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Introduction to Linguistic Subfields

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LING 100 Tutorial Slides
- Introduction to the traditional linguistic subfields: phonetics, phonology, morphology, syntax, semantics and pragmatics.

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Introduction to Linguistic Subfields

  1. 1. 1 Introduction 2 Phonetics and Phonology 3 Morphology and Syntax 4 Semantics and Pragmatics 5 Conclusion An Introduction to Linguistics What’s a Language? Linguistic Subfields Meagan Louie M. Louie Introductory Linguistics
  2. 2. 1 Introduction 2 Phonetics and Phonology 3 Morphology and Syntax 4 Semantics and Pragmatics 5 Conclusion Q: What is Linguistics? Linguistics is the study of language M. Louie Introductory Linguistics
  3. 3. 1 Introduction 2 Phonetics and Phonology 3 Morphology and Syntax 4 Semantics and Pragmatics 5 Conclusion Q: What is Linguistics? Linguistics is the study of language Taking a scientific approach to studying language: M. Louie Introductory Linguistics
  4. 4. 1 Introduction 2 Phonetics and Phonology 3 Morphology and Syntax 4 Semantics and Pragmatics 5 Conclusion Q: What is Linguistics? Linguistics is the study of language Taking a scientific approach to studying language: 1 Observe some language phenomena 2 Make a hypothesis about the phenomena M. Louie Introductory Linguistics
  5. 5. 1 Introduction 2 Phonetics and Phonology 3 Morphology and Syntax 4 Semantics and Pragmatics 5 Conclusion Q: What is Linguistics? Linguistics is the study of language Taking a scientific approach to studying language: 1 Observe some language phenomena 2 Make a hypothesis about the phenomena 3 Test your hypothesis M. Louie Introductory Linguistics
  6. 6. 1 Introduction 2 Phonetics and Phonology 3 Morphology and Syntax 4 Semantics and Pragmatics 5 Conclusion Q: What is Linguistics? Linguistics is the study of language Taking a scientific approach to studying language: 1 Observe some language phenomena 2 Make a hypothesis about the phenomena 3 Test your hypothesis 4 Revise your hypothesis 5 Test your revised hypothesis M. Louie Introductory Linguistics
  7. 7. 1 Introduction 2 Phonetics and Phonology 3 Morphology and Syntax 4 Semantics and Pragmatics 5 Conclusion Q: What is Linguistics? Linguistics is the study of language Taking a scientific approach to studying language: 1 Observe some language phenomena 2 Make a hypothesis about the phenomena 3 Test your hypothesis 4 Revise your hypothesis 5 Test your revised hypothesis 6 Repeat steps 4 and 5 M. Louie Introductory Linguistics
  8. 8. 1 Introduction 2 Phonetics and Phonology 3 Morphology and Syntax 4 Semantics and Pragmatics 5 Conclusion Q: What is Linguistics? Linguistics is the study of language Taking a scientific approach to studying language: 1 Observe some language phenomena 2 Make a hypothesis about the phenomena 3 Test your hypothesis 4 Revise your hypothesis 5 Test your revised hypothesis 6 Repeat steps 4 and 5 Q: So what is there in a language to study? M. Louie Introductory Linguistics
  9. 9. 1 Introduction 2 Phonetics and Phonology 3 Morphology and Syntax 4 Semantics and Pragmatics 5 Conclusion The Core Subdomains of Linguistics Language is a complex thing that consists of many different parts M. Louie Introductory Linguistics
  10. 10. 1 Introduction 2 Phonetics and Phonology 3 Morphology and Syntax 4 Semantics and Pragmatics 5 Conclusion The Core Subdomains of Linguistics Language is a complex thing that consists of many different parts Linguistics likewise, can be broken down into different parts M. Louie Introductory Linguistics
  11. 11. 1 Introduction 2 Phonetics and Phonology 3 Morphology and Syntax 4 Semantics and Pragmatics 5 Conclusion The Core Subdomains of Linguistics Language is a complex thing that consists of many different parts Linguistics likewise, can be broken down into different parts Phonetics Phonology Morphology Syntax Semantics Pragmatics M. Louie Introductory Linguistics
  12. 12. 1 Introduction 2 Phonetics and Phonology 3 Morphology and Syntax 4 Semantics and Pragmatics 5 Conclusion Hypothesis 1 Hypothesis 1b Q: What is a Language? Hypothesis 1: A language is a collection of sounds English = { p, t, k, tS, S, D, T, i,u, ej, ,... } French = { p, t, k, b, d, g S, i, y, e, ... } Blackfoot = { p, t, k, i, o, a.. } M. Louie Introductory Linguistics
  13. 13. 1 Introduction 2 Phonetics and Phonology 3 Morphology and Syntax 4 Semantics and Pragmatics 5 Conclusion Hypothesis 1 Hypothesis 1b Core Subdomains: Phonetics Phonetics is the study of speech sounds (i) How do you make these sounds? (ii) What properties do these sounds have? (iii) etc. M. Louie Introductory Linguistics
  14. 14. 1 Introduction 2 Phonetics and Phonology 3 Morphology and Syntax 4 Semantics and Pragmatics 5 Conclusion Hypothesis 1 Hypothesis 1b Hypothesis 1: A language is a collection of sounds But language can’t just be an unstructured set of sounds (1) a. [pit] English b. *[pti] c. *[ptSD] M. Louie Introductory Linguistics
  15. 15. 1 Introduction 2 Phonetics and Phonology 3 Morphology and Syntax 4 Semantics and Pragmatics 5 Conclusion Hypothesis 1 Hypothesis 1b Hypothesis 1: A language is a collection of sounds But language can’t just be an unstructured set of sounds (1) a. [pit] English b. *[pti] c. *[ptSD] Observation: Sounds restricted in how they combine into syllables M. Louie Introductory Linguistics
  16. 16. 1 Introduction 2 Phonetics and Phonology 3 Morphology and Syntax 4 Semantics and Pragmatics 5 Conclusion Hypothesis 1 Hypothesis 1b Hypothesis 1: A language is a collection of sounds But language can’t just be an unstructured set of sounds (1) a. [pit] English b. *[pti] c. *[ptSD] Observation: Sounds restricted in how they combine into syllables Sounds should be categorized, eg. into consonants and vowels M. Louie Introductory Linguistics
  17. 17. 1 Introduction 2 Phonetics and Phonology 3 Morphology and Syntax 4 Semantics and Pragmatics 5 Conclusion Hypothesis 1 Hypothesis 1b Hypothesis 1: A language is a collection of sounds But language can’t just be an unstructured set of sounds (1) a. [pit] English b. *[pti] c. *[ptSD] Observation: Sounds restricted in how they combine into syllables Sounds should be categorized, eg. into consonants and vowels This should be represented in our model of language English = { { p, t, k, tS, S, D, T,... }, { i,u, ej, ... } } M. Louie Introductory Linguistics
  18. 18. 1 Introduction 2 Phonetics and Phonology 3 Morphology and Syntax 4 Semantics and Pragmatics 5 Conclusion Hypothesis 1 Hypothesis 1b Phonology Phonology is the study of how speech sounds pattern (i) What sounds are there? (ii) What sorts of categories do speech sounds fall into? (iii) How can these sounds combine? (iv) etc. M. Louie Introductory Linguistics
  19. 19. 1 Introduction 2 Phonetics and Phonology 3 Morphology and Syntax 4 Semantics and Pragmatics 5 Conclusion Hypothesis 1 Hypothesis 1b Phonology Phonology is the study of how speech sounds pattern (i) What sounds are there? (ii) What sorts of categories do speech sounds fall into? (iii) How can these sounds combine? (iv) etc. Hypothesis 1b: A language is a structured collection of sounds M. Louie Introductory Linguistics
  20. 20. 1 Introduction 2 Phonetics and Phonology 3 Morphology and Syntax 4 Semantics and Pragmatics 5 Conclusion Hypothesis 1 Hypothesis 1b Another Observation Consider the following sequence: STAGE 1: I think of something (Thought 1) M. Louie Introductory Linguistics
  21. 21. 1 Introduction 2 Phonetics and Phonology 3 Morphology and Syntax 4 Semantics and Pragmatics 5 Conclusion Hypothesis 1 Hypothesis 1b Another Observation Consider the following sequence: STAGE 1: I think of something (Thought 1) STAGE 2: You know the content of Thought 1 M. Louie Introductory Linguistics
  22. 22. 1 Introduction 2 Phonetics and Phonology 3 Morphology and Syntax 4 Semantics and Pragmatics 5 Conclusion Hypothesis 1 Hypothesis 1b Another Observation Consider the following sequence: STAGE 1: I think of something (Thought 1) STAGE 2: You know the content of Thought 1 Question: How do we get from Stage One to Stage 2? M. Louie Introductory Linguistics
  23. 23. 1 Introduction 2 Phonetics and Phonology 3 Morphology and Syntax 4 Semantics and Pragmatics 5 Conclusion Hypothesis 2 Hypothesis 2b Q: What is Language? Hypothesis 1b: A language is a structured collection of sounds × M. Louie Introductory Linguistics
  24. 24. 1 Introduction 2 Phonetics and Phonology 3 Morphology and Syntax 4 Semantics and Pragmatics 5 Conclusion Hypothesis 2 Hypothesis 2b Q: What is Language? Hypothesis 1b: A language is a structured collection of sounds × There’s more to language than just sounds M. Louie Introductory Linguistics
  25. 25. 1 Introduction 2 Phonetics and Phonology 3 Morphology and Syntax 4 Semantics and Pragmatics 5 Conclusion Hypothesis 2 Hypothesis 2b Q: What is Language? Hypothesis 1b: A language is a structured collection of sounds × There’s more to language than just sounds The sounds of a language combine to form words. M. Louie Introductory Linguistics
  26. 26. 1 Introduction 2 Phonetics and Phonology 3 Morphology and Syntax 4 Semantics and Pragmatics 5 Conclusion Hypothesis 2 Hypothesis 2b Q: What is Language? Hypothesis 2: A language is a collection of words M. Louie Introductory Linguistics
  27. 27. 1 Introduction 2 Phonetics and Phonology 3 Morphology and Syntax 4 Semantics and Pragmatics 5 Conclusion Hypothesis 2 Hypothesis 2b Q: What is Language? Hypothesis 2: A language is a collection of words English = { dog, cat, apple, the, a, run, eat, red, fat, be, on, ... } French = { chien, chat, pomme, le/la/les, un/une/des, courir, manger, rouge, gros, être, sur, ... } Blackfoot = { imitaa, poos, aapastaaminaam, amo/omi/oma/omistsi/omiksi, okska’si, ooyi/owatoo/oowat, maohksinattsi, omaahka’pii, ohkit, ... } M. Louie Introductory Linguistics
  28. 28. 1 Introduction 2 Phonetics and Phonology 3 Morphology and Syntax 4 Semantics and Pragmatics 5 Conclusion Hypothesis 2 Hypothesis 2b Q: What is Language? Hypothesis 2: A language is a collection of words English = { dog, cat, apple, the, a, run, eat, red, fat, be, on, ... } French = { chien, chat, pomme, le/la/les, un/une/des, courir, manger, rouge, gros, être, sur, ... } Blackfoot = { imitaa, poos, aapastaaminaam, amo/omi/oma/omistsi/omiksi, okska’si, ooyi/owatoo/oowat, maohksinattsi, omaahka’pii, ohkit, ... } But a language can’t just be an unstructured set of words: M. Louie Introductory Linguistics
  29. 29. 1 Introduction 2 Phonetics and Phonology 3 Morphology and Syntax 4 Semantics and Pragmatics 5 Conclusion Hypothesis 2 Hypothesis 2b What’s a Language? Observation: Only some English words can appear in the position marked in red (i.e., in the frame ’The ..... dog’) (2) a. The red dog ran b. The fat dog ran c. *The apple dog ran d. *The eat dog ran e. *The a dog ran f. *The with dog ran M. Louie Introductory Linguistics
  30. 30. 1 Introduction 2 Phonetics and Phonology 3 Morphology and Syntax 4 Semantics and Pragmatics 5 Conclusion Hypothesis 2 Hypothesis 2b What’s a Language? Observation: Only some English words can appear in the position marked in red (i.e., in the frame ’The ..... dog’) (2) a. The red dog ran b. The fat dog ran c. *The apple dog ran d. *The eat dog ran e. *The a dog ran f. *The with dog ran If English was just a set of words, we wouldn’t be able to account for why only some words can occur in this position M. Louie Introductory Linguistics
  31. 31. 1 Introduction 2 Phonetics and Phonology 3 Morphology and Syntax 4 Semantics and Pragmatics 5 Conclusion Hypothesis 2 Hypothesis 2b What’s a Language? (3) a. The red dog ran b. The fat dog ran c. *The apple dog ran d. *The eat dog ran e. *The a dog ran (4) a. The red dog ran b. A red dog ran c. *Eat red dog ran d. *Cat red dog ran e. *on red dog ran (5) a. The red dog ran b. The red dog ate c. *The red dog cat d. *The red dog a e. *The red dog on (6) a. The red dog ran b. The red cat ran c. *The red eat ran d. *The red a ran e. *The red on ran M. Louie Introductory Linguistics
  32. 32. 1 Introduction 2 Phonetics and Phonology 3 Morphology and Syntax 4 Semantics and Pragmatics 5 Conclusion Hypothesis 2 Hypothesis 2b What’s a Language? Observation: Different words have different distributions M. Louie Introductory Linguistics
  33. 33. 1 Introduction 2 Phonetics and Phonology 3 Morphology and Syntax 4 Semantics and Pragmatics 5 Conclusion Hypothesis 2 Hypothesis 2b What’s a Language? Observation: Different words have different distributions We can account for this if language puts words into different categories Nouns Verbs Adjectives Determiners Prepositions cat, dog,... eat, run,... red, fat,... the, a,... under, on,... M. Louie Introductory Linguistics
  34. 34. 1 Introduction 2 Phonetics and Phonology 3 Morphology and Syntax 4 Semantics and Pragmatics 5 Conclusion Hypothesis 2 Hypothesis 2b What’s a Language? Observation: Different words have different distributions We can account for this if language puts words into different categories Nouns Verbs Adjectives Determiners Prepositions cat, dog,... eat, run,... red, fat,... the, a,... under, on,... Question: Is there any independent evidence for these categories? M. Louie Introductory Linguistics
  35. 35. 1 Introduction 2 Phonetics and Phonology 3 Morphology and Syntax 4 Semantics and Pragmatics 5 Conclusion Hypothesis 2 Hypothesis 2b What’s a Language? Hypothesis 2b: Language is a collection of words that fall into specific word-categories, eg., N, V, Adj, Det, P M. Louie Introductory Linguistics
  36. 36. 1 Introduction 2 Phonetics and Phonology 3 Morphology and Syntax 4 Semantics and Pragmatics 5 Conclusion Hypothesis 2 Hypothesis 2b What’s a Language? Hypothesis 2b: Language is a collection of words that fall into specific word-categories, eg., N, V, Adj, Det, P Independent Evidence: Only nouns can be pluralized N V Adj Det P cat, dog,... eat, run,... red, fat,... the, a,... under, on,... cat-s, dog-s *eat-s, *run-s *red-s, *fat-s *the-s, *a-s *under-s, M. Louie Introductory Linguistics
  37. 37. 1 Introduction 2 Phonetics and Phonology 3 Morphology and Syntax 4 Semantics and Pragmatics 5 Conclusion Hypothesis 2 Hypothesis 2b What’s a Language? Independent Evidence: Only verbs can be past tense N V Adj Det cat, dog,... smile, walk,... red, fat,... the, a,... *cat-ed, *dog-ed smile-d, walk-ed *red-ed, *fat-ed *the-ed, *a-ed Independent Evidence: Only adjectives can be superlative N V Adj Det cat, dog,... smile, walk,... red, fat,... the, a,... *cat-est, *dog-est smile-st, walk-est reddest, fattest *the-est, *a-est M. Louie Introductory Linguistics
  38. 38. 1 Introduction 2 Phonetics and Phonology 3 Morphology and Syntax 4 Semantics and Pragmatics 5 Conclusion Hypothesis 2 Hypothesis 2b Syntax and Morphology Observation: The "collection of words" that make up (part of) a language is structured in terms of M. Louie Introductory Linguistics
  39. 39. 1 Introduction 2 Phonetics and Phonology 3 Morphology and Syntax 4 Semantics and Pragmatics 5 Conclusion Hypothesis 2 Hypothesis 2b Syntax and Morphology Observation: The "collection of words" that make up (part of) a language is structured in terms of (i) The external distribution of words (eg., where words of a certain category can occur within a phrase or sentence) M. Louie Introductory Linguistics
  40. 40. 1 Introduction 2 Phonetics and Phonology 3 Morphology and Syntax 4 Semantics and Pragmatics 5 Conclusion Hypothesis 2 Hypothesis 2b Syntax and Morphology Observation: The "collection of words" that make up (part of) a language is structured in terms of (i) The external distribution of words (eg., where words of a certain category can occur within a phrase or sentence) (ii) The internal structure of words (eg., what things ("morphemes") can be be combined to form words) M. Louie Introductory Linguistics
  41. 41. 1 Introduction 2 Phonetics and Phonology 3 Morphology and Syntax 4 Semantics and Pragmatics 5 Conclusion Hypothesis 2 Hypothesis 2b Syntax and Morphology Syntax is the study of how words combine to form sentences (i) "word order" (ii) How to form phrases and sentences (iii) How to categorize types of phrases, types of sentences (iv) etc. Morphology is the study of words (i) How to categorize words (ii) How to form words (iii) etc. M. Louie Introductory Linguistics
  42. 42. 1 Introduction 2 Phonetics and Phonology 3 Morphology and Syntax 4 Semantics and Pragmatics 5 Conclusion Hypothesis 3 Hypothesis 3b Hypothesis 4 Q: What is Language? Hypothesis 3: Language consists of: M. Louie Introductory Linguistics
  43. 43. 1 Introduction 2 Phonetics and Phonology 3 Morphology and Syntax 4 Semantics and Pragmatics 5 Conclusion Hypothesis 3 Hypothesis 3b Hypothesis 4 Q: What is Language? Hypothesis 3: Language consists of: (i) A structured collection of sounds M. Louie Introductory Linguistics
  44. 44. 1 Introduction 2 Phonetics and Phonology 3 Morphology and Syntax 4 Semantics and Pragmatics 5 Conclusion Hypothesis 3 Hypothesis 3b Hypothesis 4 Q: What is Language? Hypothesis 3: Language consists of: (i) A structured collection of sounds Instructions about how to make them PHONETICS Rules re: how these sounds combine . PHONOLOGY M. Louie Introductory Linguistics
  45. 45. 1 Introduction 2 Phonetics and Phonology 3 Morphology and Syntax 4 Semantics and Pragmatics 5 Conclusion Hypothesis 3 Hypothesis 3b Hypothesis 4 Q: What is Language? Hypothesis 3: Language consists of: (i) A structured collection of sounds Instructions about how to make them PHONETICS Rules re: how these sounds combine . PHONOLOGY (ii) A structured collection of words and "morphemes" LEXICON M. Louie Introductory Linguistics
  46. 46. 1 Introduction 2 Phonetics and Phonology 3 Morphology and Syntax 4 Semantics and Pragmatics 5 Conclusion Hypothesis 3 Hypothesis 3b Hypothesis 4 Q: What is Language? Hypothesis 3: Language consists of: (i) A structured collection of sounds Instructions about how to make them PHONETICS Rules re: how these sounds combine . PHONOLOGY (ii) A structured collection of words and "morphemes" LEXICON Rules re: how morphemes combine into words . MORPHOLOGY Rules re: how words combine into phrases, sentences . SYNTAX M. Louie Introductory Linguistics
  47. 47. 1 Introduction 2 Phonetics and Phonology 3 Morphology and Syntax 4 Semantics and Pragmatics 5 Conclusion Hypothesis 3 Hypothesis 3b Hypothesis 4 Q: What is Language? Hypothesis 3: Language consists of: (i) A structured collection of sounds Instructions about how to make them PHONETICS Rules re: how these sounds combine . PHONOLOGY (ii) A structured collection of words and "morphemes" LEXICON Rules re: how morphemes combine into words . MORPHOLOGY Rules re: how words combine into phrases, sentences . SYNTAX But you need more than these in order to know a language! M. Louie Introductory Linguistics
  48. 48. 1 Introduction 2 Phonetics and Phonology 3 Morphology and Syntax 4 Semantics and Pragmatics 5 Conclusion Hypothesis 3 Hypothesis 3b Hypothesis 4 Recall the Previous Observation Consider the following sequence: STAGE 1: I think of something (Thought 1) STAGE 2: You know the content of Thought 1 M. Louie Introductory Linguistics
  49. 49. 1 Introduction 2 Phonetics and Phonology 3 Morphology and Syntax 4 Semantics and Pragmatics 5 Conclusion Hypothesis 3 Hypothesis 3b Hypothesis 4 Recall the Previous Observation Consider the following sequence: STAGE 1: I think of something (Thought 1) STAGE 2: You know the content of Thought 1 A word is not just a combination of sounds M. Louie Introductory Linguistics
  50. 50. 1 Introduction 2 Phonetics and Phonology 3 Morphology and Syntax 4 Semantics and Pragmatics 5 Conclusion Hypothesis 3 Hypothesis 3b Hypothesis 4 Observation: Words aren’t just sounds. (7) The butterfly is sitting on the cat’s back. M. Louie Introductory Linguistics
  51. 51. 1 Introduction 2 Phonetics and Phonology 3 Morphology and Syntax 4 Semantics and Pragmatics 5 Conclusion Hypothesis 3 Hypothesis 3b Hypothesis 4 Observation: Words aren’t just sounds. (7) The butterfly is sitting on the cat’s back. . True! False! M. Louie Introductory Linguistics
  52. 52. 1 Introduction 2 Phonetics and Phonology 3 Morphology and Syntax 4 Semantics and Pragmatics 5 Conclusion Hypothesis 3 Hypothesis 3b Hypothesis 4 Truth-Conditional Meaning When you know a language, you know what the world has to look like in order for a sentence to be true - i.e., you know its truth-conditions. M. Louie Introductory Linguistics
  53. 53. 1 Introduction 2 Phonetics and Phonology 3 Morphology and Syntax 4 Semantics and Pragmatics 5 Conclusion Hypothesis 3 Hypothesis 3b Hypothesis 4 Truth-Conditional Meaning When you know a language, you know what the world has to look like in order for a sentence to be true - i.e., you know its truth-conditions. You have to know M. Louie Introductory Linguistics
  54. 54. 1 Introduction 2 Phonetics and Phonology 3 Morphology and Syntax 4 Semantics and Pragmatics 5 Conclusion Hypothesis 3 Hypothesis 3b Hypothesis 4 Truth-Conditional Meaning When you know a language, you know what the world has to look like in order for a sentence to be true - i.e., you know its truth-conditions. You have to know (i) The meaning of words - eg., what they refer to, and (ii) How the meanings of the words combine to form the meanings of phrases and sentences M. Louie Introductory Linguistics
  55. 55. 1 Introduction 2 Phonetics and Phonology 3 Morphology and Syntax 4 Semantics and Pragmatics 5 Conclusion Hypothesis 3 Hypothesis 3b Hypothesis 4 Semantics Semantics is the study of meaning (i) The meaning of words . LEXICAL SEMANTICS (ii) How the meanings of words combine to form the meaning (i.e., truth-conditions) of sentences . COMPOSITIONAL SEMANTICS (iii) etc. M. Louie Introductory Linguistics
  56. 56. 1 Introduction 2 Phonetics and Phonology 3 Morphology and Syntax 4 Semantics and Pragmatics 5 Conclusion Hypothesis 3 Hypothesis 3b Hypothesis 4 Q: What is Language? Hypothesis 3b: Language consists of: 1Where words and "morphemes" and sound, meaning pairs. M. Louie Introductory Linguistics
  57. 57. 1 Introduction 2 Phonetics and Phonology 3 Morphology and Syntax 4 Semantics and Pragmatics 5 Conclusion Hypothesis 3 Hypothesis 3b Hypothesis 4 Q: What is Language? Hypothesis 3b: Language consists of: (i) A structured collection of sounds 1Where words and "morphemes" and sound, meaning pairs. M. Louie Introductory Linguistics
  58. 58. 1 Introduction 2 Phonetics and Phonology 3 Morphology and Syntax 4 Semantics and Pragmatics 5 Conclusion Hypothesis 3 Hypothesis 3b Hypothesis 4 Q: What is Language? Hypothesis 3b: Language consists of: (i) A structured collection of sounds Instructions about how to make them PHONETICS Rules re: how these sounds combine . PHONOLOGY 1Where words and "morphemes" and sound, meaning pairs. M. Louie Introductory Linguistics
  59. 59. 1 Introduction 2 Phonetics and Phonology 3 Morphology and Syntax 4 Semantics and Pragmatics 5 Conclusion Hypothesis 3 Hypothesis 3b Hypothesis 4 Q: What is Language? Hypothesis 3b: Language consists of: (i) A structured collection of sounds Instructions about how to make them PHONETICS Rules re: how these sounds combine . PHONOLOGY (ii) A structured collection of words and "morphemes"1 LEXICON 1Where words and "morphemes" and sound, meaning pairs. M. Louie Introductory Linguistics
  60. 60. 1 Introduction 2 Phonetics and Phonology 3 Morphology and Syntax 4 Semantics and Pragmatics 5 Conclusion Hypothesis 3 Hypothesis 3b Hypothesis 4 Q: What is Language? Hypothesis 3b: Language consists of: (i) A structured collection of sounds Instructions about how to make them PHONETICS Rules re: how these sounds combine . PHONOLOGY (ii) A structured collection of words and "morphemes"1 LEXICON Rules re: how morphemes combine into words . MORPHOLOGY Rules re: how words combine into phrases, sentences . SYNTAX 1Where words and "morphemes" and sound, meaning pairs. M. Louie Introductory Linguistics
  61. 61. 1 Introduction 2 Phonetics and Phonology 3 Morphology and Syntax 4 Semantics and Pragmatics 5 Conclusion Hypothesis 3 Hypothesis 3b Hypothesis 4 Q: What is Language? Hypothesis 3b: Language consists of: (i) A structured collection of sounds Instructions about how to make them PHONETICS Rules re: how these sounds combine . PHONOLOGY (ii) A structured collection of words and "morphemes"1 LEXICON Rules re: how morphemes combine into words . MORPHOLOGY Rules re: how words combine into phrases, sentences . SYNTAX Rules re: how the meaning of words/"morphemes" combine into the meaning (i.e., truth-conditions) of sentences . SEMANTICS 1Where words and "morphemes" and sound, meaning pairs. M. Louie Introductory Linguistics
  62. 62. 1 Introduction 2 Phonetics and Phonology 3 Morphology and Syntax 4 Semantics and Pragmatics 5 Conclusion Hypothesis 3 Hypothesis 3b Hypothesis 4 Are we done yet? Another Observation: (8) CONTEXT: We’re watching Raven dance right now. a. Raven is dancing True! b.#Raven was dancing True! M. Louie Introductory Linguistics
  63. 63. 1 Introduction 2 Phonetics and Phonology 3 Morphology and Syntax 4 Semantics and Pragmatics 5 Conclusion Hypothesis 3 Hypothesis 3b Hypothesis 4 Are we done yet? Another Observation: (8) CONTEXT: We’re watching Raven dance right now. a. Raven is dancing True! b.#Raven was dancing True! When you know a language, you know more than just how to calculate the truth-conditions of sentences M. Louie Introductory Linguistics
  64. 64. 1 Introduction 2 Phonetics and Phonology 3 Morphology and Syntax 4 Semantics and Pragmatics 5 Conclusion Hypothesis 3 Hypothesis 3b Hypothesis 4 Are we done yet? Another Observation: (8) CONTEXT: We’re watching Raven dance right now. a. Raven is dancing True! b.#Raven was dancing True! When you know a language, you know more than just how to calculate the truth-conditions of sentences You also know when using sentence is acceptable (felicitous) regardless of whether or not it’s true M. Louie Introductory Linguistics
  65. 65. 1 Introduction 2 Phonetics and Phonology 3 Morphology and Syntax 4 Semantics and Pragmatics 5 Conclusion Hypothesis 3 Hypothesis 3b Hypothesis 4 Pragmatics Pragmatics is the study of language in context (i) The non truth-conditional meanings of words, phrases and sentences (ii) How these meanings interact with context (iii) how these meanings interact with truth-conditional meaning (iv) etc. M. Louie Introductory Linguistics
  66. 66. 1 Introduction 2 Phonetics and Phonology 3 Morphology and Syntax 4 Semantics and Pragmatics 5 Conclusion Hypothesis 3 Hypothesis 3b Hypothesis 4 Hypothesis 4: Language consists of: 2Where words and "morphemes" and sound, meaning pairs. M. Louie Introductory Linguistics
  67. 67. 1 Introduction 2 Phonetics and Phonology 3 Morphology and Syntax 4 Semantics and Pragmatics 5 Conclusion Hypothesis 3 Hypothesis 3b Hypothesis 4 Hypothesis 4: Language consists of: (i) A structured collection of sounds 2Where words and "morphemes" and sound, meaning pairs. M. Louie Introductory Linguistics
  68. 68. 1 Introduction 2 Phonetics and Phonology 3 Morphology and Syntax 4 Semantics and Pragmatics 5 Conclusion Hypothesis 3 Hypothesis 3b Hypothesis 4 Hypothesis 4: Language consists of: (i) A structured collection of sounds Instructions about how to make them PHONETICS Rules re: how these sounds combine . PHONOLOGY 2Where words and "morphemes" and sound, meaning pairs. M. Louie Introductory Linguistics
  69. 69. 1 Introduction 2 Phonetics and Phonology 3 Morphology and Syntax 4 Semantics and Pragmatics 5 Conclusion Hypothesis 3 Hypothesis 3b Hypothesis 4 Hypothesis 4: Language consists of: (i) A structured collection of sounds Instructions about how to make them PHONETICS Rules re: how these sounds combine . PHONOLOGY (ii) A structured collection of words and "morphemes"2 LEXICON 2Where words and "morphemes" and sound, meaning pairs. M. Louie Introductory Linguistics
  70. 70. 1 Introduction 2 Phonetics and Phonology 3 Morphology and Syntax 4 Semantics and Pragmatics 5 Conclusion Hypothesis 3 Hypothesis 3b Hypothesis 4 Hypothesis 4: Language consists of: (i) A structured collection of sounds Instructions about how to make them PHONETICS Rules re: how these sounds combine . PHONOLOGY (ii) A structured collection of words and "morphemes"2 LEXICON Rules re: how morphemes combine into words . MORPHOLOGY Rules re: how words combine into phrases, sentences . SYNTAX Rules re: how the meaning of words/"morphemes" combine into the meaning (i.e., truth-conditions) of sentences . SEMANTICS 2Where words and "morphemes" and sound, meaning pairs. M. Louie Introductory Linguistics
  71. 71. 1 Introduction 2 Phonetics and Phonology 3 Morphology and Syntax 4 Semantics and Pragmatics 5 Conclusion Hypothesis 3 Hypothesis 3b Hypothesis 4 Hypothesis 4: Language consists of: (i) A structured collection of sounds Instructions about how to make them PHONETICS Rules re: how these sounds combine . PHONOLOGY (ii) A structured collection of words and "morphemes"2 LEXICON Rules re: how morphemes combine into words . MORPHOLOGY Rules re: how words combine into phrases, sentences . SYNTAX Rules re: how the meaning of words/"morphemes" combine into the meaning (i.e., truth-conditions) of sentences . SEMANTICS Rules re: how to use words/sentences felicitously . PRAGMATICS 2Where words and "morphemes" and sound, meaning pairs. M. Louie Introductory Linguistics
  72. 72. 1 Introduction 2 Phonetics and Phonology 3 Morphology and Syntax 4 Semantics and Pragmatics 5 Conclusion Conclusion: A language consists of M. Louie Introductory Linguistics
  73. 73. 1 Introduction 2 Phonetics and Phonology 3 Morphology and Syntax 4 Semantics and Pragmatics 5 Conclusion Conclusion: A language consists of (i) A structured collection of sounds Phonetic Inventory M. Louie Introductory Linguistics
  74. 74. 1 Introduction 2 Phonetics and Phonology 3 Morphology and Syntax 4 Semantics and Pragmatics 5 Conclusion Conclusion: A language consists of (i) A structured collection of sounds Phonetic Inventory (ii) A respository of meaning Semantic Ontology M. Louie Introductory Linguistics
  75. 75. 1 Introduction 2 Phonetics and Phonology 3 Morphology and Syntax 4 Semantics and Pragmatics 5 Conclusion Conclusion: A language consists of (i) A structured collection of sounds Phonetic Inventory (ii) A respository of meaning Semantic Ontology (iii) Rules about how these elements combine (i.e., the "GRAMMAR") M. Louie Introductory Linguistics
  76. 76. 1 Introduction 2 Phonetics and Phonology 3 Morphology and Syntax 4 Semantics and Pragmatics 5 Conclusion Conclusion: A language consists of (i) A structured collection of sounds Phonetic Inventory (ii) A respository of meaning Semantic Ontology (iii) Rules about how these elements combine (i.e., the "GRAMMAR") sounds into complex sounds M. Louie Introductory Linguistics
  77. 77. 1 Introduction 2 Phonetics and Phonology 3 Morphology and Syntax 4 Semantics and Pragmatics 5 Conclusion Conclusion: A language consists of (i) A structured collection of sounds Phonetic Inventory (ii) A respository of meaning Semantic Ontology (iii) Rules about how these elements combine (i.e., the "GRAMMAR") sounds into complex sounds sound and meanings into sound, meaning pairs M. Louie Introductory Linguistics
  78. 78. 1 Introduction 2 Phonetics and Phonology 3 Morphology and Syntax 4 Semantics and Pragmatics 5 Conclusion Conclusion: A language consists of (i) A structured collection of sounds Phonetic Inventory (ii) A respository of meaning Semantic Ontology (iii) Rules about how these elements combine (i.e., the "GRAMMAR") sounds into complex sounds sound and meanings into sound, meaning pairs morphemes into words M. Louie Introductory Linguistics
  79. 79. 1 Introduction 2 Phonetics and Phonology 3 Morphology and Syntax 4 Semantics and Pragmatics 5 Conclusion Conclusion: A language consists of (i) A structured collection of sounds Phonetic Inventory (ii) A respository of meaning Semantic Ontology (iii) Rules about how these elements combine (i.e., the "GRAMMAR") sounds into complex sounds sound and meanings into sound, meaning pairs morphemes into words words into phrases and sentences M. Louie Introductory Linguistics
  80. 80. 1 Introduction 2 Phonetics and Phonology 3 Morphology and Syntax 4 Semantics and Pragmatics 5 Conclusion Conclusion: A language consists of (i) A structured collection of sounds Phonetic Inventory (ii) A respository of meaning Semantic Ontology (iii) Rules about how these elements combine (i.e., the "GRAMMAR") sounds into complex sounds sound and meanings into sound, meaning pairs morphemes into words words into phrases and sentences simple morpheme meanings into complex meanings M. Louie Introductory Linguistics
  81. 81. 1 Introduction 2 Phonetics and Phonology 3 Morphology and Syntax 4 Semantics and Pragmatics 5 Conclusion Conclusion: A language consists of (i) A structured collection of sounds Phonetic Inventory (ii) A respository of meaning Semantic Ontology (iii) Rules about how these elements combine (i.e., the "GRAMMAR") sounds into complex sounds sound and meanings into sound, meaning pairs morphemes into words words into phrases and sentences simple morpheme meanings into complex meanings complex meanings with context M. Louie Introductory Linguistics

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