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Forgings- A Study of its Manufacturing Processes & Techniques

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The term “Forging” is applied to processes in which a piece of metal is worked in a machine to the desired shape by plastic deformation of the starting stock. The energy that promotes deformation is applied by a hammer, press, up-setter or ring roller, either alone or in combination. The shape is imparted by the tools that contact the work piece and by careful control of the deformation process. A forging is produced in three distinct phases: stock preparation in the form of blooms, billets, bar or ingots; plastic deformation of the metal component to rough, close tolerance or net shape in one of the forging processes; and appropriate secondary operations

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Forgings- A Study of its Manufacturing Processes & Techniques

  1. 1. VISIT WWW.MECHIEPROJECTS.COM 1 A FINAL/THIRD YEAR MECHANICAL/ CIVIL ENGINNERING PROJECT REPORT ON A STUDY OF FORGINGS ITS TECHNIQUES AND MECHANISMS
  2. 2. VISIT WWW.MECHIEPROJECTS.COM 2 1. ABSTRACT The term “Forging” is applied to processes in which a piece of metal is worked in a machine to the desired shape by plastic deformation of the starting stock. The energy that promotes deformation is applied by a hammer, press, up-setter or ring roller, either alone or in combination. The shape is imparted by the tools that contact the work piece and by careful control of the deformation process. A forging is produced in three distinct phases: stock preparation in the form of blooms, billets, bar or ingots; plastic deformation of the metal component to rough, close tolerance or net shape in one of the forging processes; and appropriate secondary operations Forged metal components are used in wide range of environment where high strength and reliability are important considerations. The use of forging is to reduce material wastage and machining time, avoids complex machining operations and for mass production. Forged components find application in the automobile/automotive industry and in aerospace, aircraft, railroad, and mining equipment. Metal forging process is governed by many factors such as friction, complexity of parts, die shape and temperature of die and billet. In this study we are going to learn about the principles of material selection, heat treatment, and the design calculations, which is involved in forging of metal This project is a study of the forging process, forgings defects, the forging machines and their applications. In this project we also consider the manufacturing of crane wheels through the closed die forging process in which metal is plastically reshaped using dies. This involves the steps like design and material selection based on its properties. Machinery equipment’s used in forging are pneumatic hammer forging machines, furnaces, dies, band saw machines etc. Closed die forging process is used to obtain the final product in close tolerance. The furnace is the main equipment in which the billet is preheated to a temperature of 1200 degrees centigrade and then forged into required shape. It offers a high strength-to- weight ratio, toughness, and resistance to impact and fatigue.
  3. 3. VISIT WWW.MECHIEPROJECTS.COM 3 PAGE INTENTIONALLY LEFT BLANK VISIT WWW.MECHIEPROJECTS.COM
  4. 4. VISIT WWW.MECHIEPROJECTS.COM 4 7. DEFECTS IN FORGINGS Table 7.1: Forgings Defects and corresponding effects

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