Prakash Presentation - Frankenfood and Monarch Butterflies ...


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Prakash Presentation - Frankenfood and Monarch Butterflies ...

  1. 1. C. S. Prakash Center for Plant Biotechnology Research Tuskegee University, Alabama, USA Bioengineered CropsBioengineered Crops --Benefits and RiskBenefits and Risk AssessmentAssessment
  2. 2. Crop Evolution and Human CivilizationCrop Evolution and Human Civilization • Humans Have Always Guided the Evolution of Crops! • A small sample of wild plants were chosen and domesticated • 10,000 years of Selection. • All crops we grow today were once wild plants. But no crop would survive in the wild any more. • Crops, strains and genes have moved around the globe.
  3. 3. Improving Our Crop PlantsImproving Our Crop Plants • Developing Modern Varieties of Crops – Hybridization • Crosses with Wild Relatives • Hybrids – Mutation • Irradiation • Chemicals – Cell Culture • Embryo Rescue • Somaclonal variation
  4. 4. Modern Genetic ModificationModern Genetic Modification Inserting one or few genes to achieve desired traits. Transfer of Genes into Crop PlantsTransfer of Genes into Crop Plants – Relatively Precise and PredictableRelatively Precise and Predictable – Changes are SubtleChanges are Subtle – Allows FlexibilityAllows Flexibility – ExpeditiousExpeditious
  5. 5. Desired gene Traditional plant breeding DNA is a strand of genes, much like a strand of pearls. Traditional plant breeding combines many genes at once. Traditional donor Commercial variety New variety Desired Gene X = (crosses) (many genes are transferred Plant biotechnologyUsing plant biotechnology, a single gene may be added to the strand. Desired gene Commercial variety New variety (transfers) = Desired gene (only desired gene is transferred
  6. 6. Dominant GM CropsDominant GM Crops • Herbicide Tolerant Soybean 41.4 • Bt Maize 9.1 • Herbicide Tolerant Canola 3.6 • Bt/Ht Maize 3.2 • Ht Maize 3.2 • Bt Cotton 3.1 • Bt/Ht Cotton 2.6 • Ht Cotton 1.5 In Million Hectares Source: Clives James, 2003.
  7. 7. USA: Overall impact of biotechnologyUSA: Overall impact of biotechnology in crop and pest managementin crop and pest management 70 m kg a.i.$2.5 billion6 b kgTotal 50 m kg a.i.$1 billion4 b kgFuture Crops (32) 20 m kg a.i.$1.5 billion2 b kgCurrent Crops(8) Pesticide Reduction Economic Impact Yield Increase Crop Source: Gianessi et al. (2002). NCFAP
  8. 8. Biotechnology Can Add Value to Global Agriculture • Environmental Impact - Decreased Use of Pesticides • Reduce Losses from Pests and Diseases • Improve Nutrient Efficiency • Improve Productivity
  9. 9. Cotton • China, South Africa….India, Egypt, Indonesia.. 60 million people in India dependent on cotton • Losses due to Bollworm $1.5 billion in India and China • 2 million gallons of pesticide saved in US alone using Bt Cotton • Cotton - 50% of the total pesticides • Bt Cotton - yield increases up to 40%. • Million Chinese farmers grew it • Savings up to $182 per hectare • Spraying reduced from 12 to 1 • Both private and public sector
  10. 10. Benefits of Biotechnology….. • Post Harvest Quality - Prolong Shelf Life of Fruits, Vegetables and Flowers • Extend Crop Area and Season • Stress Tolerance - Drought, Acidity, Salinity, Heat. Flooding
  11. 11. Golden RiceGolden Rice • Milled rice has no beta-carotene • Vitamin A deficiency - 200 million children and woman • About 500,000 children go blind (60 every hour!) • 2 million children die each year • Golden Rice may provide one of the many solutions • Still Many Years Away from Reality Ingo Potrykus (Switzerland) and Peter Beyer (Germany)
  12. 12. Enhancing Food and Agriculture • More Nutritious Food • Healthy Produce. Low Toxins • Pharmaceutical Proteins • Clean Up Environment • Industrial Products • Value-Added Products
  13. 13. Why Biotechnology? • Expedient • Knowledge-Based Approach • Offers Unique Solutions • Integrates Technology Delivery • Scale Neutral • Does not Displace Traditional Methods • Environmentally Friendly • Portable - Across Crops • Versatile - Impact on All Facets of Food Chain from Producers to Consumers
  14. 14. Are GM Foods Safe?  Genetically Modified (GM) food is as safe or even safer than conventionally produced food  GM foods represent a very minor, precise and known change  GM foods are subject to intense pre-market testing  GM foods are subject to stringent regulatory oversight
  15. 15. Safety of GM Foods… •Every Product Tested on Case-by-Case • Over Billion Acres Grown Since 1996 • More than 10,000 Food Products Contain GM • Not One Single Instance of Hazard • Dozens of Scientific Societies and International organizations attest to the safety
  16. 16. EPAEPAFDAFDA** Regulatory Systems in the U.S. USDAUSDA Field testing permits notifications Determination of nonregulated status Food safety Feed safety Pesticidal plants tolerance exemption registrations Herbicide registration * Voluntary Con- sultation process for substantially equi- valent products.
  17. 17. Regulation of GM Crops and Food • The Department of Agriculture (USDA), through its Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS), oversees field testing of biotech seeds and plants to make sure their release causes no harm to agriculture and the environment. • The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) assesses the safety of all biotech plant products intended for consumption by humans and animals.
  18. 18. Regulation of GM Crops… • The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) evaluates biotech plants' environmental safety — such as their pesticide properties, possible effect on wildlife and how these plants break down in the environment. The agency also must approve any herbicide use with herbicide- tolerant crops.
  19. 19. Safety Testing of GM Crops} } } Phase IIPhase II Biological / agronomicBiological / agronomic equivalenceequivalence Stringent agronomicStringent agronomic performance and efficacyperformance and efficacy criteriacriteria Greater than 99% of allGreater than 99% of all events are eliminatedevents are eliminated Key step in productKey step in product evaluation for conventionalevaluation for conventional varietiesvarieties Phase IIIPhase III Detailed product safetyDetailed product safety FoodFood FeedFeed EnvironmentalEnvironmental Phase IPhase I Safety of gene, protein, cropSafety of gene, protein, crop Choice of genes / proteinsChoice of genes / proteins - mechanism of action- mechanism of action Source of genesSource of genes – history of safe usehistory of safe use – ethicsethics Environmental / ecologicalEnvironmental / ecological considerationsconsiderations Post Marke Transfor- mation Line Selection Variety Development Field Production MarketGene Discovery GH & Field Evaluation Product Concept DiscoveryDiscovery Line SelectionLine Selection Product AdvancementProduct Advancement
  20. 20. Substantial Equivalence - Evaluation PHENOTYPE •Morphology •Agronomic •disease resistance •drought resistance •yields •Organoleptic COMPOSITION •Macronutrients •AA composition •FA composition •Anti-nutrients •Toxic substances •Allergens •Specific constituents SAFETY ASSESSMENT •Toxicity •Allergenic potential •Nutritional FEED EQUIVALENCE •Performance
  21. 21. Compositional Equivalence • Evaluate Key • - Nutrients • - Vitamins • - Minerals • - Anti-nutrients • - toxicants • - Allergens • - Others List depends on crop GrainGrain ForageForage - Protein- Protein - Protein- Protein - Fat- Fat - Fat- Fat - Fiber- Fiber - Fiber- Fiber - Starch- Starch - Amino acid composition- Amino acid composition - Fatty acid composition- Fatty acid composition - Ash- Ash - Sugars- Sugars - Calcium- Calcium - Phosphorous- Phosphorous OECD Consensus Documents
  22. 22. Environmental Issues What are the Ecological Effects of New Crops? • Effect on Biodiversity? - non-target organisms • Gene flow - Superweeds • Horizontal Transfer • Durability of Resistance
  23. 23. Potential Impacts of GM crops on the Environment Direct: • Non-target effects of insect resistance • Fate and consequence of insecticidal toxins in soil • Persistence in agricultural habitat (weediness) • Invasiveness in natural habitats • Transfer of herbicide tolerance to weeds • Transfer of biotic and abiotic stress tolerance to • weeds or feral species • Stacking of herbicide tolerance genes Adapted from P.J. Dale, B. Clarke and E.M.G. Fontes, 2002. Nature Biotechnology.
  24. 24. Potential Impacts of GM crops on the Environment Indirect: • Development of weeds tolerant to herbicides by evolution and selection • Development of resistance to Bt toxins in pests • Effects of broad-spectrum herbicides • Change in herbicide use • Change in soil cultivation patterns Adapted from P.J. Dale, B. Clarke and E.M.G. Fontes, 2002. Nature Biotechnology.
  25. 25. Continued Monitoring of GM Crops for Environmental Effects • Insect Resistance Loss • Effect on Non-target Organisms • Beneficial environmental effects (e.g. increases in bird populations) • Effects on biodiversity • Gene flow data
  26. 26. If Europe Adopted GM Crops… • Nine GM crops could increase yields by 8.5 billion kilograms per year • Increase grower net income by EUR 1.6 Billion per year • Reduce pesticide use by 14.4 million kilograms per year compared with existing practices. Source:
  27. 27. Why Public Anxiety with Biotech Crops? • Societal Concern About Biotech is Understandable! – Strong Assurance of Safety Needed – Unfamiliar with the Technology – Lack of Reliable Information – Unaware of Safeguards – Negative Media Opinion – Opposition by Activist Groups – Mistrust of the Industry Scientific Community has neither addressed public concerns nor communicated the value of this technology effectively
  28. 28. Major Barriers to Agbiotech • Regulatory Environment • Trade Barriers • Public Perception • Environmental Activism • Negative Media Portrayal • Food Industry and Retailers • Organic Food Industry
  29. 29. Promoting Food Biotechnology • Enabling Policies • Harmonization of regulation • Science-based regulation • Address Trade Barriers • Increased R&D Funding • Education and Outreach
  30. 30. Is Biotechnology the Sole AnswerIs Biotechnology the Sole Answer to Global Food Problems?to Global Food Problems? • No Single Solution is a Panacea or ‘Cure-All’ • One Tool in a Toolbox • World Hunger - Myriad Reasons • Can Only Work with Other Traditional Approaches • We must weigh all options. Choose the Most Effective Solution “Change is Inevitable, Progress is Optional”