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# Drag Reduction in Commercial Vehicles: Major Project

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The drag reduction on commercial vehicles using front deflectors is studied using CFD for Tata Ace vehicle. The tools used are Fluent & Gambit.

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1. 1. AERODYNAMIC DRAG REDUCTION IN COMMERCIAL VEHICLES (TATAACE) USING FRONT DEFLECTOR JJ TECHNICAL SOLUTIONS (www.mechieprojects.com)
2. 2. AIM 1. To study and understand the aerodynamic air flow over a TATAACE pickup truck 2. To calculate the aero-force acting on the vehicle for 10m/s velocity & compute the drag coefficient 3. To study and compare the effect of different shape of front deflectors on drag coefficient 4. To design the aerodynamic shape deflector for the minimum coefficient of drag.
3. 3. PROBLEM FORMULATION Tools Used: 1. Drafting/Modeling: SolidWorks 2. Meshing: Gambit 3. Analysis & Post Processing: Fluent Tata Ace Velocity Inlet Meshing of Model in Gambit & Defining Boundary Conditions Pressure Outlet Velocity Inlet Wall Types of Deflector Considered Case 1. No Deflector Case 2. Straight Deflector Case 3. Convex Deflector Case 4. Concave Deflector L2L 6L
4. 4. Problem Definition in FLUENT Define the problem as, Solver -Pressure based Formulation -Implicit Space -2D Time -Steady Viscous -Two-equation SST-k-omega model Enable the Energy equation The fluid type used is Air defined as ideal gas Operating pressure= 0 Pa
5. 5. LIFT, DRAG, AND MOMENT COEFFICIENTS • Behavior of L, D, and M depend on a, but also on velocity and altitude • V∞, r ∞, Wing Area (S), Wing Shape, m ∞, compressibility • Characterize behavior of L, D, M with coefficients (cl, cd, cm)  Re,, 2 1 2 1 3 2 2        Mfc Scq L ScV M c SccVM m m m a r r  Re,, 2 1 2 1 2 2 2        Mfc Sq D SV D c ScVD d d d a r r  Re,, 2 1 2 1 1 2 2        Mfc Sq L SV L c ScVL l l l a r r Note on Notation: We use lower case, cl, cd, and cm for infinite wings (airfoils) We use upper case, CL, CD, and CM for finite wings
6. 6. PRESSURE COEFFICIENT, CP • Use non-dimensional description, instead of plotting actual values of pressure • Pressure distribution in aerodynamic literature often given as Cp • So why do we care? • Distribution of Cp leads to value of cl • Easy to get pressure data in wind tunnels • Shows effect of M∞ on cl 2 2 1         V pp q pp Cp r
7. 7. Structured Grid/Mesh created in Gambit Types of Deflector Considered Case 1. No Deflector Case 2. Straight Deflector Case 3. Convex Deflector Case 4. Concave Deflector Velocity Inlet Pressure Outlet Velocity Inlet Wall
8. 8. Solution Convergence in Fluent
9. 9. Contours of Static Pressure around the Tata Ace at velocity = 10m/s Case 1 : No Deflector
10. 10. Contours of Dynamic Pressure around the Tata Ace at velocity = 10m/s Case 1 : No Deflector
11. 11. Contours of Velocity Magnitude around the Tata Ace at velocity = 10m/s Case 1 : No Deflector
12. 12. Contours of Velocity Magnitude around the Tata Ace at velocity = 10m/s Case 1 : No Deflector
13. 13. Contours of Velocity Magnitude around the Tata Ace at velocity = 10m/s Case 1 : No Deflector
14. 14. Velocity Magnitude Vectors around the Tata Ace at velocity = 10m/s Case 1 : No Deflector
15. 15. Pressure Coeff. Plot around the Tata Ace at velocity = 10m/s Case 1 : No Deflector
16. 16. Contours of Static Pressure around the Tata Ace at velocity = 10m/s Case 2 : Straight Deflector
17. 17. Contours of Velocity magnitude around the Tata Ace at velocity = 10m/s Case 2 : Straight Deflector
18. 18. Case 2 : Straight Deflector Contours of Velocity magnitude around the Tata Ace at velocity = 10m/s
19. 19. Case 2 : Straight Deflector Plot of Pressure Coeff. around the Tata Ace at velocity = 10m/s
20. 20. Case 3 : Convex Deflector Contours of Velocity magnitude around the Tata Ace at velocity = 10m/s
21. 21. Case 3 : Convex Deflector Contours of Velocity magnitude around the Tata Ace at velocity = 10m/s
22. 22. Case 3 : Convex Deflector Plot of Pressure Coeff. around the Tata Ace at velocity = 10m/s
23. 23. Case 4 : Concave Deflector Contours of Static Pressure around the Tata Ace at velocity = 10m/s
24. 24. Case 4 : Concave Deflector Contours of Velocity magnitude around the Tata Ace at velocity = 10m/s
25. 25. Case 4 : Concave Deflector Contours of Velocity magnitude around the Tata Ace at velocity = 10m/s
26. 26. Case 4 : Concave Deflector Plot of Pressure Coeff. around the Tata Ace at velocity = 10m/s
27. 27. Case 3 Case 2Case 1 Case 4
28. 28. Pressure Force (N) Viscous Force (N) Total force (N) Pressure Coeff. Viscous Coeff. Total Coeff. Lift Coeff. Drag Coeff. Config. 1 210.4669 1.719078 212.1859 1.527197 0.012474 1.539671 -1.14E+00 1.54E+00 Config. 2 134.3915 3.477828 137.8693 0.975176 0.025236 1.000412 -4.64E-01 1.00E+00 Config. 3 116.5591 2.387426 118.9465 0.84578 0.017324 0.863104 -3.93E-01 8.63E-01 Config. 4 220.5458 1.832951 222.3787 1.600332 0.0133 1.613632 -4.88E-03 1.61E+00 Types of Deflector Considered Case 1. No Deflector Case 2. Straight Deflector Case 3. Convex Deflector Case 4. Concave Deflector
29. 29. CONCLUSION 1. The contours of Velocity & Pressure is plotted, around the Tata Ace for velocity of 10m/s 2. The velocity increases near the tip of the highest portion of the vehicle at the point of sharp curvature changes 3. A swirl/ backflow is generated at the rear end of the car with negative velocity. 4. The pressure coefficient is plotted for the top & bottom side of the car. 5. The pressure force, viscous force and total force acting on the Tata Ace vehicle is plotted for different deflector configurations 6. The Drag coefficient (Cd) is minimum for Convex deflector. 7. By using a front deflector the Cd reduces from 1.61 to 0.863.
30. 30. FOR COMPLETE PRESENTATION, MORE PROJECTS PRESENTATIONS AND PROJECT REPORTS VISIT WWW.MECHIEPROJECTS.COM Email: contactus@mechieprojects.com THANKYOU
31. 31. This is purely an academic work and has no financial or other interest. The results achieved in this should be independently verified.