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Muscle
MAIN CHARACTERISTICS
• There are four characteristics associated
with muscle tissue:
 Excitability Tissue can receive & r...
FUNCTIONS OF MUSCLES
 Movement – both voluntary & involuntary
 Maintaining posture
 Supporting soft tissues within body...
Types of muscle tissue:
• Skeletal
• Cardiac
• Smooth (Visceral)
STRUCTURAL CLASSIFICATION
Associated with & attached to the skeleton
• Under our conscious (voluntary) control
• Microscopically the tissue appears ...
Makes up myocardium of heart
• Unconsciously (involuntarily) controlled
• Microscopically appears striated
• Cells are sho...
SMOOTH MUSCLE
• Makes up walls of organs & blood vessels
• Tissue is non-striated & involuntary
• Cells are short, spindle...
Anatomy of skeletal muscles
ASSOCIATED TERMS
• Origin
• Insertion
• Belly
• Tendon
• Aponeurosis
• Raphe
•Origin
Muscle attachment that remains
fixed
•Insertion
Muscle attachment that moves
•Action
What joint movement a muscle
...
APONEUROSIS
A strong , thin and flat sheet
of fibrous tissue providing
attachment to muscles
RAPHE
• An interdigitation
of the tendinous
ends of fibers of
flat muscles
CLASSIFICATION ON BASIS OF ACTION
• Prime movers
• Antagonists
• Fixator
• Synergist
PRIME MOVERS
• Chief muscle
responsible for
a particular
movement
ANTAGONISTS
• Any muscle that
opposes the action of
prime mover
FIXATOR
• A fixator contracts
isometrically (contraction
increases tone but does not
itself produce movement)
• Muscles of...
SYNERGIST
• Prime movers cross
several joints.
• Synergist contract to
prevent unwanted
movement on
intermediate joints
• ...
Muscle medicos notes.com
Muscle medicos notes.com
Muscle medicos notes.com
Muscle medicos notes.com
Muscle medicos notes.com
Muscle medicos notes.com
Muscle medicos notes.com
Muscle medicos notes.com
Muscle medicos notes.com
Muscle medicos notes.com
Muscle medicos notes.com
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Muscle medicos notes.com

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Muscle, MBBS Study guide,MBBS Students material

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Muscle medicos notes.com

  1. 1. Muscle
  2. 2. MAIN CHARACTERISTICS • There are four characteristics associated with muscle tissue:  Excitability Tissue can receive & respond to stimulation  Contractility Tissue can shorten & thicken  Extensibility Tissue can lengthen  Elasticity After contracting or lengthening, tissue always wants to return to its resting state
  3. 3. FUNCTIONS OF MUSCLES  Movement – both voluntary & involuntary  Maintaining posture  Supporting soft tissues within body cavities  Protection
  4. 4. Types of muscle tissue: • Skeletal • Cardiac • Smooth (Visceral) STRUCTURAL CLASSIFICATION
  5. 5. Associated with & attached to the skeleton • Under our conscious (voluntary) control • Microscopically the tissue appears striated • Cells are long, cylindrical & multinucleate SKELETAL MUSCLE
  6. 6. Makes up myocardium of heart • Unconsciously (involuntarily) controlled • Microscopically appears striated • Cells are short, branching & have a single nucleus • Cells connect to each other at intercalated discs CARDIAC MUSCLE
  7. 7. SMOOTH MUSCLE • Makes up walls of organs & blood vessels • Tissue is non-striated & involuntary • Cells are short, spindle-shaped & have a single nucleus • Tissue is extremely extensible, while still retaining ability to contract
  8. 8. Anatomy of skeletal muscles
  9. 9. ASSOCIATED TERMS • Origin • Insertion • Belly • Tendon • Aponeurosis • Raphe
  10. 10. •Origin Muscle attachment that remains fixed •Insertion Muscle attachment that moves •Action What joint movement a muscle produces i.e. flexion, extension, abduction, etc. ASSOCIATED TERMS • Tendon cord of fibrous tissue • Belly Fleshy part of muscle
  11. 11. APONEUROSIS A strong , thin and flat sheet of fibrous tissue providing attachment to muscles
  12. 12. RAPHE • An interdigitation of the tendinous ends of fibers of flat muscles
  13. 13. CLASSIFICATION ON BASIS OF ACTION • Prime movers • Antagonists • Fixator • Synergist
  14. 14. PRIME MOVERS • Chief muscle responsible for a particular movement
  15. 15. ANTAGONISTS • Any muscle that opposes the action of prime mover
  16. 16. FIXATOR • A fixator contracts isometrically (contraction increases tone but does not itself produce movement) • Muscles of shoulder girdle act as fixators for deltoid
  17. 17. SYNERGIST • Prime movers cross several joints. • Synergist contract to prevent unwanted movement on intermediate joints • Long tendons of carpal muscles act as synergist for long finger tendons

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