PRESENTATION ON FRIDAY, 25 MARCH 2011<br />You are given 3 minutes (maximum time!) to present your mindmap, pictoral diagram or through any other creative ways. Be creative!<br />In your presentation:<br /><ul><li>Describe the problem, the key terms and key points
Give examples or evidences to support your answer.</li></ul>Your group will be judged on: creativity and clarity in your presentation.<br />PROBLEMS CAUSED BY DEFORESTATION IN KALIMANTAN:<br /><ul><li>Group 1: Loss in Biomass (TB page 205 – 206)
A high biomass can support more life because the green plants in a food chain photosynthesise to produce food. This supports the plants themselves as well as provides food for herbivores, which in turn are food for carnivores. Also, the leaf litter is rich in nutrients. This helps to support vegetation growth.
Deforestation in Kalimantan has contributed to the reduction of the Earth’s biomass as the rainforests in Kalimantan form a significant proportion of the Earth’s biomass. This reduction in biomass reduces the ability of the Kalimantan rainforests to support various plant and animal life because the food chain is adversely affected. When the plants are removed, they affect the survival of animals higher up the food chain, as they are the basic source of food in the ecosystem. In addition, the reduction of the biomass has adversely affected the amount of nutrients in the forest ecosystem, which also reduces the ability of the Kalimantan rainforests to support various plant life.
The Kalimantan rainforests contain a very high biodiversity of plants and animals. Due to deforestation, the biodiversity of plants and animals in the Kalimantan rainforests is reduced, which leads to extinction of species. Some plants and animals are close to becoming extinct in Kalimantan and are therefore endangered.
Group 3: Changes in the nutrient cycle (TB page 208)
The removal of vegetation following deforestation results in the loss of leaf litter and affects the nutrient cycle. Soils are also leached due to the absence of roots, where the absorption of rainwater is reduced. As a result, the soil becomes infertile and cannot support vegetation growth. Therefore very little of the original vegetation could be replaced back and the cleared land also becomes unsuitable for cultivation of crops over time.
Group 4: Changes in quantity of water (TB page 209)
When trees and other plants are removed, less transpiration takes place. This reduces cloud formation and results in low rainfall. In Kalimantan, deforestation could have a direct impact on the amount of rainfall received during 1997–1998, which caused droughts or prolonged dry seasons. On the other hand, floods can be triggered by deforestation. In recent years, many floods have occurred in places where deforestation has taken place in Kalimantan.
Group 5: Changes in quality of water (TB page 209)
In areas where the rainforests are cleared, the water quality in rivers is generally poor because the soil is eroded and washed away easily by rain into the nearby rivers. This, in turn, increases the sediment level of the rivers and makes the water muddy. The increased amount of sediment in the rivers also changes the pH level of the water by making the water acidic. The increased acidity in the water adversely affects the aquatic life in the rivers of the Kalimantan rainforests.
When trees and other plants are removed by burning, dust and smoke are released into the air, causing air pollution. Huge forest fires can cause dust and smoke to be suspended in the air for some time, resulting in the phenomenon of haze to be experienced in many other areas. Since the 1990s, haze has been a recurring problem in the Southeast Asian region due to the widespread burning of rainforests in Sumatra and Kalimantan. On several occasions, strong winds have blown smoke and dust particles from the forests to nearby countries like Singapore and Malaysia. As a result, many people in the region suffered from health problems. The haze also caused everyday activities to cease. For example, in September 2002, schools were closed when the Pollution Standard Index in Central Kalimantan reached 1 500, 15 times more than the safe level of 100. The haze also adversely affected the tourism industry in the Southeast Asian region. For example, flights were cancelled due to the poor visibility and tourists avoided visiting the region in 1997–98.