PowerPoint Presentation - Biotechnology and Recombinant DNA

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PowerPoint Presentation - Biotechnology and Recombinant DNA

  1. 1. Biotechnology and Recombinant DNA
  2. 2. Biotechnology • The use of microorganisms, cells, or cell components to make a product – Foods – Vaccines – Antibiotics – Vitamins – Biodegradation • Selective breeding
  3. 3. Genetic Engineering • Manipulating an organism’s genome to – alter microbes, plants, and animals for our benefit – correct genetic defects in humans
  4. 4. Other Uses of Genetic Technology • Genetic technologies also used to identify individuals - UA part of Shoah Project to ID Holocaust victims (Wildcat, October 4, 2006) • UA project to trace ancestry • Diagnosis and epidemiology of disease
  5. 5. Useful Properties of DNA • DNA sequences specify gene locations and protein amino acid sequence • Restriction endonucleases cut at specific nucleotides; size of pieces gives us information about DNA sequence • Nucleotides hydrogen bond with complementary nucleotides • DNA hybridization allows recognition of specific genes
  6. 6. A probe is a piece of complementary DNA of known sequence, labeled with radioactivity so it can be detected
  7. 7. DNA Fingerprinting: Forensics
  8. 8. DNA Fingerprinting: Epidemiology • Comparison of DNA from – patients – food
  9. 9. Useful Properties of DNA • The complementary strands of DNA can be separated and re- associated by heating and cooling • One strand of DNA specifies the sequence of the other strand – mRNA specifies the sequence of the gene (DNA)
  10. 10. Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) Amplifies DNA • Primers specify what DNA is copied
  11. 11. PCR Amplifies DNA • Diagnosis • Epidemiology • Genetic engineering
  12. 12. Recombinant DNA • Combining DNA from two different organisms
  13. 13. Useful Properties of DNA • Restriction endonucleases can cut DNA at specific sites, leaving sticky ends for insertion of new DNA
  14. 14. Selection of Altered Cells • Antibiotic resistance gene used to identify recombinant cells
  15. 15. Genetically Modified Organisms • Herbicide-resistant plants • Bt cotton/corn (toxin gene from Bacillus thuringiensis that kills insects) • Flavr-Savr tomatoes • Golden rice (beta-carotene) • Plant-based vaccines
  16. 16. Transgenic Animals • “Knock-out” and transgenic mice: used to study immune system and genetic diseases • Pigs: blood clotting Factor VIII, organs for transplantation • Others: Human IL-2 (cancer), albumin (blood volume), growth hormone, tPA (dissolves clots)
  17. 17. Genetically Engineering Humans • Bone marrow supplies stem cells • Successful replacement of gene for enzyme needed for lymphocyte development
  18. 18. Difficulties in Genetically Engineering Humans • Inserting gene in correct cells • Inserting gene so it is expressed correctly – Orientation – Regulation • Controlling virus vector • Ethical issues
  19. 19. Other Issues • How will genetically engineered organisms affect environment? • Spread of genes to other organisms? • Who will decide?

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