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Synovial joint medicos notes.com ( Form MBBS students )

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Synovial joint medicos notes.com ( Form MBBS students )

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Synovial Joint
• Joint in which two bones are separated by a space called a
joint cavity
• Most are freely movable
1
SALIENT FEATURES
• Articular cartilage
• Capsule
• Synovial membrane
• Synovial cavity
• Synovial fluid
• Articular discs
• Ligaments
• Menisci
• Bursa
• Intra articular structures
2
3
ARTICULAR CARTILAGE
Hyaline
cartilage
covering
the bone
surfaces
4
CAPSULE
Fibrous capsule
lined by synovial
membrane
Continuous with
periosteum
5
SYNOVIAL MEMBRANE
• Synovial membrane
attaches to the
margins of the joint
surfaces at the
interface between
cartilage and bone
and encloses the
articular cavity
6
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Synovial joint medicos notes.com ( Form MBBS students )

  • 1. Synovial Joint • Joint in which two bones are separated by a space called a joint cavity • Most are freely movable 1
  • 2. SALIENT FEATURES • Articular cartilage • Capsule • Synovial membrane • Synovial cavity • Synovial fluid • Articular discs • Ligaments • Menisci • Bursa • Intra articular structures 2
  • 3. 3
  • 5. CAPSULE Fibrous capsule lined by synovial membrane Continuous with periosteum 5
  • 6. SYNOVIAL MEMBRANE • Synovial membrane attaches to the margins of the joint surfaces at the interface between cartilage and bone and encloses the articular cavity 6
  • 7. SYNOVIAL CAVITY • Joint cavity is synovial cavity • Surrounded by synovial membrane 7
  • 8. SYNOVIAL FLUID Viscous slippery fluid rich in albumin & hyaluronic acid and similar to raw egg white 8
  • 9. ARTICULAR DISC • Circular rim of fibrous cartilage between articular surfaces of two bones 9
  • 10. MENISCUS • Meniscus is an incomplete rim of white fibrous cartilage between articular cartilages. • Shock absorber • Enhancement of congruence • Protection of edges • Weight distribution • Facilitation of movement 10
  • 11. BURSA • Lubricating device consist of a closed fibrous sac. • Present wherever tendon rub against bones,ligaments or other tendons 11
  • 12. Tendon Sheaths and Bursae • Tendon sheaths = cylinders of connective tissue lined with synovial membrane and wrapped around a tendon 12
  • 14. TYPES OF SYNOVIAL JOINT • Classified according to arrangement of articular surfaces and types of movement • Plane joint • Hinge • Pivot • Condyloid • Ellipsoid • Saddle • Ball and socket 14
  • 15. PLANE JOINT • Opposed articular surfaces are flat, allowing bones to slide on one another • Sternoclavicular and acromio clavicular joint 15
  • 16. 16
  • 17. HINGE JOINT • Resemble hinge on door • Flexion and extension possible • Elbow, knee and ankle joint 17
  • 18. 18
  • 19. CONDYLOID JOINTS • These are also known as bicondylar joints. There articular surfaces consist of two distinct condyles in which one is fitting into a concave surface of the other bone. These joints mainly permit the movement in plane around a transverse axis. Example of this type of joints is knee joint 19
  • 20. 20
  • 21. PIVOT JOINTS • Pivot joints are formed by a central bony pivot surrounded by an osteo-ligamentous ring. Movements are permitted in one plane around a vertical axis. Examples of this type are superior and inferior radioulnar joints and atlantoaxial joint 21
  • 22. 22
  • 23. SADDLE JOINT • Each articular surface is shaped like a saddle, concave in one direction and convex in the other –Flexion, extension, abduction, adduction and rotation –carpometacarpal joint at the base of the thumb 23
  • 24. 24
  • 25. 25
  • 26. BALL and SOCKET • Socket deepened by acetabular labrum • Blood supply to head of femur found in ligament of the head of the femur Joint capsule strengthened by ligaments 26