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# Math in the News: Issue 100

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In this issue of Math in the News we look at the mathematics of the Nielsen Ratings.

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### Math in the News: Issue 100

1. 1. LATE NIGHT TELEVISION RATINGS Math in the News Issue 100
2. 2. LATE NIGHT TELEVISION RATINGS Click the image for a great overview video on howTV ratings work!
3. 3. LATE NIGHT TELEVISION RATINGS  What are television ratings?  TV ratings are audience measures  Ratings assess the following factors:  What most people are watching  How many people are watching  Demographics of those watching (race, gender, age, socioeconomic status, etc…)  Each television show is analyzed based on these factors and given a rating Source: NielsenWiki
4. 4. LATE NIGHT TELEVISION RATINGS  Nielsen Ratings  Most common type of rating used in the US and Canada  Used to measure the success ofTV shows Source: NielsenWiki, Nielsen.com
5. 5. LATE NIGHT TELEVISION RATINGS  How is ratings information collected?  Based on a sample of television views  A representative portion of the population to infer behavior of the entire population  Ratings collected using viewer diaries or set meters Source: NielsenWiki
6. 6. LATE NIGHT TELEVISION RATINGS  Viewer Diaries  Self-report measure  Set Meters  Collect information such as:  Programs and commercials  Audience size  Channel switching Source: Nielsen Wiki, Nielsen.com
7. 7. LATE NIGHT TELEVISION RATINGS  What areTV ratings used for?  Success of aTV show  To target commercials  To determine viewing What other uses ofTV ratings can you think of? Source: Nielsen.com
8. 8. LATE NIGHT TELEVISION RATINGS  What variables are used to calculateTV ratings?  TV HHs –TV households – the number of households in the US with televisions  PERS 2+ – Persons age 2 and older in the US  Live, Live + SD (same day), Live + 7)—When programs are viewed.  Age demographic—2-11, 18-34, 18-49, etc , race, gender, and other variables Source:TV by the Numbers
9. 9. LATE NIGHT TELEVISION RATINGS  How are ratings calculated?  Step 1: Data sent back to Nielsen  Step 2:Total number of viewers and demographic information is aggregated  Step 3:Viewership data divided by total universe ofTV watchers. Source:YouTube viaTV by the Numbers
10. 10. LATE NIGHT TELEVISION RATINGS  How are ratings calculated? Cont…  So, to summarize…  Ratings are written as an number, so 25% viewership would equal a rating of 25.0 Viewers People Who Watch TV = Impressions Universe ¬ A %
11. 11. LATE NIGHT TELEVISION RATINGS  How are ratings written and read?  In addition to the rating score,TV shows are given a share score. Which type of score would likely be higher, rating or share?Why? Source:TV by the Numbers Rating = Total # Watching Program X Total # with TVs Share = Total # Watching Program X Total # watching TV
12. 12. LATE NIGHT TELEVISION RATINGS  How are ratings written and read? Cont…  When the rating and the share are calculated for a given show at a given time, it is written as a ratio: Rating/Share  For example, a show with a rating of 10.5 and a share of 14.3 would be written as 10.5/14.3
13. 13. LATE NIGHT TELEVISION RATINGS  Example:  Of a sample of 5,000 households with televisions, 3,493 televisions are tuned in and 342 are watching television show x. What is the rating and what is the share?  Rating = 342/5,000 = 0.0684 = 6.84% = 6.4  Share = 342/3,493 = 0.0979 = 9.79% = 9.79  TV show x has a rating of 6.4/9.79
14. 14. LATE NIGHT TELEVISION RATINGS  Now let’s try a real world example!  The premiere of TheTonight Show with Jimmy Fallon had a total of 11.314 million viewers (out of the entire population, not a sample)!  If there are 115.6 millionTV HHs, what was the rating of TheTonight Show with Jimmy Fallon on it’s premiere night? Source:TV by the Numbers
15. 15. LATE NIGHT TELEVISION RATINGS  TheTonight Show ratings  The premiere of TheTonight Show with Jimmy Fallon had a rating of 9.7. Rating = 11.314 115.6 = 0.097 = 9.7%
16. 16. LATE NIGHT TELEVISION RATINGS Day TV Show Rating TV Show Share Day 1 1.92 2.14 Day 2 1.9 2.16 Day 3 1.65 2.12 Day 4 1.7 2.1 Day 5 1.61 1.9  What is the average rating and share for thisTV show over these 5 days?  What rating trends can you determine based on the chart? Average Rating = 1.92 +1.9 +1.65 +1.7 +1.61 5 = 1.76 Average Share = 2.14 + 2.16 + 2.12 + 2.1+1.9 5 = 2.084
17. 17. LATE NIGHT TELEVISION RATINGS  Now, let’s compare a fewTV shows on specific demographics for people ages 18-49, a target audience for Late NightTV  Here are ratings for the 18-49 demographic group for the week of May 5, 2014:  TheTonight Show withJimmy Fallon – 1.04/5  The Late Show with Dave Letterman – 0.51/2  The Colbert Report with Stephan Colbert – 0.45/no share found Source:TV by the Numbers
18. 18. LATE NIGHT TELEVISION RATINGS  Question for consideration:  TheTonight Show saw record ratings after Jimmy Fallon, a younger host, took over for Jay Leno. Stephen Colbert, star of The Colbert Report, is set to replace Dave Letterman on The Late Show. Given the ratings shown on the previous slide and the rise in viewers for TheTonight Show after a switch in host, how do you think Stephen Colbert replacing Dave Letterman on The Late Show will affect ratings?Why?
19. 19. LATE NIGHT TELEVISION RATINGS  More questions for consideration:  What kind of specific demographic information do you think The Disney Channel would want to collect?What about Women’s Entertainment (WE)?  Consider when it is most valuable to look at each of the following and why:  Overall rating  Share  Rating based on a certain demographic group