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Republic of the
Philippines
First Republic of the
Philippines
Emilio Aguinaldo 1899-1901
One way to remember the first president of the Philippines First Republic is to
look at the five peso coin. Gen. Emilio Aguinaldo's face used to grace the
five peso bill (which is not used anymore). The back of the bill shows him
holding the Philippine flag at the celebration of the Philippine
Independence Day.
Contributions and Achievements:
 first (and only) president of the First Republic (Malolos Republic)
 signed the Pact of Biak-na-Bato, creating a truce between the
Spanish and Philippine revolutionaries
 known as the President of the Revolutionary Government
 led the Philippines in the Spanish-Philippine War and the
American-Philippine War
 youngest president, taking office at age 28
 longest-lived president, passing away at 94
Manuel L. Quezon, 1935-1944
After 34 years of Insular Government under American rule, Philippine voters elected
Manuel Luis Quezon first president of the Commonwealth of the Philippines. He
is known as the “Father of National Language” (Ama ng Wikang Pambansa). He
died of tuberculosis in Saranac Lake, New York.
Contributions and Achievements:
 first Senate president elected as President of the Philippines
 first president elected through a national election
 first president under the Commonwealth
 created National Council of Education
 initiated women’s suffrage in the Philippines during the Commonwealth
 approved Tagalog/Filipino as the national language of the Philippines
 appears on the twenty-peso bill
 a province, a city, a bridge and a university in Manila are named after
him
 his body lies within the special monument on Quezon Memorial Circle
Second Republic of
the Philippines
José P. Laurel, 1943-1945
José P. Laurel's presidency is controversial. He was officially the
government's caretaker during the Japanese occupation of
World War II. Criticized as a traitor by some, his indictment for
treason was superseded later by an amnesty proclamation in
1948.
Contributions and Achievements:
 since the early 1960s, Laurel considered a legitimate president
of the Philippines
 organized KALIBAPI (Kapisanan sa Paglilingkod sa Bagong
Pilipinas, or Association for Service to the New Philippines), a
provisional government during Japanese occupation
 declared Martial Law and war between the Philippines and the
U.S./United Kingdom in 1944
 with his family, established the Lyceum of the Philippines

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Republika ng pilipinas

  • 2. First Republic of the Philippines
  • 3. Emilio Aguinaldo 1899-1901 One way to remember the first president of the Philippines First Republic is to look at the five peso coin. Gen. Emilio Aguinaldo's face used to grace the five peso bill (which is not used anymore). The back of the bill shows him holding the Philippine flag at the celebration of the Philippine Independence Day. Contributions and Achievements:  first (and only) president of the First Republic (Malolos Republic)  signed the Pact of Biak-na-Bato, creating a truce between the Spanish and Philippine revolutionaries  known as the President of the Revolutionary Government  led the Philippines in the Spanish-Philippine War and the American-Philippine War  youngest president, taking office at age 28  longest-lived president, passing away at 94
  • 4. Manuel L. Quezon, 1935-1944 After 34 years of Insular Government under American rule, Philippine voters elected Manuel Luis Quezon first president of the Commonwealth of the Philippines. He is known as the “Father of National Language” (Ama ng Wikang Pambansa). He died of tuberculosis in Saranac Lake, New York. Contributions and Achievements:  first Senate president elected as President of the Philippines  first president elected through a national election  first president under the Commonwealth  created National Council of Education  initiated women’s suffrage in the Philippines during the Commonwealth  approved Tagalog/Filipino as the national language of the Philippines  appears on the twenty-peso bill  a province, a city, a bridge and a university in Manila are named after him  his body lies within the special monument on Quezon Memorial Circle
  • 6. José P. Laurel, 1943-1945 José P. Laurel's presidency is controversial. He was officially the government's caretaker during the Japanese occupation of World War II. Criticized as a traitor by some, his indictment for treason was superseded later by an amnesty proclamation in 1948. Contributions and Achievements:  since the early 1960s, Laurel considered a legitimate president of the Philippines  organized KALIBAPI (Kapisanan sa Paglilingkod sa Bagong Pilipinas, or Association for Service to the New Philippines), a provisional government during Japanese occupation  declared Martial Law and war between the Philippines and the U.S./United Kingdom in 1944  with his family, established the Lyceum of the Philippines
  • 7. Sergio Osmeña, 1944-1946 Sergio Osmeña was the second president of the Commonwealth. During his presidency, the Philippines joined the International Monetary Fund. Contributions and Achievements:  became president at 65, making him the oldest person to hold office  first Visayan to become president  joined with U.S. Gen. Douglas McArthur in Leyte on October 20, 1944 to begin restoration of Philippine freedom after Japanese occupation  Philippine National Bank was rehabilitated and the country joined the International Monetary Fund during his presidency  Bell Trade Act was approved by the U.S. Congress during his presidency  appears on the 50-peso bill
  • 8. Third Republic of the Philippines
  • 9. Manuel Roxas, 1946-1948 Manuel Roxas was the fifth president of the Philippines: the third (and last) president under the Commonwealth, and the first president of the Third Republic of the Philippines. He held office for only one year, 10 months, and 18 days. Contributions and Achievements:  inaugurated as the first president of the new Republic after World War II  reconstruction from war damage and life without foreign rule began during his presidency  under his term, the Philippine Rehabilitation Act and Philippine Trade Act laws were accepted by Congress
  • 10. Elpidio Quirino, 1948-1953 Elpidio Quirino served as vice president under Manuel Roxas. When Roxas died in 1948, Quirino became president. Contributions and Achievements:  Hukbalahap guerrilla movement active during his presidency  created Social Security Commission  created Integrity Board to monitor graft and corruption Quezon City became capital of the Philippines in 1948
  • 11. Ramon Magsaysay, 1953-1957 Ramon Magsaysay was born in Iba, Zambales. He was a military governor and an engineer. He died in an aircraft disaster while boarding the presidential plane. Contributions and Achievements:  Hukbalahap movement quelled during his presidency  chairman of the Committee on Guerrilla Affairs  first president sworn into office wearing Barong Tagalog during inauguration  presidency referred to as the Philippines' "Golden Years" for its lack of corruption  Philippines was ranked second in Asia’s clean and well-governed countries during his presidency  established National Resettlement and Rehabilitation Administration (NARRA) among other agrarian reforms
  • 12. Carlos P. Garcia, 1957-1961 A lawyer, poet, and teacher, Carlos P. Garcia also served as a guerrilla leader during the Pacific War. Born in Bohol, Garcia serviced as vice president under Ramon Magsaysay and as secretary of Foreign Affairs for four years. He became president when Magsaysay died in 1957. Contributions and Achievements:  known for “Filipino First Policy,” which favored Filipino businesses over foreign investors  established the Austerity Program focusing on Filipino trade and commerce  known as the “Prince of Visayan Poets” and the “Bard from Bohol”  cultural arts was revived during his term  was the first president to have his remains buried at the Libingan ng mga Bayani
  • 13. Diosdado Macapagal, 1961-1965 Born in Lubao, Pampanga, Diosdado Macapagal was a lawyer and professor. His daughter Gloria Macapagal Arroyo was the 14th, and second female, president of the Philippines. Contributions and Achievements:  established the first Land Reform Law, allowing for the purchase of private farmland to be distributed in inexpensive, small lots to the landless  placed the Philippine peso on the currency exchange market  declared June 12, 1898 to be Philippines’ Independence Day  signed the Minimum Wage Law  created the Philippine Veteran’s Bank
  • 14. Ferdinand Marcos, 1965-1986 Born in Sarrat, Ilocos Norte, Ferdinand Edralin Marcos was a lawyer and Senate President for three years. He was president for 21 years. He ruled under martial law and his dictatorship was known for its corruption and brutality. Marcos was removed from office after the People Power Revolution. Contributions and Achievements:  first president to win a second term  declared Martial Law on Sept. 22, 1972  increased the size of Philippine military and armed forces  by 1980 the Philippine GNP was four times greater than 1972  by 1986 the Philippines was one of the most indebted countries in Asia  built more schools, roads, bridges, hospitals, and other infrastructure than all former presidents combined  the only president whose remains are interred inside a refrigerated crypt
  • 15. Fourth Republic of the Philippines
  • 16. Ferdinand Marcos, 1965-1986 • The last president of the Third Republic of the Philippines was President Ferdinand E. Marcos. Prior to the events of Martial Law, the first term of the Marcos administration, as emphasized in his inaugural address on December 30, 1965, focused on “the revival of the greatness of the nation.” • President Marcos, faced with the challenge of corruption in the government, reorganized the Armed Forces, the Philippine Constabulary, and the Bureau of Internal Revenue. In an attempt to solve the problem of technical smuggling, the Bureau of Customs was also reorganized. The administration, with a goal to strengthen the local economy, devised construction programs and irrigation projects. The promotion of Philippine heritage, culture, and arts was achieved through the establishment of the Cultural Center of the Philippines (CCP) in 1969.[27] • Marcos wanted the immediate construction of roads,bridges and public works, which included 16,000 meters of feeder roads, some 30,000 lineal meters of permanent bridges, a generator with an electric power capacity of one million kilowatts (1,000,000 kW), and water services to eight regions and 38 localities. • He also urged the revitalization of the judiciary,the national defense posture and the fight against smuggling, criminality, and graft and corruption in the government. He mobilized the manpower and resources of the Armed Forces of the Philippines (AFP) for action to complement civilian agencies in such activities as infrastructure construction; economic planning and program execution • He liberalized trade with the free world, hastening the industrialization of the Philippines. • He improved agricultural production to make the country self-sufficient in food, especially in rice. • Marcos also tried to strengthen the foreignrelations of the Philippines. He hosted a seven-nation summit conference on the crisis in South Vietnam in October, 1966. In support for the U.S. military efforts in South Vietnam, he agreed to send Filipino troops to that war zone. • He was an outspoken critic of communism. He sent forces to Vietnam to help the Americans, as well as medical teams to do humanitarian work. • The unemployment rate shrank from 7.20% in 1966 to just 5.20% in 1971. He developed a personality cult around himself, requiring businesses and schools all across the Philippines to have his official presidential picture displayed or their facilities shut down.
  • 17. Corazon Aquino, 1986-1992 Political Achievements: • proposed the creation of autonomous • provided the abolition of Batasang Pambansa and the reorganization of the government • To maintain peace and order in the country, President Aquino announced a policy of national reconciliation asking for the cooperation of the Filipinos especially the rebel groups. • President Cory gave them a freedom to be singled out from the country and declared it as ARMM. Economic Achievements: -The Comprehensive Agrarian Reform Program (CARP) was a land reform law signed by President Corazon Aquino on June 10, 1988 -CARP aims “for a more equitable distribution and ownership of land.” It meant to distribute lands to farmers in a span of 10 years, but was extended by the 11th Congress due to delays in land distribution and lack of budget allocation. Social Achievements: • DSWD (Department of Social-Welfare and Development) -Formerly called DSSD/MSSD objectives are: • 1) protection and rehabilitation of the mentally and • physically disabled • 2) provide complete services for the needy • 3) improve inhuman conditions •Generics law -The Generics Law of 1988 was hailed as a landmark law that could benefit the public but it has failed miserably, due to: 1.) weak support from doctors 2.)strong lobbying by multinational drug companies 3.)and the health department’s incompetence.
  • 18. Fifth Republic of the Philippines
  • 19. Corazon Aquino, 1986-1992 The first woman president of the Philippines and the first woman to become president of an Asian country, Corazon Aquino was born in Paniqui, Tarlac. She was a prominent figure in the People Power Revolution that brought down Ferdinand Marcos' dictatorship. Her husband, Benigno Aquino Jr., was a senator during the Marcos regime and its strongest critic. He was assassinated while Marcos was still in power. Contributions and Achievements:  first woman to be president of the Philippines or any Asian country  restored democracy  abolished the 1973 Marcos Constitution and ushered in the new Constitution of the Philippines  reorganized the structure of the executive branch of government  signed the Family Code of 1987, a major civil law reform, and 1191 Local Government Code, which reorganized the structure of the executive branch of government  initiated charitable and social activities helping the poor and the needy  named “Woman of the Year” in 1986 by Time magazine  on the new 500-peso bill together with her husband Benigno Aquino Received honors and awards including:  100 Women Who Shaped World History 20 Most Influential Asians of the 20th Century  65 Great Asian Heroes  J. William Fulbright Prize for International Understanding
  • 20. Fidel V. Ramos, 1992-1998 Fidel V. Ramos was the chief-of-staff of the Armed Forces of the Philippines before he became president. He was also a civil engineer. As president, he restored economic growth and stability in the country, even during the Asian Financial Crisis in 1997. He is the first, and so far the only, non-Catholic president of the Philippines. Contributions and Achievements:  oversaw Philippine economic growth  presided over celebrations of Philippine Independence Centennial in 1998  received British Knighthood from the United Kingdom by Queen Elizabeth II (Knight Grand Cross of the Order of St. Michael and St. George)  hosted the fourth Asia Pacific Economic Cooperation Leader's Summit in the Philippines in 1996  Philippine Stock Exchange became an international favorite during his presidency  death penalty reinstated while he was in office  signed peace agreement with the rebel Moro National Liberation Front
  • 21. Joseph Estrada, 1998-2001 Known as Erap, Joseph Estrada was the first president who had been a famous film actor. His presidency was controversial. During his years in office economic growth was slow and he faced impeachment proceedings. He was ousted from the presidency in 2001. He was later convicted of stealing from the government but was pardoned. He ran unsuccessfully for president in 2010. Contributions and Achievements:  during his presidency Moro Islamic Liberation Front headquarters and camps were captured  joined other leaders and politicians to try to amend the 1987 Constitution  cited as one of the Three Outstanding Senators in 1989  among the “Magnificent 12” who voted to terminate the agreement that allows for U.S. control of Clark Airbase and Subic Naval Base
  • 22. Gloria Macapagal Arroyo, 2001-2010 Gloria Macapagal Arroyo was the 14th, president of the Philippines (and the second female president). The Oakwood Mutiny occurred during her term. Arroyo oversaw road and infrastructure improvements and higher economic growth that presidents before her, but there was also controversy. The so-called "Hello Garci" controversy involved recordings that allegedly captured Arroyo ordering the rigging of the election that put her in office. In 2005 Arroyo faced impeachment proceedings related to the recordings but the impeachment failed. After she had left office Arroyo faced additional charges of election fraud and misuse of state funds. Contributions and Achievements:  second female president of the country  first and only female vice-president of the Philippines so far  first president to take oath outside Luzon  former Economics professor at the Ateneo de Manila University, where current president Benigno Aquino III was one of her students  ex-classmate of former U.S. President Bill Clinton at Georgetown University’s Walsh School of Foreign Service, where she maintained Dean’s list status  oversaw higher economic growth than the past three presidents before her  peso became the best-performing currency of the year in Asia in 2007  eVAT Law was implemented under her ter
  • 23. Benigno Aquino III, 2010-2016 Benigno Aquino III joined the House of Representatives and the Senate before his presidency. He is the first president who is a bachelor; he is unmarried and has no children. Contributions and Achievements:  created the no "wang-wang" (street siren) policy  appointed statesman Jesse Robredo to serve as secretary of Interior and Local Government in 2010, where Robredo served until his death in 2012  initiated K-12 education in the Philippines  renamed the Office of the Press Secretary to Presidential Communications Operations Office and appointed new officers  suspended allowances and bonuses to Government Owed and Controlled Corporation and Government Financial Institution board members oversaw 7.1% growth of the Philippine economy in 2012
  • 24. RODRIGO “DIGONG” ROA DUTERTE 2016- PRESENT•Bloody war on drugs The Duterte government has lived up to the President’s promise of a “relentless” anti-drugs campaign. •Tax reform law The first tax reform law (Tax Reform for Acceleration and Inclusion or TRAIN law) was signed in December 2017, Duterte’s 2nd year in office. •Bangsamoro autonomous region and government The signing then ratification of the Bangsamoro Organic Law is a major achievement for both the Mindanaoan President and Congress. •Universal health care Beginning with a campaign promise to give the poorest Filipinos access to hospitals and medicines, Duterte ended up pushing for and signing the Universal Health Care law, with the help of Congress. Now it’s a major measure that was often used in the 2016 campaign as brownie points for voters. •Free college education Although it was never a campaign promise, Duterte pushed for the enactment of the free tertiary education law, against the advice of his economic managers. The government’s fiscalizers now face the challenge of finding funding for this expensive law every year but it’s a welcome development for Filipino families everywhere. •Cutting red tape Duterte’s simple promise to reduce processing of government permits to 3 days has branched into various presidential actions meant to cut red tape. He signed the Ease of Doing Business Act, issued an executive order for faster anti-poverty services, put up the 8888 hotline for citizen complaints, and constantly reminds Cabinet members to streamline processes in their departments. •Aggressive infrastructure plan Promising to build “legacy” railways during his term, Duterte has thrown his support for his economic managers’ Build, Build, Build program. The government secured a loan from Japan and the Asian Development Bank for the North-South Railway. It also got a loan from Japan for the rehabilitation of the rotting Metro Rail Transit Line 3 (MRT3). But it’s Duterte’s promised Mindanao Railway that still lacks funding. Despite talks with China for this project, there is still no signed deal. •Environmental policies Some of Duterte’s most decisive policies were on the environment. In fell verbal swoops, he closed world-famous Boracay for rehabilitation, jump-started efforts to clean Manila Bay and Laguna Lake, and got Canada to take back its illegal garbage stranded in the Philippines for 6 years. He’s threatened mining companies and local government officials who don’t follow environmental