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Dental Caries

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Dental Caries

  1. 1. DENTAL CARIES DEFINATION ETIOLOGY MICROBIOLOGY BY: DR. KHURRAM ZAFAR www.thedentalclinicpk.com
  2. 2. NORMAL TOOTH
  3. 3. TYPES OF TOOTH LOSS <ul><li>Loss of tooth substance in different ways: </li></ul><ul><li>Microbial tooth loss (dental caries) </li></ul><ul><li>Non microbial tooth loss </li></ul><ul><li>(attrition, abrasion and erosion) </li></ul>
  4. 4. DENTAL CARIES <ul><li>DEFINITION </li></ul><ul><li>It is a disease of microbial origin in which the dietary carbohydrates are fermented by the bacteria forming an acid which causes the demineralization of the inorganic part and disintegration of the organic part of the tooth </li></ul>
  5. 5. Dental caries
  6. 6. Dental caries
  7. 7. ETIOLOGY
  8. 8. Dental caries <ul><li>Etiology of Dental Caries: </li></ul><ul><li>MAJOR FACTORS </li></ul><ul><li>1. Role of bacteria </li></ul><ul><li>Normal flora of the oral cavity contains abundance of bacteria which derive there energy by the chemical process of fermentation </li></ul><ul><li>Mainly the bacteria are Streptococcus Mutans,and streptococcus sobrinus collectively known mutans streptococci(MS) </li></ul>
  9. 9. Dental caries <ul><li>2. Role of plaque: </li></ul><ul><li>Plaque is an adhesive layer which deposits on the surface of the tooth and has colonies of bacteria </li></ul><ul><li>Plaque tends to stick to the surface of the teeth and in this way the bacteria can have there cariogenic effect on the tooth </li></ul><ul><li>Increase bulk of the plaque </li></ul>
  10. 10. Dental caries <ul><li>Plaque on the surface of the tooth (enamel) </li></ul>
  11. 11. Dental caries <ul><li>3. Role of saliva: </li></ul><ul><li>It plays role in increasing the cariogenic effect on the teeth and as well it has the buffering action. </li></ul><ul><li>Saliva has a cleansing effect also </li></ul>
  12. 12. Dental caries <ul><li>4. Role of carbohydrates: </li></ul><ul><li>Fermentable carbohydrates are on of the most important cause of causing dental caries. </li></ul><ul><li>Increase in the intake of refined carbohydrates are directly proportional in causing the dental caries </li></ul><ul><li>Different studies and indicies have been done in order to know the role of carbohydrates in causing the dental caries. </li></ul>
  13. 13. Dental caries <ul><li>Dietary sugars are mainly sucrose which is cheap and easily produced from sugar cane and has very high calories sucrose is present in wheat and potatoes. </li></ul><ul><li>Sucrose substitutes are palatinose, Trehalulose and sugar alcohols </li></ul>
  14. 14. Dental caries <ul><li>MINOR FACTORS: </li></ul><ul><li>Enamel composition </li></ul><ul><li>Morphology of the tooth </li></ul><ul><li>Position of the tooth </li></ul><ul><li>Diet </li></ul><ul><li>Immunity </li></ul>
  15. 15. MICROBIOLOGY
  16. 16. Dental caries <ul><li>MICROBIOLOGY </li></ul><ul><li>1. Bacteria involved : </li></ul><ul><li>Streptococci e.g mutans, sobrinus </li></ul><ul><li>Lactobacilli e.g acidophilus </li></ul><ul><li>2. Possibly associated bacteria : </li></ul><ul><li>Steptococci e.g mitis </li></ul><ul><li>Actinomyces e.g viscosus </li></ul>
  17. 17. Bacteria
  18. 18. Bacteria

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