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Synovial joint medicos notes.com ( Form MBBS students )

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MBBS Study guide,MBBS Students material

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Synovial joint medicos notes.com ( Form MBBS students )

  1. 1. Synovial Joint • Joint in which two bones are separated by a space called a joint cavity • Most are freely movable 1
  2. 2. SALIENT FEATURES • Articular cartilage • Capsule • Synovial membrane • Synovial cavity • Synovial fluid • Articular discs • Ligaments • Menisci • Bursa • Intra articular structures 2
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  4. 4. ARTICULAR CARTILAGE Hyaline cartilage covering the bone surfaces 4
  5. 5. CAPSULE Fibrous capsule lined by synovial membrane Continuous with periosteum 5
  6. 6. SYNOVIAL MEMBRANE • Synovial membrane attaches to the margins of the joint surfaces at the interface between cartilage and bone and encloses the articular cavity 6
  7. 7. SYNOVIAL CAVITY • Joint cavity is synovial cavity • Surrounded by synovial membrane 7
  8. 8. SYNOVIAL FLUID Viscous slippery fluid rich in albumin & hyaluronic acid and similar to raw egg white 8
  9. 9. ARTICULAR DISC • Circular rim of fibrous cartilage between articular surfaces of two bones 9
  10. 10. MENISCUS • Meniscus is an incomplete rim of white fibrous cartilage between articular cartilages. • Shock absorber • Enhancement of congruence • Protection of edges • Weight distribution • Facilitation of movement 10
  11. 11. BURSA • Lubricating device consist of a closed fibrous sac. • Present wherever tendon rub against bones,ligaments or other tendons 11
  12. 12. Tendon Sheaths and Bursae • Tendon sheaths = cylinders of connective tissue lined with synovial membrane and wrapped around a tendon 12
  13. 13. INTRACAPSULAR STRUCTURE 13
  14. 14. TYPES OF SYNOVIAL JOINT • Classified according to arrangement of articular surfaces and types of movement • Plane joint • Hinge • Pivot • Condyloid • Ellipsoid • Saddle • Ball and socket 14
  15. 15. PLANE JOINT • Opposed articular surfaces are flat, allowing bones to slide on one another • Sternoclavicular and acromio clavicular joint 15
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  17. 17. HINGE JOINT • Resemble hinge on door • Flexion and extension possible • Elbow, knee and ankle joint 17
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  19. 19. CONDYLOID JOINTS • These are also known as bicondylar joints. There articular surfaces consist of two distinct condyles in which one is fitting into a concave surface of the other bone. These joints mainly permit the movement in plane around a transverse axis. Example of this type of joints is knee joint 19
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  21. 21. PIVOT JOINTS • Pivot joints are formed by a central bony pivot surrounded by an osteo-ligamentous ring. Movements are permitted in one plane around a vertical axis. Examples of this type are superior and inferior radioulnar joints and atlantoaxial joint 21
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  23. 23. SADDLE JOINT • Each articular surface is shaped like a saddle, concave in one direction and convex in the other –Flexion, extension, abduction, adduction and rotation –carpometacarpal joint at the base of the thumb 23
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  26. 26. BALL and SOCKET • Socket deepened by acetabular labrum • Blood supply to head of femur found in ligament of the head of the femur Joint capsule strengthened by ligaments 26

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