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Introduction to linux


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Introduction to linux

  1. 1. Sub-Zero Level The Guide before starting Linux (History & Install) Medhat DawoudMed7atDawoudMed7atDawoud
  2. 2. This session will split into 2 sectionsThe First section is intro to open source culture and thehistory of Linux and its features.The Second section is practical in which we will start thefestival with installing Linux on our machines and got yourfree Linux CD 
  3. 3. Intro to the Culture of
  4. 4. FLOSS• FLOSS = Free Libre Open Source Software.• This type of software uses a GPL or open source licences.• What it gives you? – Freedom to use – Freedom to examine – Freedom to redistribute – Freedom to modify• What it doesn’t let you do? – Deny these freedoms to anyone else
  5. 5. Linux History Timeline 1969 1990These are the most 1991effective years in Linux 1992 1993life the session will be 1997as a time line with 1998some interest 1999 2002 2003 2008 Today
  6. 6. Are You Ready ToListen To The History of Linux? Ok, … let‟s GO
  7. 7. 1969Unix Birth Year
  8. 8. What is Unix? • Unix was born. • Unix is an operating system. • Linux is a clone of Unix so we should know actually what is Unix and it‟s features. • The open source culture was found. • The GPL License was found by Richard Stallman
  9. 9. What is Unix? • The Internet was built on UNIX. – TCP/IP is a native UNIX protocol. – Today 80% of the worlds Internet Web servers are using Linux.
  10. 10. What is Unix? • Unix has commonly been used for the past 40 years. – It was created in 1969 - long before Microsoft existed. – It was the 1st worldwide commercial operating system.
  11. 11. What is Unix? Unix has always commonly been used on mainframes Today as “Linux” it is also commonly Being used on PC‟s as servers & desktop
  12. 12. Features in Unix• It was able to be run by various types of CPU‟s – Before Unix vendors commonly wrote their own Operating systems. – Which ran just on their own CPU’s and equipment. – Unix was written to be able to run on many different types of CPU’s
  13. 13. Unix was one of the first OS to supply:  a simple user interface.  simple utilities or commands that can be combined to perform powerful functions.
  14. 14. Unix was one of the first OS to supply:  a permanent hierarchical file system.  simple interface to connect new devices to the OS.  multi-user functions.
  15. 15. Unix was one of the first OS to supply:  multi-process system functions.  which was architecturally independent.  All of which was permanent and transparent to the user.
  16. 16. 1990 GNU
  17. 17. Richard Stallman• One of the people who started this “open” philosophy.• Has nearly completed his new GNU operating system based on the UNIX system. – He had most of the modules but was still missing the main part ! – The kernel.• He used C Programming language to write the code of GNU.
  18. 18. 1991Linux Kernel Creation
  19. 19. Linus Travalds1. Creates the Linux kernel based on the source code of Miniux which he studied at university.2. Choose the Penguin to represent his kernel.1. He did not write an entire operating system.2. When complete Linux kernel was released under the GPL license.3. He used C Programming language to write the Kernel.
  20. 20. 1992New OS was Born GNU/Linux
  21. 21. • The Linux kernel is combined with the already created GNU modules & utilities and now becomes a fully useable operating system.• So you should know that nobody owns Linux and most of it‟s developments are made by unpaid volunteers.• And the distributions was starting opening.
  22. 22. Now Linux Users are about 1000 Linux Users
  23. 23. 1993Internet explosion
  24. 24. Internet explosion starts and there‟s also an ISP explosion which cause‟s the 1st viable Linux commercial application
  25. 25. Apache Web Server
  26. 26. Now Linux Users are about500,000 Linux Users
  27. 27. 1997Catheral & Baazar
  28. 28. Eric Raymond writes a paper called the „Catheral & Baazar‟ in which he analyzes the development &differences of the „proprietary‟ software model verse the „opensource‟ software models.– The article takes the IT industry by storm.– Eric Raymond becomes a front man for the new open source movement.– Netscape director reads the article and in direct response freely releases the source code of the Navigator software. • Netscape is the 1st large company to go opensource.
  29. 29. Now Linux Users are about800,000 Linux Users
  30. 30. Many Linux Distributions AppearThis will discussed later in this Event  but for example we have:(RedHat Linux, SuSE Linux, Debian, Turbo Linux,.. etc)
  31. 31. 1998Linux got a great support
  32. 32. • Linus, Linux & the open source movement starts becoming commonly known. And gaining momentum.• Linus appears on TV.• On the front of the Forbes Business Magazine.• IBM, Oracle, Compaq, SAP + others announce their support for Linux.
  33. 33. Now Linux Users are about1.5 Million Linux Users
  34. 34. 1999First Conference
  35. 35. •1st Linux World Conference6000 people attend•Linus delivers the opening andkeynote presentation.•Red Hat goes public
  36. 36. 2002Fedora Birth
  37. 37. • Red Hat splits into 2 versions – RHEL - their enterprise/business version with which you purchase support. – Fedora – their home version with no support.
  38. 38. 2003Novell buys SuSE
  39. 39. • Novell buys SuSE Linux for $210 million• IBM is now the most powerful backer of Linux. – To counterbalance the world of Linux they make a 50 million dollar investment in Novell. – SuSE becomes the major enterprise competitor to Red Hat. – SLES - their enterprise/business version with which you purchase support – OpenSuSE – their home version with no support
  40. 40. 2008Linux has gone fully mainstream
  41. 41. Today Linux has grown from being a hacker/home developed OS to being accepted world wide– It is highly regarded and runs many many major enterprises.– Many sites are now also using it on their client machines.– Over 80% of web servers run Linux.
  42. 42. Now Linux Users are about20 to 30 Million Linux Users
  43. 43. TodayLinux is the most accepted OS
  44. 44. Linux became the most accepted OS foruniversities‟ students and Entrepreneurs because it‟s free and safe and suitable for them
  45. 45. Now Linux Users are about 91 Million Linux Users according to
  46. 46. Note That These Statistics are measured by counting number of machinesconnected to the internet that run GNU/Linux
  47. 47. The 2nd section of the session is to install Ubuntu 11.10 on our machines step by step
  48. 48. Screen Shots for installing Ubuntu 11.10 Follow the steps to get a new Ubuntu installed on your machine directly and then practice it your self :)
  49. 49. First step : Get Ubuntu 11.10 from the registration disk if you didnt got it yet
  50. 50. Its free
  51. 51. Second stepMake sure that you have at least 8 GB free space on your hard disk.• We will make 2 GB for the swap Partition.• And the other 6 GB for installing Ubuntu and other Packages later.
  52. 52. Step 3Put the Ubuntu CD into your CD Room. Play it. And Reboot your machine.
  53. 53. Note Thatthe Ubuntu will be loaded into the memoryand run as a life CD if you choose to try itnow as we will see in the practical view inthe next few minutes.
  54. 54. Then the screen will appear like this
  55. 55. Click on the super key orclick the menu button and write GParted
  56. 56. This will view the following Program for Partitioning
  57. 57. Note That: I created the ext4 partition and the Linux-swappartition .. in the practice will be explained
  58. 58. So we can format the partition to Ext4 File System and mark the Mount Point to / (root)
  59. 59. Select the language
  60. 60. Here is some options
  61. 61. Ubuntu is smart enough to keep your data :)
  62. 62. Then select the ext4 partition to mount from and then press install now
  63. 63. The installation is started andthere are some options to select your city to handle the time
  64. 64. Select Your Keyboard layout
  65. 65. Your personal information
  66. 66. Installation in progress
  67. 67.  Installation still in progress
  68. 68. Installation complete .. restart now
  69. 69. Medhat DawoudContacts : Med7atDawoud Med7atDawoud