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Ethical practice and rational use

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Ethical practice and rational use by Martha Gyansa-Lutterodt of Ghana National Drugs Programme during the MeTA Ghana CSO & media orientation workshop, 16 April 2009.

Published in: Health & Medicine
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Ethical practice and rational use

  1. 1. Martha Gyansa-Lutterodt (Mrs.) Ghana National Drugs Programme Ethical Practice and Rational use 06/09/09 Ethical Practice and Rational Use of Medicines
  2. 2. Outline <ul><li>Introduction </li></ul><ul><li>The ethics of our jobs </li></ul><ul><li>Rational use </li></ul><ul><li>Regulations </li></ul><ul><li>Conclusion </li></ul>06/09/09 Ethical Practice and Rational Use of Medicines
  3. 3. Introduction <ul><li>The Sunyani declaration </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The preamble of The Code is meant to ensure that members adhere to the highest ethical standards, professional competence and good behavior in carrying out their duties </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Social responsibility: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>‘ In collecting and disseminating information, the journalist should bear in mind his/her responsibility to the public at large and the various interests in society’ </li></ul></ul></ul>06/09/09 Ethical Practice and Rational Use of Medicines
  4. 4. Rational Use of Medicines <ul><li>The rational use of medicines requires that patients receive medicines appropriate to their clinical needs, in doses that meet their own individual requirements, for an adequate period of time, and at the lowest cost to them and the community. </li></ul><ul><li>(WHO 1975) </li></ul>06/09/09 Ethical Practice and Rational Use of Medicines
  5. 5. ‘ Criteria’ for Using Medicines <ul><li>Appropriate indication </li></ul><ul><li>Appropriate drug </li></ul><ul><li>Affordable & necessary </li></ul><ul><li>Appropriate administration, dosage and duration </li></ul><ul><li>Appropriate patient </li></ul><ul><li>Appropriate patient information </li></ul><ul><li>Appropriate evaluation </li></ul>06/09/09 Ethical Practice and Rational Use of Medicines
  6. 6. Irrational Use of Drugs <ul><li>The use of drugs when no drug therapy is indicated </li></ul><ul><li>The use of wrong drugs for a specific condition requiring drug therapy </li></ul><ul><li>The use of drugs with doubtful or unproven efficacy </li></ul>06/09/09 Ethical Practice and Rational Use of Medicines
  7. 7. Commonly Encountered <ul><li>Overuse of antibiotics and anti-diarrhoeal agents for nonspecific childhood diarrhoea </li></ul><ul><li>Indiscriminate use of antibiotics for mild, non-bacterial infections (URTI) </li></ul><ul><li>Indiscriminate use of injection </li></ul>06/09/09 Ethical Practice and Rational Use of Medicines
  8. 8. Commonly Encountered <ul><li>Multiple drug prescription (over prescription) </li></ul><ul><li>Multivitamins and tonics for every complaint </li></ul><ul><li>Anabolic and other steroids for growth, appetite stimulation etc. </li></ul>06/09/09 Ethical Practice and Rational Use of Medicines
  9. 9. Who Is To ‘Blame’ For This? <ul><ul><ul><li>Patients </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Prescribers </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Drug Supply System </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Drug Promotion </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Regulation </li></ul></ul></ul>06/09/09 Ethical Practice and Rational Use of Medicines
  10. 10. Regulations <ul><li>Under PNDCL 305B and under LI 1541, it is an offence to offer for sale products that are unwholesome, improperly labelled or expired </li></ul><ul><li>For further information </li></ul><ul><ul><li>www ghndp.org </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>www.fdbghana.gov.gh </li></ul></ul>06/09/09 Ethical Practice and Rational Use of Medicines
  11. 11. Some achievements <ul><li>Standard Treatment guidelines available ( Sixth edition under review) </li></ul><ul><li>Essential medicines list/Health Insurance Medicines lists available </li></ul><ul><li>Training of different target groups </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Doctors/Prescribers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pharmacists </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Nurses </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Media- Health Communication Institute </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Monitoring of Rational Medicine Use Indicators </li></ul></ul>06/09/09 Ethical Practice and Rational Use of Medicines
  12. 12. Some Rational use Indicators Ethical Practice and Rational Use of Medicines 06/09/09 Indicator Median Average 2006 2006 2002 1998 Number of medicines prescribed per patient contact 3.98 3.98 3.46 4.6 % patients receiving antibiotics 48.35 47.7 42.8 54.0 % patients receiving injections 33.15 30.59 34.90 42.0 % prescribed medicines on EDL 83.80 78.92 96.10 96.1 % prescribed medicines being generics 56.70 55.64 - -
  13. 13. Challenges <ul><li>Advertisements </li></ul><ul><li>Transparency issues </li></ul><ul><li>Accountability issues </li></ul><ul><li>Change agents </li></ul>06/09/09 Ethical Practice and Rational Use of Medicines
  14. 14. Conclusions <ul><li>Medicines although ‘public good’ are not ordinary articles of commerce </li></ul><ul><li>We all have a duty and responsibility to the public </li></ul><ul><li>Let us support approaches to promoting rational use of medicines in Ghana </li></ul><ul><li>Let us be active participants of the MeTA Strategy </li></ul>06/09/09 Ethical Practice and Rational Use of Medicines

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