980) Breaking the Law of Life (Resurgence) Genetically Modified Foods and Organisms (Human Genome Project) Liability and Labeling of Genetically Modified Organisms (The Campaign) The National Agricultural Law Center Search <gmo> Genetics Society of America, Statement on Genetically Modified Organisms Biosafety Protocol for Genetically Modified Organisms: Overview Biotechnology: An Overview (Congressional Research Report for Congress) GM Organisms (New Scientist) GMOs at the FAO Dolly the Sheep (Americna University) Life Form Patenting and Family-Scale Agriculture: Implications and Recommendations (Center for Rural Affairs)