Successfully reported this slideshow.
We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. You can change your ad preferences anytime.
Teaching AdultsA 2014GED®TestResourceBookDeveloped byProLiteracyD R A F T
DRAFTISBN 978-1-56420-XXX-XCopyright © 2013 New Readers PressNew Readers PressProLiteracy’s Publishing Division104 Marcell...
DRAFT3C o n t e n t sContents1 Introduction .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  ...
DRAFT4 T e ac h i n g adult s : a G E D ® TEST r e s o urc e b o o k10 Digital Literacy .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  ....
DRAFT©NewReadersPress.Allrightsreserved.5C H A P TE R 2 : T h e G E D ® T e s tThe GED® TestHistoryThe GED test offers an ...
DRAFT©NewReadersPress.Allrightsreserved.6 T e ac h i n g adult s : a G E D ® TEST r e s o urc e b o o kThe 2002 GED test s...
DRAFT©NewReadersPress.Allrightsreserved.7C H A P TE R 2 : T h e G E D ® T e s tFramework for K-12 Science Education, the N...
DRAFT©NewReadersPress.Allrightsreserved.8 T e ac h i n g adult s : a G E D ® TEST r e s o urc e b o o kWhat Does the Test ...
DRAFT©NewReadersPress.Allrightsreserved.9C H A P TE R 2 : T h e G E D ® T e s tThe four content areas will often overlap. ...
DRAFT©NewReadersPress.Allrightsreserved.10 T e ac h i n g adult s : a G E D ® TEST r e s o urc e b o o kItem Type Descript...
DRAFT©NewReadersPress.Allrightsreserved.11C H A P TE R 2 : T h e G E D ® T e s tOther ChangesScoring: The new test will ha...
DRAFT©NewReadersPress.Allrightsreserved.12 T e ac h i n g adult s : a G E D ® TEST r e s o urc e b o o kActivity1 Predicti...
DRAFT©NewReadersPress.Allrightsreserved.13C o n t e n t sActivity2 Prediction: Create and Test a HypothesisPurposeTo guide...
DRAFT©NewReadersPress.Allrightsreserved.14 T e ac h i n g adult s : a G E D ® TEST r e s o urc e b o o kMethod1.	 Select a...
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in …5
×

Teaching Adults: A 2014 GED Test Resource Book Sampler

3,448 views

Published on

Most recently updated sampler of the book now available from New Readers Press! Order at NewReadersPress.com or from your state sales representative! Reviewed by GED Testing Service for the most accurate information on the new exam.

Published in: Education, Business
  • Be the first to comment

Teaching Adults: A 2014 GED Test Resource Book Sampler

  1. 1. Teaching AdultsA 2014GED®TestResourceBookDeveloped byProLiteracyD R A F T
  2. 2. DRAFTISBN 978-1-56420-XXX-XCopyright © 2013 New Readers PressNew Readers PressProLiteracy’s Publishing Division104 Marcellus Street, Syracuse, New York 13204www.newreaderspress.comAll rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced or transmitted in any form orby any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, or by anyinformation storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher.GED® is a registered trademark of the American Council on Education (ACE) and administered exclusively by GED TestingService LLC under license. This material is not endorsed or approved by ACE or GED Testing Service.Printed in the United States of America9  8  7  6  5  4  3  2  1Proceeds from the sale of New Readers Press materials support professionaldevelopment, training, and technical assistance programs of ProLiteracythat benefit local literacy programs in the U.S. and around the globe.Developmental Editor: Terrie LipkeDesign and Production Director: James WallaceTechnology Specialist: Maryellen CaseySenior Designer: Carolyn Wallace
  3. 3. DRAFT3C o n t e n t sContents1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . XXThis BookProLiteracy2 The GED Test . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . XXHistoryThe 2014 GED Test3 Teaching Adults . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . XX4 Selecting Instructional Materials . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . XX5 Using an Interdisciplinary Approach toPrepare Students for the GED Test . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . XXActivities6. Reasoning through Language Arts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . XXActivities7 Mathematical Reasoning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . XXActivities8 Science . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . XXActivities9 Social Studies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . XXActivities
  4. 4. DRAFT4 T e ac h i n g adult s : a G E D ® TEST r e s o urc e b o o k10 Digital Literacy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . XXActivities AppendixesA: What Do People Have to Be Able to Do to Pass the GED Test? (p. XX)
  5. 5. DRAFT©NewReadersPress.Allrightsreserved.5C H A P TE R 2 : T h e G E D ® T e s tThe GED® TestHistoryThe GED test offers an opportunity for people to demonstrate they have developedskills equivalent to those of a high school graduate. To date, more than 18 millionindividuals have passed the GED® test. Over the years since its inception, the testhas changed as well as the reasons that people take the test.G.E.D. originally stood for General Educational Development. The AmericanCouncil on Education (ACE) developed the GED test in 1942. As the United Statesentered World War II, the Military requested a standardized assessment tomeasure the skills of drafted soldiers who didn’t finish high school. The test wasmainly used to determine if people had the level of knowledge required for entry-level employment. Veterans also used the GED® test as a credential to enter theworkforce after returning home. After a few years, ACE made the test available tothe U.S. public.GED Testing Service® (GEDTS) has revised the test several times to keep pace withchanges in education and the economy. The 1978 test series introduced real-lifecontexts and reading materials while test items shifted from recollection of factsto application of conceptual knowledge. The 1988 test series featured the additionof the written essay and also emphasized critical thinking and problem solving.These changes were made when it became clear that more people were taking thetest to enter postsecondary education than to apply for entry-level jobs.The fourth test series was released in 2002 and reflected the latest high schoolcontent standards. Since then, people have been taking the GED test to get entry-level jobs, to advance in their careers, to begin career training, and to apply forpostsecondary education. All 50 states and the District of Columbia use 2002 GEDtest results in order to issue high school equivalency diplomas. In addition, 98% ofcolleges and universities and 96% of employers accept the GED test credential asequivalent to a high school diploma on applications. The test is now administeredin all 50 states, U.S. provinces, Canada, and in various locations around the world.2
  6. 6. DRAFT©NewReadersPress.Allrightsreserved.6 T e ac h i n g adult s : a G E D ® TEST r e s o urc e b o o kThe 2002 GED test series consists of five subject area tests: Reading, Writing, Math,Science, and Social Studies. The entire test takes a little more than seven hoursto complete. Though originally a paper-and-pencil test, it has been making thetransition to computer. By the end of 2013, most states are slated to offer this teston computer at authorized GED testing centers. This paves the way for the newcomputer-based assessment to be released in January 2014.The GED test credential is not a diploma. It is a standard measure of skills used bystate jurisdictions to issue a high school equivalency credential. This distinctionis important because the new 2014 GED test will not be the only high schoolequivalency assessment. Several states may create and/or offer other assessmentsin addition to the GED test. Two such alternative tests are the Test AssessingSecondary Completion (TASC) from McGraw-Hill and the High School EquivalencyTest (HiSET) from ETS.Forthcoming national assessments and curricula will likely reference the CommonCore State Standards (CCSS) as a common language. To date, 45 states, the Districtof Columbia, four territories, and the Department of Defense Education Activityhave adopted the math and language arts standards which were developed for usewith K-12 students.The 2014 TestIn response to the movement toward the CCSS and the development ofcollege- and career-readiness standards, ACE began to rethink the purpose anddevelopment of the GED test. In 2011, ACE joined with Pearson VUE® to create thenew GED Testing Service, LLC. With an eye toward the future, GEDTS began workon the new 2014 GED Test series which will debut on January 2, 2014.Test DevelopmentFollowing are some of the changes that guided GEDTS in developing the new test.Standards-based: GEDTS wanted the assessment to measure the knowledgeand skills adults need to be successful in careers and in postsecondary education.To that end, they relied on widely accepted standards when developing theassessment targets. The assessment targets describe the skills and knowledgethat the GED test measures. The Common Core State Standards (CCSS), Collegeand Career Readiness (CCR) anchor standards, Texas College and Career ReadinessStandards, Virginia Standards of Learning, The National Research Council’sNote: Check the GEDTS website regularly for updated information on all thefollowing topics.
  7. 7. DRAFT©NewReadersPress.Allrightsreserved.7C H A P TE R 2 : T h e G E D ® T e s tFramework for K-12 Science Education, the National Curriculum Standards forSocial Studies, and the National Standards for History were used to develop theassessment targets.While not aligned solely to the CCSS, the new test will be impacted by the changesthat the CCSS signify. For instance, CCSS sets higher expectations for readingcomprehension and thinking skills in grades K-12. For more information aboutCCSS, see www.corestandards.org. See Appendix A for lists of specific skills thatpeople are expected to have and topics they are expected to be familiar with inorder to pass the GED test.Depth of Knowledge: On the 2002 GED test, Bloom’s Taxonomy guided itemdevelopment by defining levels of activity required to complete tasks. In contrast,the 2014 test uses Webb’s Depth of Knowledge (DOK) which focuses on thecomplexity of the cognitive processes adults use to perform those activities. TheDOK consists of four levels:• Level 1: Recall – Tasks require recall or recognition of skills or behaviors.GED test example – Recall the sequence of events in a reading passage.• Level 2: Skill/concept – Tasks require mental processing beyond recall orrecognition, such as using information or making decisions. Tasks entailmore than one mental or cognitive process.GED test example – Summarize the main events in a reading passage.• Level 3: Strategic thinking – Tasks require reasoning, analysis, and deepunderstanding of content, for example problem solving and drawingconclusions. Tasks may have more than one possible answer or may requirejustification for an answer.GED test example – Analyze the dialogue between two characters in areading passage, and describe the interaction using evidence from the text.• Level 4: Extended thinking – Tasks require the integration of knowledgefrom multiple sources and usually involve work over an extended length oftime.GED test example – No test items will require level 4 thinking.Since the new test emphasizes higher order thinking skills, GEDTS used DOK tohelp develop test items that require mental processing at mainly levels 2 and 3.Only about 20% of the test items will require level one DOK, 80% will require levelstwo and three, and no items will require level four.For more information about DOK and the GED test, go to www.gedtestingservice.com/exploring-the-2014-ged-test-webinar-archive
  8. 8. DRAFT©NewReadersPress.Allrightsreserved.8 T e ac h i n g adult s : a G E D ® TEST r e s o urc e b o o kWhat Does the Test Look Like?Computer-based: Beginning in January, 2014, the GED test will be delivered andmanaged on computers at authorized Pearson VUE® testing centers. It is importantto note that though the test will be on computer, it is not Internet-based. Testingcenters will download the test onto computers, and test-takers will not be connectedto the Internet during testing. The test is also not adaptive. In other words, testitems do not increase or decrease in difficulty depending on test-takers’ answers.In addition to answering multiple-choice items, test-takers will need to respond toa variety of technology-enhanced item types. These items will require test-takersto type a response (e.g., fill-in-the-blank, short answer, and extended response),drag and drop answers to the correct place, select answers from drop-down menusembedded within text, and manipulate hot-spot items with sensors (e.g., plot apoint on a graph). See chapters 6–9 for details on the types of items on each test. Seechapter 10 for more information on the digital skills required.Late in 2013, a half-length, electronic readiness test will be released. GED Ready willbe available for purchase to individuals and to organizations through the GEDTSwebsite as well as through New Readers Press and other GED-test preparationpublishers.Test-takers will be able to register online at any time, from any computer withInternet access. They will also pay online with a credit card or voucher. Threeversions of each subject area test will be available the first year, allowing for tworetakes. More versions may become available over time.Test-takers who are unable to take a computerized test due to disability must fillout an Accommodations Request form and follow the Documentation Guidelinesfor Candidates found at www.gedtestingservice.com/testers/accommodations-for-disability. See chapter 3 for more information on accommodations.Interdisciplinary assessment: The new GED test battery will have four sections:Reasoning through Language Arts (RLA), Mathematical Reasoning, Science,and Social Studies. Total time for the new test is about seven hours. Readingand writing tasks will be combined on the RLA test. Literacy and quantitativereasoning will be assessed in context across all sections. With the addition ofconstructed response items, writing will also be assessed across three of the fourtests:• Two short answer items on the science test will require a brief, typedresponse. Answer length is expected to be a few sentences or a paragraph.The suggested time for this task is ten minutes.• Two extended response items will require test-takers to read and analyzemultiple passages and/or graphic stimuli and respond to a prompt.• One 45-minute extended response prompt will appear on the RLA test.• One 25-minute extended response prompt will appear on the socialstudies test.
  9. 9. DRAFT©NewReadersPress.Allrightsreserved.9C H A P TE R 2 : T h e G E D ® T e s tThe four content areas will often overlap. For example, test-takers might have todemonstrate reading skills on a science passage or do math calculations to answera social studies question. You will find more details on each test in chapters 6–9.Varied Item Format: The change to a computer-based test allows for morevariety in question formats. In that way, the test can measure more complex skillsand concepts and also allow people to demonstrate basic computer skills. Thecomputer-based item formats also allow for quick scoring by computer.Test-takers need to be able to use the mouse, do basic keyboarding, and use somedirectional tools to answer questions. The chart shows item types, which test willthey appear on, a description of how they work, examples of test items, and howthey are scored.Item Type Description Examples ScoringMultiple choice(Tests: RLA, Math,Science, SocialStudies)Use the mouse toclick and select thecorrect answerfrom four choices.Similar to questions on 2002test, but only four answeroptions.1 point eachDrag and drop(Tests: RLA, Math,Science, SocialStudies)Use the mouse toclick and select thecorrect answerfrom four choices.Drag numbers and numericalexpressions to assemblean equation. Drag wordsor phrases into a graphicorganizer to compare them,categorize them, or put themin sequence.1 point eachHot spot(Tests: Math,Science, SocialStudies)Click on itemsthat have virtualsensors in orderto select answersor select theplacement of anitem.Click items to select multipleanswers. Click on a graph ormap to indicate the correctplacement of an item, such asa point or place.1 point eachDrop-down(Tests: RLA, Math,Science, SocialStudies)Click to select theanswer from adrop-down menu.Choose the correct sentencefrom a drop-down menuembedded within a textpassage to demonstrateediting skills on the RLAtest. Choose a word, phrase,or numerical expressionto complete a passage orequation on the social studiesor math test.1 point each
  10. 10. DRAFT©NewReadersPress.Allrightsreserved.10 T e ac h i n g adult s : a G E D ® TEST r e s o urc e b o o kItem Type Description Examples ScoringFill in the blank(Tests: RLA, Math,Science, SocialStudies)Type a number,word, or phraseinto an answerbox.Type a word, phrase, ornumber to complete astatement or answer aquestion.1 point eachShort answer(Test: Science)Type a fewsentences or aparagraph inresponse to aprompt based ona text passage orgraphic stimulus.Write a summary, conclusion,or hypothesis. Cite textevidence to support aconclusion.3 points maxMay be scoredholistically orawarded 1 pointfor each part ofa multiple-partanswer.Extended response(Tests: RLA, SocialStudies)Type a writtenresponse to aprompt that isbased on oneor more textpassages and/orgraphic stimuli.RLA: 45-minute taskSS: 25-minute taskRead and analyze sourcetext(s). Type a response to theprompt that includes a thesisstatement and an argumentthat supports the thesis anduses evidence cited from thetext(s).RLA: 12 pointsmaxSS: 7 pointsmaxBoth will bescored usingthree-traitrubrics.Test Navigation: Navigating the test requires basic computer skills: mouseclicking and scrolling. A split screen display allows test-takers to see passages and/or graphics alongside questions. Scrolling may be required to see some passagesand graphics. Longer passages will be divided into pages with numbered tabs.Test-takers will be able to “flip” the pages by clicking on the tabs.Test-takers will also be able to navigate from question to question, backwards orforwards. The item number will be displayed at the top of the screen. “Previous”and “Next” arrows at the bottom of the screen can be used to move from questionto question.If a test-taker is unsure about a question and wants to revisit it later, he/she can“flag for review.” Clicking on the flag icon at the top of the page marks a questionwith a flag. At the end of the test, a summary chart will list flagged questions sothat the test-taker may return to them.
  11. 11. DRAFT©NewReadersPress.Allrightsreserved.11C H A P TE R 2 : T h e G E D ® T e s tOther ChangesScoring: The new test will have two cut scores. One passing level score will be usedto demonstrate high school equivalency and another higher score will be used todemonstrate career and college readiness.Test scores for each of the tests will range from about 100 to 200 points.The passing level score for high school equivalency will be 150. To pass theentire battery, a minimum total score of 600 will be required. The test will bestandardized and normed using a representative sample of graduating high schoolseniors from across the nation.The career and college readiness cut score will be determined based onlongitudinal studies of GED test-passers, so it will not be available until after 2014.An automated scoring engine will score the tests and provide scores to test-takerswithin a few hours of test completion. If an extended response item is flagged bythe scoring engine to be scored by a person, the score report may be delayed. Newdetailed score reports will include information about test-takers’ strengths andabout areas in which test-takers need more work.Even the short- and extended-response items will be scored by computer. Eachshort response item will have specific answer requirements. Scoring guides andexemplars will be developed by humans and used to train the computer to analyzeand score the responses.Increased price: For the first year, the cost to deliver the test will be $120, buttesting centers may set the price for test-takers higher or lower. Check with yourlocal testing center for the price in your area. The cost for each retake will be $30.You can locate the nearest testing center by entering your location on the GEDTSwebsite at www.gedtestingservice.com.
  12. 12. DRAFT©NewReadersPress.Allrightsreserved.12 T e ac h i n g adult s : a G E D ® TEST r e s o urc e b o o kActivity1 Prediction: Make a HypothesisPurposeTo make a hypothesis based on evidence or data.Method1. Introduce the term hypothesis. Ask learners what they think hypothesis means.“Thesis” means the main idea, and “hypo” is not complete. In other words,a hypothesis is like a prediction that you make based on some incompleteinformation. Explain that like a prediction, a hypothesis can be proved right orwrong by getting more information or evidence or by experimenting.2. Present learners with a partial text passage or infographic. For instance, givethem the title, labels, and key to a graph or the key vocabulary and title of apassage. Ask them to write a one-sentence prediction or hypothesis about thetext or graphic.3. After learners have written their hypotheses, supply them with the completetext or graphic to read. Read and go over the information to make sure theyunderstand it.4. Ask learners if their hypotheses were correct. Have them read their hypothesesaloud and then explain why they are right or wrong, using evidence from thetext or graphic as proof.Suggestions• Use this hypothesis activity as a prereading activity: Present learners with thetitle of and the key vocabulary for a new lesson or reading passage. Have learnerssort and categorize the vocabulary words into labeled groups with a headingthat tells what the subject is (e.g., tropical rain forests: organisms, insects, andprocesses). As a prereading activity, ask learners to use the categorized terms toformulate hypotheses about what they will learn in the reading.Example:Hypothesis: In the rain forest, a parasitic fungus called ophiocordyceps unilateralislives on or in carpenter ants.Rain Forestsorganisms insects processesparasitic fungus:ophiocordycepsunilateraliscarpenter ants feeds onreproduces by producingspores
  13. 13. DRAFT©NewReadersPress.Allrightsreserved.13C o n t e n t sActivity2 Prediction: Create and Test a HypothesisPurposeTo guide learners through the process of making and testing a hypothesisMethod1. Ask learners what they think hypothesis means. Explain. “Thesis” meansthe main idea, and “hypo” means not complete. A hypothesis is what youthink before you have all the information. Explain that a hypothesis is like aprediction or an educated guess that you make based on just the informationyou have.2. Show learners the title and introduction to a passage, graphic, or problem. Askthem to predict the result or the main idea based on that information. Havelearners to write their predictions as one sentence hypotheses. Capture ideason a flipchart or whiteboard.a. Reading passage: Show the title or the title and the first sentence. Predict the main idea (What will this story be about?) or predict what the outcome or conclusion will be (What will happen next?)b. Graphic: Show the title or show the labels and key to a graph or map. Ask what the title is (Name this graph/map) or ask what the graphic will show (Summarize the meaning of this graph/data)3. After everyone has made their hypotheses, give learners the entire passage,problem, or graphic. Read and review together. As learners see the rest of thecontent, it should become obvious whether their predictions were correct.Discuss incorrect hypotheses, and talk about the dangers of making predictionsbased on incomplete information.Activity3 Graphic Organizer: Pros and ConsPurposeTo make a visual representation of pros and cons that learners can use to makedecisions
  14. 14. DRAFT©NewReadersPress.Allrightsreserved.14 T e ac h i n g adult s : a G E D ® TEST r e s o urc e b o o kMethod1. Select a reading passage or graphic that describes a position or decision.Examples:a. Social Studies: Should the U.S. have gotten involved in World War I? Were you for or against the War in Iraq? Should the U.S. send foreign aid to other countries?b. Science: Should the city install wind turbines to produce energy? Should big cars and trucks be taken off the road? Should your school or home go green?c. Math: Should every employer offer health insurance? Is life insurance a good investment?2. Explain the scenario and the purpose for the activity: to use a graphicorganizer to sort evidence for (pro) and against (con) a position.3. Create (draw on the board or pass out copies) or ask learners to create a T-chart.Write the position or decision you are debating at the top. Label the leftcolumn “Pros” and the right column “Cons.”4. Ask learners to name some reasons for or against this decision. Demonstratehow to use the chart to capture ideas in the appropriate column. Generate a listof pros and cons.Should the U.S. send foreign aid to other countries?PROS CONS1. 1. Costs money and increasesU.S. debt2. 2.5. Ask one learner to read the pros and another to read the cons. Ask if anyonewould like to make any changes or additions to the lists.6. Initiate a discussion: Based on this list, would learners vote for or againstthe topic? Take a class vote. Ask voters to say what evidence from the chartconvinced them to vote as they did.Suggestion• Extend this activity by asking students to choose a position and write briefessay explaining and defending that position, citing evidence from thechart.

×