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Maple Syrup For Beginners Seminar

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Maple Syrup For Beginners Seminar

  1. 1. MAPLE SUGARING EQUIPMENT BEGINNERS SEMINAR
  2. 2. WHY IS SAP SWEET? • PHOTOSYNTHESIS IS A CHEMICAL REACTION: CO2 + H2O + SUN = C6H12O6 (SUGAR) + O2 • BIGGER TREE = MORE PHOTOSYNTHESIS = MORE SUGAR • THE TREE STORES STARCH IN IT’S ROOTS • LATE FALL AND WINTER THE TREE TRANSFORMS STARCH INTO SUGAR TO PROTECT IT FROM THE COLD • COLDER WINTER = MORE SUGAR • SUGAR CONTENT IN SAP VARIES WITH: TREE SIZE, GENETICS AND DAY TO DAY.
  3. 3. TREE UNDER VACUUM • At night, with the cold, sap leaves the roots and goes up. The bigger the tree, the faster sap travels. Goes from inches per hour to over a yard per hour (figure 1) • During the day, under the heat, TREE sap goes back down by gravity UNDER and the pressure in the tree (up PRESSURE to 102’’/HG) . • The lower the atmospheric pressure, the better the run. SUCCION WATER ABSORBTION Figure 1 TREE IS RUNNING
  4. 4. FACTORS INFLUENCING FLOW • • • • • • LENGTH OF THE FREEZE / THAW PROCESS WIND (IMPORTANCE OF A WIND BARRIER) ATMOSPHERIC PRESSURE MICRO CLIMATE OF A REGION SNOW COVERAGE PREVIOUS PRECIPITATION LEVEL
  5. 5. TREE GROWTH • ON AVERAGE A TREE GROWS 0.1’’ TO 0.2’’ INCH PER YEAR • 3 TO 5 MORE INCHES ON THE DIAMETER IN 25 YEARS • IN 25 YEARS YOU CAN RETAP THE SAME HOLE
  6. 6. HOW MANY TAPS PER TREE? • 8’’ TO 16’’ DIAMETER = 1 SPOUT • 16’’ TO 24’’ DIAMETER = 2 SPOUTS (HEALTHY TREES ONLY) • 24’’ AND MORE = 3 SPOUTS (HEALTHY TREES ONLY) • TODAY MANY PEOPLE DON’T TAP THAT HEAVY • 8’’ TO 20’’ DIAMETER = 1 SPOUT • 20’’ AND BIGGER = 2 SPOUTS (HEALTHY TREES ONLY) • NEVER 3 SPOUTS PER TREE
  7. 7. WHERE TO TAP? • TAP AT LEAST 3” AWAY FROM LAST YEAR’S TAP TO AVOID NON FUNCTIONAL WOOD • AN OLD HOLE WILL ALWAYS MAKE A BUMP • 6 TO 8” HIGHER OR LOWER IS ALSO GOOD • WATCH FOR BROWN TAPPING RESIDUES
  8. 8. COMPARTMENTING • DEFINITION: • COMPARTIMENTING IS THE HEALING MECHANISM OF THE TREE TO ISOLATE THE WOUND CREATED BY THE TAP • THE TREE MAKES A ZONE OF NONFUNCTIONAL WOOD, BROWN COLORED, WHERE NO WATER CIRCULATES • THE NONFUNCTIONAL WOOD ZONE UNCREASES UNTIL THE WOUND IS ALL ISOLATED TAPPING A TREE IS HURTING IT, WE NEED TO MINIMIZE THE WOUND AS MUCH AS POSSIBLE
  9. 9. COMPARTMENTING • FACTORS INFLUENCING THE SIZE OF THE NONFUNCTIONAL WOOD • • • • GROWTH RATE OF THE TREE USE OF SANITIZING PRODUCTS HOLE DIAMETER QUICKNESS TO UNTAP
  10. 10. COMPARTMENTING • SIZE OF THE NONFUNCTIONAL ZONE • TWICE THE DIAMETER OF THE HOLE • 1/8’’ DEEPER THAN THE TAP HOLE • 6 TO 8’’ HIGHER AND LOWER THAN THE TAP HOLE, FOR 5/16’’ SPOUT (12’’ FOR 7/16’’) • THE VOLUME OF NONFUNCTIONAL WOOD IS 50 TO 150 TIMES THE VOLUME OF WOOD REMOVED BY THE TAP HOLE
  11. 11. QUANTITY OF DEAD WOOD
  12. 12. TOOLS • A GOOD DRILL WILL LAST ALL DAY – NEW RED LITHIUM WORK IN COLD WEATHER
  13. 13. TAPPING BITS • • • • USE SHORTER BITS (WON’T BREAK EASILY) SHARPENING DESIGN IS KEY TAP MAXIMUM 2000 HOLES WITH A BIT NEVER TRY TO RESHARPEN, SEND THEM BACK TO CDL TO REUSE THEM • MAKE SURE TO USE THE RIGHT DIAMETER
  14. 14. TAPPING ANGLE • • TAPPING DOWN, ICE WILL ALWAYS PUSH BACK THE SPOUT TAPPING UP TOO MUCH, LOSING DEPTH
  15. 15. TAPPING GUIDELINES • START SLOW TO MARK THE SPOT THEN; • DRILL SPEED SHOULD BE BETWEEN 1400 AND 1600 RPM • KEEP THE DRILL TURNING WHEN PULLING OUT TO HELP HAVE A CLEAN HOLE • USE A STOPPER TO HAVE A PRECISE DEPTH
  16. 16. FLOW VS TAP DEPTH 100% 50% • • • • • 0.4 0.8 1.2 1.6 2.0 2.4 2.75 3.2 3.6 4.0 TAPPING DEPTH IN INCHES RECOMMENDED TAPPING DEPTH: 1 ¾” TO 2” MOST SAP PRODUCTION AT 2.75” TAPPING TOO SHALLOW; SPOUT MIGHT PULL OUT SPOUT SHOULD BE ¼” IN THE WHITE WOOD TAP FURTHER WILL BLOCK CHANNELS AND LOWER PROD.
  17. 17. TOOLS • IDEALLY USE AN 8 OZ HAMMER • PRACTICAL TO HAVE A SHARP BACK TO CLEAN UP THICK BARK
  18. 18. TAPPING GUIDELINES • HIT THE SPOUTS WITH THE RIGHT STRENGTH (WRIST) • USE A CDL 8 OZ HAMMER • WATCH FOR THE CHANGE OF SOUND AND STOP HITTING • DON’T HIT TOO HARD (TREE COULD SPLIT) • TOO SOFT AND THE SPOUT MIGHT PULL OUT • NEVER LEAVE AN UNTAPPED DROP LINE
  19. 19. SPOUTS • SMART SPOUTS • 7/16” • Hookless
  20. 20. Items used Sap Collection
  21. 21. SPOUTS & SANATIZING • A NEW SPOUT = 25% MORE PRODUCTION • COST $0.40 PER TAP FOR NEW SPOUTS INCLUDING LABOR AND IT PAYS OVER $2.00 IN EXTRA PRODUCTION • CAST ALUM SPOUTS SHOULD BE SOAKED IN FOOD GRADE HYDROGEN PEROXIDE AT THE END OF SEASON
  22. 22. WOODEN PLANK ON BOTH SIDES
  23. 23. WHEN TO TAP FACTORS TO CONSIDER • History of the area • Weather forecast • Orientation of the bush • Altitude • Size of the sugarbush
  24. 24. WHEN TO TAP • HIGH TEMPERATURE – Tap when it’s running; no effect • LOW TEMPERATURE – Slower – Trees more fragile
  25. 25. UNTAPPING • NEED TO BE DONE AS SOON AS POSSIBLE AFTER THE LAST RUN – THE LATER, THE MORE NONFUNCTIONAL WOOD (UP TO 20% MORE) – SPOUTS HARDER TO PULL OUT – CLEAN TUBING AT THE SAME TIME
  26. 26. CLEANING PRODUCTS SPRAY BOTTLE PEROXIDE
  27. 27. HOW TO USE A SYRUP HYDROMETER • Fill the hydrometer test cup with syrup until it is approximately 1 to 2 inches from the top and place it on a level surface. Do not fill the hydrometer cup with the hydrometer inside, as the syrup on the stem will add weight and affect the reading. Slowly lower the hydrometer into the syrup until it is floating on its own or resting on the bottom of the hydrometer cup. This is a very fragile instrument. DO NOT drop the hydrometer into the syrup, as this can cause the hydrometer to shatter.
  28. 28. HOW TO READ A SYRUP HYDROMETER • It is important to take a temperature reading at the same time as the hydrometer reading, because density changes with temperature. Take the hydrometer reading once the hydrometer has stopped bobbing. If you take the reading right from the evaporator drawoff (at 2110F), if the syrup is even with the top red line, you have the right density. If it’s below the line, the syrup is heavy. Add some sap to the boiling syrup to dilute. If the syrup is above the line, the syrup is light. Continue to boil the syrup.
  29. 29. HOW TO READ A SYRUP HYRDOMETER • FIRST IDENTIFY WHAT SCALE YOUR HYDROMETER IS WRITTEN IN: BRIX OR BAUME • HOT TEST LINE ON A BAUME SCALE IS 32 AND COLD TEST IS 36. COLD TEST SHOULD BE COMPLETED AT 60 DEGREES F. HOT TEST SHOULD BE 211 DEGREES F. • BRIX RANGE FOR MAPLE SYRUP 66% TO 68.9%
  30. 30. CARE & MAINTENANCE OF HYDROMETER 1. When purchasing a new hydrometer stand hydrometer in the box and mark the hot test line. 2. Do not drop hydrometer into cup this will cause the paper to slid and your reading to be inaccurate 3. Also wrap in paper and store in original box during the off season
  31. 31. Questions about the cooking process of your maple sap into maple syrup. ?
  32. 32. QUESTIONS ? THANK YOU

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