Successfully reported this slideshow.
We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. You can change your ad preferences anytime.

Music and the brain


Published on

Published in: Health & Medicine
  • Be the first to comment

Music and the brain

  1. 1. Tone deafness: a disorder of the mind’s ear Tim Griffiths Auditory Group, Newcastle University Cognitive Neurology Clinic, Newcastle General Hospital Supported by the Wellcome Trust (UK)
  2. 2. My work: Ordered and disordered acoustic worlds The Ear The person 2. NEUROLOGY Disordered sound pattern analysis Speech Music Environmental Sound The mind’s ear 1. NEUROSCIENCE Ordering of sound pattern
  3. 3. How do we explain this? Click picture for sound
  4. 4. Famous subjects with tone deafness Che Guevara Milton Friedman
  5. 5. Tone deafness: some basic questions His brain? His DNA? His neurons? His deficit?
  6. 6. Tone deafness: clues from neuroscience <ul><li>Disorder in the pitch domain: music assessments show input problem with melody perception </li></ul><ul><li>What is pitch? </li></ul><ul><li>How does the brain analyse pitch and pitch patterns? </li></ul>
  7. 7. Pitch: normal mechanisms <ul><li>Most neuroscience text books are wrong, and so was von Helmholtz </li></ul><ul><li>It’s not frequency </li></ul><ul><li>Pitch is a percept not a stimulus property </li></ul>
  8. 8. Pitch: normal mechanisms <ul><li>von Helmholtz </li></ul><ul><li>On the sensation of tone (1862) </li></ul>
  9. 9. Construction of the pitch percept 400Hz sine 400Hz fundamental Harmonic 1 - 6 400Hz fundamental Harmonic 4 - 6 frequency (kHz) time (s) frequency (kHz) frequency (kHz) time (s) time (s) 5 5 5 0.1 0.1 0.1 Common pitch explained better by time structure than frequency structure of stimulus
  10. 10. Pitch representation in the cortex <ul><li>Functional imaging studies where brain activity measured when time structure of sound and associated pitch strength are varied </li></ul>
  11. 11. Individual data: Structural MRI Scan
  12. 12. noise - silence fixed pitch – noise Individual fMRI data: Pitch Activation Griffiths et al Nature Neurosci 1998, 2001 Patterson et al Neuron 2002
  13. 13. <ul><li>Neural activity corresponding to the pitch of individual notes occurs in secondary auditory cortex </li></ul><ul><li>Accumulating evidence that activity in this area correlates with the perception of the pitch of sound and is not just a representation of the stimulus </li></ul><ul><li>Analogy to colour area in visual brain where perceived colour not stimulus wavelength represented </li></ul>A ‘pitch centre’ in the auditory cortex?
  14. 14. Pitch sequences in the cortex
  15. 15. noise - silence fixed pitch – matched noise ‘ lively’ pitch – fixed pitch NB NO TASK Individual fMRI data: Pitch sequence Griffiths et al Nature Neurosci 1998, 2001 Patterson et al Neuron 2002
  16. 16. PET group data: Pitch sequence NB TASK Griffiths et al Neuroreport 1999
  17. 17. Pitch sequences in the cortex <ul><li>Distributed networks beyond auditory cortex </li></ul><ul><li>For very high level processing (tonality) frontal processing only: no specific involvement of auditory cortex </li></ul>
  18. 18. Pitch: studies of stroke patients Summary data Stewart et al Brain 2006
  19. 19. Tone deafness: clues from neuroscience <ul><li>Normal functional imaging and studies of stroke patients broadly congruent </li></ul><ul><li>Analysis of the pitch of individual notes involves a pitch centre in secondary auditory cortex </li></ul><ul><li>Highly distributed networks for pitch sequence analysis beyond auditory cortex </li></ul><ul><li>If the deficit in melody perception in tone deafness is due to abnormal pitch pattern analysis, it is likely to be a problem with cortex beyond primary cortex </li></ul>
  20. 20. Tone deafness: what is the pitch deficit? Pitch change and pitch direction analysis Foxton et al Brain 2004 Pitch Change 1 Pitch Change 2 Pitch DIRECTION
  21. 21. Tone deafness: what is the pitch deficit? <ul><li>Abnormal perception of pitch direction </li></ul><ul><li>‘ Bottom up’ basis for melody deficit: musicology </li></ul><ul><li>Deficient memory ‘trace’ for pitch –subjects unable to ‘keep track’ of pitch? </li></ul>
  22. 22. Tone deafness: Brain structure 1 White matter density: Montreal and Newcastle structural MRI data Hyde, Zatorre, Griffiths, Lerch and Peretz Brain 2006
  23. 23. Tone deafness: Brain structure 2 Cortical thickness: Montreal and Newcastle structural MRI data Hyde, Lerch, Zatorre, Griffiths, Evans, Peretz (Human Brain Mapping Meeting 2006)
  24. 24. <ul><li>Decreased white matter in right inferior frontal lobe </li></ul><ul><li>Increased cortical thickness in right inferior frontal lobe and right auditory cortex </li></ul><ul><li>Single-gene basis for both findings possible (connectivity deficit due to axonal migration disorder or cortex neuronal migration disorder) </li></ul>Tone deafness: brain structure
  25. 25. Tone deafness: genes? Family undergoing genetic analysis in Newcastle Stewart , McDonald, Kumar, Chinnery, Griffiths (Music and Genetics Meeting Bologna 2007 ) Proband Family
  26. 26. <ul><li>Single gene explanations unlikely to be universal explanation for tone deafness </li></ul><ul><li>Analogy with early onset Alzheimer’s disease (rare single-gene families and more common genes of major effect)? </li></ul>Tone deafness : genes?
  27. 27. <ul><li>Apart from occasional disturbances of the peace, sufferers are generally useful members of society </li></ul><ul><li>Model system where we have the potential to explain a complex behaviour in terms of abnormal cortical development and connectivity </li></ul><ul><li>Other examples of disorders where abnormal connectivity implicated: schizophrenia, autism </li></ul>Tone deafness: who cares?
  28. 28. Acknowledgements: Current (previous) group members and collaborators <ul><li>Newcastle Auditory Group: </li></ul><ul><li>Simon Baumann: Freya Cooper; (Jessica Foxton); Manon Grube; (Amanda Jennings); Katharina von Kriegstein; Sukhbinder Kumar; Tobias Overath; (Lauren Stewart) </li></ul><ul><li>Wellcome Centre for Imaging Neuroscience: </li></ul><ul><li>Ray Dolan; Richard Frackowiak; Karl Friston </li></ul><ul><li>Cambridge University (CNBH): Roy Patterson </li></ul><ul><li>Montreal (BRAMS): Krista Hyde; Isabelle Peretz, Robert Zatorre </li></ul>