Psychology in Dentistry

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  • Good morning. I’m Alan Glaros, and I’m the Associate Dean for Basic Medical Sciences at Kansas City University of Medicine and Biosciences. Today, I’d like to share with you some lessons learned from my 16 years experience as a faculty member in a school of dentistry. Let’s begin by talking a bit about the students.
  • Psychology in Dentistry

    1. 1. Psychology in Dentistry Alan G. Glaros, Ph.D. Associate Dean Kansas City University of Medicine and Biosciences
    2. 2. The Learners I <ul><li>Enrolled in over 50 schools </li></ul><ul><ul><li>About 4,400 graduates/year </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>42% female </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>12% underrepresented minority </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Bright, motivated, enthusiastic </li></ul><ul><ul><li>3.35 science GPA </li></ul></ul>Weaver et al., 2005
    3. 3. The Learners II <ul><li>Good at memorization </li></ul><ul><li>Different motivations </li></ul><ul><li>Good visuo-spatial skills </li></ul><ul><li>Tech savvy? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mandatory laptop programs in about 25% of dental schools </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>On-line database searching relatively rare </li></ul></ul>Hendricson et al., 2006; Romanov & Aarnio, 2006
    4. 4. Required Training <ul><li>Nationwide training </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cultural competency </li></ul></ul><ul><li>UMKC School of Dentistry </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Discipline-based courses </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Patient interviewing and management </li></ul></ul></ul>Henzi et al., 2007
    5. 5. Dentistry and Health <ul><li>Consistent brushing and flossing and routine dental hygiene critical to maintenance of oral health </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Psychology as the science of behavior </li></ul></ul>
    6. 6. Psychology and Dentistry <ul><li>Communications skills and rapport building </li></ul><ul><li>Dental fears </li></ul>Eitner et al., 2006Lahti et al., 2007
    7. 7. Psychology and Dentistry <ul><li>Pain </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Acute </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Chronic </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Temporomandibular disorders </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Neuralgias </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Oral parafunctional behaviors </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Clenching </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Grinding (“bruxism”) </li></ul></ul>Drangsholt & LeResche, 1999; Glaros et al., 2005
    8. 8. Psychology and Dentistry <ul><li>Special needs populations </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mentally challenged </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Chronically ill </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Geriatrics </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Public health </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Community interventions </li></ul></ul>John et al., 2007
    9. 9. Psychology and Dentistry <ul><li>Quality of life </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Craniofacial abnormalities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Edentualism </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Esthetic dentistry </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Orthodontics </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Crowns, veneers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reconstruction </li></ul></ul>Gordon et al., 2004; Lee et al., 2007
    10. 10. Psychology Skills Useful for Dental Students <ul><li>Communication </li></ul><ul><li>Fear/anxiety management </li></ul><ul><li>Management of disruptive child </li></ul><ul><li>Patient interventions to enhance self-care </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Motivational interviewing </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Pain management </li></ul>
    11. 11. Psychology Skills for Dental Educators <ul><li>Learning how to use handpiece </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Proprioception </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Visual learning </li></ul></ul>Diaz et al., 2001; Wierinck et al., 2006
    12. 12. Challenges With Dental Students <ul><li>Curriculum very technique-oriented </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Does not foster cognitive skills </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Psychology not seen as “scientific” or practical enough </li></ul>
    13. 13. Institutional Challenges <ul><li>Off-site psychologists </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Less attuned to issues faced by dental students </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Curricular time </li></ul>
    14. 14. Potential Solutions <ul><li>Collaborative relationships essential </li></ul><ul><li>“Teach the Teacher” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Observational modeling </li></ul></ul>
    15. 15. Preparing for the Future <ul><li>Systems-based curriculum </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Multi-disciplinary </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Integrated </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Comprehensive </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Focus on the whole person </li></ul></ul>Willsie, 2004
    16. 16. Role for APA <ul><li>Encourage shift to systems-based curriculum </li></ul><ul><li>Advocate for research funding </li></ul><ul><li>Educational research </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Visual learning </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Liaison to ADEA </li></ul><ul><li>Remember dentistry </li></ul>

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