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Representations of age


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Representations of age

  1. 1. Representations of age<br />How are the following represented in the media?<br />Teenagers<br />Old people<br />Middle aged people (45 – 55)<br />
  2. 2. What are the representations?<br />How are they constructed?<br />
  3. 3. How has Catherine Tate represented ‘Nan’?<br />Is she stereotypical?<br />Why? Why not?<br />Look at her iconography.<br />What genre of programme does she exist in?<br />How does this affect her representation?<br />
  4. 4. Your task<br />In pairs, to research representation of age in your given medium/genre.<br />Produce a presentation, including images/footage: saved to a USB stick.<br />Make reference to semiotics (visual codes and audio codes if appropriate).<br />Make reference to audience & audience theories.<br />
  5. 5. The choices! Ooh!<br />Soaps<br />Adverts<br />Magazines<br />Films<br />News<br />Sitcoms<br />Cartoons<br />Comics<br />Reality TV<br />TV Drama<br />
  6. 6. Your presentations!<br />
  7. 7. Representations of age<br />What is the media (form and genre).<br />How has the representation been constructed (visual and audio codes)?<br />What reasons are there for the representation?<br />How might the representation affect audience?<br />Who produced the representation?<br />
  8. 8. Reflective approach<br />This approach suggests that representations are a direct reflection of reality.<br />
  9. 9. Intentional Approach<br />This suggests that producers shape reality through representation and suggests an audience’s understanding of the world is directed by those representations.<br />
  10. 10. Constructionist Approach<br />This is a mixture! It accepts that representations construct meaning, but that this meaning is understood through reference to reality and the audience’s own ability to analyse, accept and reject.<br />
  11. 11. Constructionists believe:<br />Representation is a mixture of:<br />The actual thing being represented<br />The VALs of the people/institutions constructing the representation<br />The reaction of the individual member of the audience (and their VALs)<br />The context of the society in which the representation is taking place<br />
  12. 12. Ideology<br />Media texts convey ideological messages:<br />Ideology is a system of ideas, values and beliefs promoted by dominant groups to reinforce their power (eg governments, state institutions, corporations).<br />
  13. 13. Karl Marx<br />Developed the concept in 1900s.<br />Analysed the way those in power protected their interests by representing their privileged position as being natural.<br />Consider how dominant ideologies are reinforced/challenged by media texts.<br />
  14. 14. Positive/negative representations<br />Are negative representations responsible for the prejudicial treatment of a particular group?<br />Can negative representations be challenged by positive ones?<br />If representations do affect the way in which we think about particular groups, what does that suggest about the media audience?<br />
  15. 15. Dominant representation of young people<br />Yobbish/anti-social behaviour<br />Gang culture<br />Disrespect<br />Drink and drugs<br />Teen pregnancies<br />Which media texts perpetuate this image?<br />
  16. 16. Eastenders: Martin Fowler<br />First character to be born in the programme.<br />Stereotypical youth from many news stories.<br />Anti-social behaviour with gangs<br />Teenage, unmarried father<br />Prison sentence for manslaughter<br />Continued criminal behaviour upon release<br />
  17. 17. Moral panics!<br />
  18. 18. Stanley Cohen (1972)<br />Studied youth groups in 1960s.<br />A moral panic occurs when society sees itself threatened by the values and activities of a group who are stigmatised as deviant and seen as threatening to mainstream society’s values, ideologies and /or way of life.<br />Mods & Rockers (1960s), football hooligans, muggers, vandals, mobile-phone snatchers...<br />
  19. 19. Working class males<br />Represented as yobs.<br />Stuart Hall (1978) argues that the negative representation of young people is deliberate as it justifies social control by authority figures such as the police and government. The media has a key role in this ‘social production’ of news.<br />
  20. 20. From media text to legislation<br />Occurrence of deviant act or social phenomenon.<br />Act or problem widely reported in media: news outlets; internet chat rooms; fictional narratives; video games…<br />Call for government control either from legislation/policy initiatives or the more vigilant operation of already existing social controls.<br />
  21. 21. Jamie Bulger<br />No evidence was presented that either boy had watched ‘Child’s Play 3’. The judge made the connection and this was picked up by the tabloid press. It led to a change in the law so the BBFC now has to take into account ‘the influence’ of videos as well as their content.<br />
  22. 22. From young to old<br />
  23. 23. Pensioners<br />
  24. 24. Does gender make a difference?<br />
  25. 25.
  26. 26. Film vs TV<br />Why do you think there are more opportunities for older women in fictional TV than film?<br />
  27. 27. Stereotypes<br />Poor<br />Fussy<br />Senile<br />Infirm<br />Interfering<br />Victims<br />Dependent<br />Kind<br />Generous<br />Happy<br />Engaging in stereo-<br />typical pastimes<br />
  28. 28. Sitcom<br />Humorous idiosyncrasies:<br />Forgetfulness<br />Senility<br />Grumpiness<br />Saying the wrong thing<br />Does this reinforce the stereotype?<br />
  29. 29.
  30. 30. To what extent is the media responsible for reinforcing age-related stereotypes?<br />