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Running Injuries Explained | Free-Running Shoes | Barefoot Shoes


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Running Injuries Explained | Free-Running Shoes | Barefoot Shoes

  1. 1. By Daniel Metz<br />Excessive pronation, lower leg muscle fatigue, and recreational runners<br />
  2. 2. Purpose<br />The purpose of this study is to examine <br />the relationship between lower <br />extremity muscle fatigue and the <br />resulting change in degree of foot <br />pronationin recreational runners. <br />The results will shed light onto possible <br />effective training techniques to reduce <br /> excessive pronation in recreational runners.<br />
  3. 3. Why so Important?<br />Overuse injuries are associated with excessive pronation<br />Murphy and Connors (2009) state “the foot is a hugely important area for a runner, because it is the first point of contact with the ground and directs all the forces through the body.”<br />Kinetic Chain Theory <br />Injury concentration?<br />
  4. 4. Foot Structure<br />The main components of the foot <br />26 bones<br />31 major synovial joints<br />20 intrinsic muscles<br />The foot has two axes <br />One axes runs horizontally through the talus <br />The other axis runs diagonally<br />The movements the foot makes around this diagonal axis are pronation and supination<br />
  5. 5. Subtalar Joint and Talocrural Joint <br />Talocrural Joint<br />
  6. 6. Excessive Pronation<br />Pronation can also be defined as…<br />The movement of the subtalar joint<br /> articulating around the calcaneous<br />Eversion<br />(turning the sole outwards) <br />Dorsiflexion<br /> (pointing the toes upwards) <br />Abduction<br /> (pointing the toes out to the side)<br />How much muscular <br /> activity is involved?<br />
  7. 7. Effects of Muscle Fatigue<br />Muscles that play a role?<br />Extrinsic and Intrinsic<br />Extrinsic muscles “originate from <br /> the tibia, fibula, or femur and act <br /> on the ankle as well as joints within<br /> the foot <br />Intrinsic muscles are “small ones which originate on other foot or ankle bones and act only on joints within the foot”<br />
  8. 8. Recreational Runners<br />Highly Individual as opposed to team sports<br />Essentially the sum of one’s individual effort. <br />Motivations to run include…<br />Weight lose<br />Increasing muscle tone<br />Strengthening the heart<br />Increasing aerobic capacity<br />Lowering blood pressure<br />Reducing depression among a number of other reasons. <br />
  9. 9. Recreational Runners<br />Typical Runner Demographic<br />Higher economic class (93% college educated), <br />Married (74% and 62% for males and females respectively)<br />A frequency of about an average of twenty miles a week spread across an average of four runs (2008: state of the Sport: Part II, 2009). <br />
  10. 10. My Population<br />Three to six Junior or Senior SPU students<br />Represents a larger scale sample of young college aged individuals<br />A recreational runner for this study will be a male or female college aged runner who runs between three and twelve miles a week<br />
  11. 11. Methodology<br />Experimental Design using a video analysis<br />Three protocols of barefoot run <br />1st recording<br />Fatigue protocol<br />2nd recording<br />Markers will be placed on foot <br /> and ankle<br />Exposing participant to fatigue<br />Measure the change in biomechanics using coordinates<br />
  12. 12. Marker Locations<br />
  13. 13. Protocol #1<br />Shoes and socks will be removed<br />Height and Weight will be taken<br />Markers set in place<br />the posterior aspect of the calcaneous, <br />the medial aspect of the calcaneous,<br />the medial aspect of the tibia, <br />the medial aspect of the navicular bone, <br />the medial aspect of the talus<br />Vertical line drawn on calcaneous tendon<br />Record 30 sec. run at 6.5 mph<br />
  14. 14. Protocol #2<br />The maximum distance between the plantar surface of the heel and the ground during will be measured. <br />This will serve as a reference point to <br /> measure the amount of fatigue in the <br /> intrinsic and extrinsic muscles of the foot and ankle.<br />Follow this by completing one leg standing <br />calf raises barefoot on the right foot with <br /> audible encouragement. <br />Continue to complete repetitions until the distance <br /> between the plantar surface of the heel and the ground<br /> is less than 50% of the maximum distance originally measured for that participant (fatigue).<br />
  15. 15. Protocol #3<br />Markers will already be in place<br />the posterior aspect of the calcaneous, <br />the medial aspect of the calcaneous,<br />the medial aspect of the tibia, <br />the medial aspect of the navicular bone, <br />the medial aspect of the talus<br />Vertical line will be in place<br />Record barefoot run for 30sec. At 6.5mph<br />With both videos, variances will be measured recording the change in (X, Y) locations<br />
  16. 16. Results<br />Hoping there will be a difference in coordinate location<br />The posterior calcaneous marker<br /> will be used as the reference <br /> coordinate (0, 0)<br />Use this to calculate change in <br /> location of coordinates of the <br /> x and y points<br />This change due to a hypothesized movement in the medial and inferior direction, and these differences will show the change in degree of pronation<br />
  17. 17. Results<br />Three participants filmed<br />All three male and all mildly <br /> to moderately overpronated<br />Calculated the differences in the x and y coordinates in a frame where pronation peaked<br />For each of the two videos, non-fatigued and fatigued, I calculated the coordinates twice using two consecutive strikes taking for each of the three participants<br />
  18. 18. I Compared…<br />
  19. 19. Results for each Participant<br />
  20. 20. Mean X Coordinates Results <br />RED= Not Fatigued<br />BLUE = Fatigued<br />Measured in pixels or mm<br />47 mm = 47.2 pixels<br />
  21. 21. Mean Y Coordinates Results<br />RED= Not Fatigued<br />BLUE = Fatigued<br />Measured in pixels or mm<br />47 mm = 47.2 pixels<br />
  22. 22. Discussion<br />Results were not consistent with hypothesis<br />Measurable change indicated measurability error<br />One pixel equals one mm<br />Biomechanics measured through coordinates indicated no change in foot pronation<br />Extrinsic and intrinsic muscle fatigue indicated little measurable change<br />Changes were averaging around 1 to 2 mm <br />
  23. 23. Discussion<br />Why?<br />The fatigue protocol was not effective<br />Level of difficulty <br />Insufficient intrinsic foot muscle fatigue <br />More than one set to measured fatigue<br />Recovery <br />Fast muscle recovery<br />Speed not fast enough to recruit<br /> significant muscle involvement <br />Not enough force<br />Scale in software coordinate analysis too small<br />Foot pronation limited range of movement in joint<br />
  24. 24. Limitations<br />Limited testing equipment<br />For the small amount of movement, my video measurements were not accurate enough to give results.<br />ImageJ limitations - zoom<br /> If there was a measurable change, it needs higher accuracy equipment for the analysis. <br />Software can do more complex analysis<br />Limited population<br />Only males<br />Limited age range<br />Smaller population<br />Similar biomechanics<br />Variability in stride<br />
  25. 25. Conclusion<br />This fatigue protocol seemed to have little to no effect on the degree of overpronation in the predicted way<br />Lower leg muscular fatigue had no measurable change in foot pronation<br />Variation in coordinates from non-fatigued to fatigued had mean differences only slightly different<br />More accurate equipment is needed with multiple angle camera views and a smaller scale<br />Future studies<br />Include more intricate fatigue protocol<br />Increase zoom in camera<br />More advanced zoom in software<br />Other camera angles <br />