Internet Legal Research


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Web 2.0 tools, Blawgs, Wikis, RSS, Podcasts, Legal Networks, comprehensive legal websites, case law, statutes, adm. rules, secondary sources etc.

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Internet Legal Research

  1. 1. Internet Legal Research <ul><li>Dittakavi Rao </li></ul><ul><li>Associate Director </li></ul><ul><li>Duquesne University School of Law Center for Legal Information </li></ul>
  2. 2. World Wide Web-Basics <ul><li>Home Page </li></ul><ul><li>Web pages are written in HTML language. For a dynamic web Web authors use several scripting languages such as Java Script, Pearl, CGI, CCC+ etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Domain Names / URL (Universal Resource Locator) </li></ul><ul><li>Operating System / Browsers (Internet Explorer, Firefox, Opera, Chrome) </li></ul><ul><li>Operating system is the one you need to operate your computer – Windows XP; Vista etc. </li></ul>
  3. 3. Domain Names <ul><li>Top Leven Domain Names (TLD) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Original ones are seven approved by ICANN. (.com; .edu; .gov; .org; .net; .mil; (country name)) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>ICANN – Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers has to approve domain names. </li></ul><ul><li>Now there are several domain names. </li></ul><ul><li>.pro is exclusively for attorneys along with doctors and accountants. </li></ul>
  4. 6. Browsers <ul><li>Popular browser is Internet Explorer (I.E.)has a market share of 80%. </li></ul><ul><li>Firefox is getting popular has certain advantages over I.E. </li></ul><ul><li>Google introduced a new browser known as Chrome. </li></ul><ul><li>Other browsers are: Netscape, Safari for Macs, Opera,etc. </li></ul>
  5. 9. Search Engines <ul><li>Popular Search Engines – Google, Yahoo, Ask, MSN, Altavista, Cuil etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Search Engines collect the information from the Internet documents through spiders/bots/crawlers. </li></ul><ul><li>Meta Search Engines – are websites that search the general purpose search engines for information matching your search terms. Dogpile, Gigablast, Vivisimo (Clusty) etc. are few of many meta search engines. </li></ul><ul><li>New Search Engines – Cha-Cha (Mobile), Powerset (Natural Language), Zuula etc. </li></ul>
  6. 10. Google Labs <ul><li>Besides searching the Internet popular search engines offer many more things. </li></ul><ul><li>Advanced Search Feature </li></ul><ul><li>Google Docs, Google Books, Google Scholar, Google Earth, You Tube, G-Mail, Google Alerts, Google Translate etc. </li></ul>
  7. 18. Technology Terms, Acronyms <ul><li>What is EDD? (Electronic Data Discovery) </li></ul><ul><li>What is ECF/CM (Electronic Case Filing/Case Management) </li></ul><ul><li>What is PDF (Portable Document Format) </li></ul><ul><li>What is ESF (Electronically Stored Files) </li></ul><ul><li>What is PACER (Public Access to Court Electronic Records) </li></ul><ul><li>Several websites available to find explanation to technology terms. </li></ul>
  8. 19. Websites <ul><li>Acronymfinder – </li></ul><ul><li>Webopedia – </li></ul><ul><li>Howstuffworks – </li></ul><ul><li>Whatis – </li></ul>
  9. 24. Web 2.0 <ul><li>The Web 2.0 mainly includes works of collaboration and social networking. </li></ul><ul><li>Also the RSS feeds, Wikis, Blogs, Microblogging, Podcasts, Tags, Folksonomies, Social Networks, Cloud Computing and Bookmarking etc. are part of Web 2.0. </li></ul><ul><li>Web 1.0 may include e-mail/webmail/gmail; Intranets and Extranets; Listservs; Search engines etc. </li></ul><ul><li>It is good to be a member of one or two job related listservs that helps when you need help. You can post a question or read others information exchange. </li></ul>
  10. 25. Blawgs <ul><li>Legal blogs are known as blawgs are web sites belonging to an individual consisting of diaries, journals, opinions, reviews, clippings etc. posted typically daily for others to read. Blawgs contain very useful information. </li></ul><ul><li> is a free blog hosting site. </li></ul><ul><li>There are several legal blawgs and blog indexes. </li></ul>
  11. 27.
  12. 28. Administrative Law <ul><li>G.P.O. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>http:// </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Firstgov </li></ul><ul><ul><li> or </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Regulations </li></ul><ul><ul><li> </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The CRE </li></ul><ul><ul><li> </li></ul></ul>
  13. 31. Wiki <ul><li>Wiki is a collaborative website comprised of the collective work of many authors. Similar to blog in structure and logic, a wiki allows anyone to edit, delete, or modify content that has been placed on the website using a browser interface, including the work of previous authors. </li></ul><ul><li>Wikipedia ( ) is one of the examples of wiki. Jurispedia ( ) is for the legal information. </li></ul><ul><li>Pbwiki ( ) wikihost ( ) are few of several free hosting sites for wikis. </li></ul>
  14. 36.
  15. 40. RSS Feeds <ul><li>RSS (Really Simple Syndication or Rich Site Summary) feeds allows to see when sites from all over the Internet have added new content. </li></ul><ul><li>Feeds are written in XML language. You need to have a reader to read the feeds. There are several free readers including Bloglines ( </li></ul><ul><li>Legal information, court cases, and statutes are available as RSS feeds. </li></ul>
  16. 42. Case Law <ul><li>Official Websites </li></ul><ul><ul><li> etc. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>U.S. Courts </li></ul><ul><ul><li>http:// </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Pacer; Courtlink etc. </li></ul>
  17. 43. Statutory Law <ul><li>Thomas </li></ul><ul><ul><li>http:// (no www) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>House </li></ul><ul><ul><li>http:// </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Gallerywatch </li></ul><ul><ul><li> </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Statenet </li></ul><ul><ul><li> </li></ul></ul>
  18. 45. Podcasts <ul><li>Podcasting is a way to receive audio files over the Internet. Many content providers offer podcast feeds at no cost. You can listen podcasts on your computer or other mobile devices. </li></ul><ul><li>Several legal talk radio stations and courts make cases and other legal information available as podcasts. </li></ul><ul><li>Justia provides a directory of legal podcasts ( ) </li></ul>
  19. 47. Periodical Articles <ul><li>Infotrieve </li></ul><ul><ul><li> </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Publist </li></ul><ul><ul><li> </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Ingenta </li></ul><ul><ul><li> </li></ul></ul><ul><li>FindArticles </li></ul><ul><ul><li> </li></ul></ul>
  20. 49. Social/Legal Networks <ul><li>Sharing views, photos, etc. among people through free websites (registration required) offered by online services. </li></ul><ul><li>Lawfirms and lawyers are becoming members of Popular social networking sites such as Facebook, Myspace. </li></ul><ul><li>There are several social networks exclusively for legal community are in the offing (beta mode.) </li></ul>
  21. 50. Social/Legal Networks - Websites <ul><li>Facebook – </li></ul><ul><li>Myspace – </li></ul><ul><li>Linkedin – </li></ul><ul><li>Lawlink – </li></ul><ul><li>Legallyminded – </li></ul><ul><li>Martindale – </li></ul><ul><li>Onramp – </li></ul>
  22. 53. What is Web 2 & WEB 3 <ul><li>Networks & Collaboration </li></ul><ul><li>Blogs </li></ul><ul><li>Wiki </li></ul><ul><li>RSS Feeds </li></ul><ul><li>Podcast (recruitment & research tool) </li></ul>
  23. 54. Acronyms <ul><li>What is EDD? (electronic data discovery) </li></ul><ul><li>What is ESI? (electronically stored info), ESF (electronically stored files) </li></ul><ul><li>What is TIFF & PDF? </li></ul>
  24. 55. Domain Names <ul><li>Cybersquatters </li></ul><ul><li>Typosquatters </li></ul><ul><li>ICANN </li></ul><ul><li>Litigation (arbitration policies and authorized arbitration firms) </li></ul><ul><li>WIPO (25,000 disputes handled in 7 years) </li></ul>
  25. 56. Social Networking <ul><li>Facebook, Myspace </li></ul><ul><li>Linkedin </li></ul><ul><li>Martindale/connected </li></ul><ul><li>Lawlink </li></ul>
  26. 57. Microblogging <ul><li>Microblogging referes to the ability to add materials such as text, photos, etc. to one’s blog when away from a computer. </li></ul><ul><li>The postings are bare-bones (140 words), on-the-go versions of online journals in which people share their lives and dreams. </li></ul><ul><li>Twitter – , Jaiku – are few examples. </li></ul>
  27. 62. Comprehensive Legal Sites <ul><li>Comprehensive legal websites provide links to useful information for legal researchers, practitioners, students and public. </li></ul><ul><li>Cases, Statutes, Adm.Regulations, Secondary materials, legal news, legal guides, legal topics, law practice materials, court documents and many more are included. </li></ul>
  28. 63. Comprehensive Legal Websites <ul><li>Findlaw – </li></ul><ul><li>Justia – </li></ul><ul><li>Heiros Gamos – </li></ul><ul><li>Cornell – </li></ul><ul><li>Megalaw – </li></ul><ul><li>LawGuru – </li></ul><ul><li>Washlaw – </li></ul><ul><li>Library of Congress – </li></ul>
  29. 64. Findlaw ( <ul><li>Findlaw owned by Thomson is a multifaceted website designed to provide resources for legal professionals. </li></ul><ul><li>It has links to all primary, secondary legal resources and many more. </li></ul>
  30. 67. Justia ( <ul><li>The site is focussed on making legal information, resources and services easy to find on the Internet. </li></ul><ul><li>Good resource for blawgs, podcasts, and court filings. </li></ul><ul><li>Each legal practice area provides basic information, articles, glossary, related Internet links etc. </li></ul>
  31. 70. Cornell ( <ul><li>Maintained by Cornell Law School’s Legal Information Institute. </li></ul><ul><li>Provides links to primary and secondary legal resources and many more. </li></ul><ul><li>Bluebook citation examples, Wex that is a combination of dictionary and encyclopedia are highlights. </li></ul>
  32. 71. Popular Search Engines <ul><li>Yahoo </li></ul><ul><ul><li> </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Google </li></ul><ul><ul><li>http:// </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Ask </li></ul><ul><ul><li>http:// </li></ul></ul><ul><li>MSN </li></ul><ul><ul><li> </li></ul></ul>
  33. 74. HeirosGamos ( <ul><li>Site makes law, government, and related professional information easily accessible to legal professional, business and conusmers. </li></ul><ul><li>Tabs include Law Firms, Legal Services, Law & Practice, Employment, Students, Associations, Publications, and Events. </li></ul>
  34. 76. MegaLaw ( <ul><li>The site provides multiple links to legal research, lawyers finding clients, travel/weather, finance/stocks, shopping, public records search, expert witnesses, law jobs, law associations, student center, and attorney directory. </li></ul><ul><li>Provides links to detailed list of books written on a variety of legal topics. </li></ul><ul><li>Lawbot search engine searches other legal websites for information. </li></ul>
  35. 78. LawGuru ( <ul><li>Tools include Knowledge Base, Legal Forms, Legal Research, Legal Dictionary, LawGuru Wiki, Weird & Dumb Laws, Bookstore, Article Library etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Provides latest legal news.   </li></ul>
  36. 80. Law Library of Congress ( <ul><li>Includes GLIN (Global Legal Information Network) that provides links to international legal databases. </li></ul><ul><li>Guide to Law Online that provides links to federal and state legal guides and resources. </li></ul><ul><li>Multinational Collection Databases that provides resources on legal topics. </li></ul>
  37. 85. WashLaw ( <ul><li>Site maintained by Washburn University School of Law Library directs users to thousands of websites providing a variety of legal information. </li></ul><ul><li>Easy to use Table of Contents organized under tabs and headings. Headings include States, Federal and International. </li></ul>
  38. 87. Case Law (Court Cases) <ul><li>Cases are available from official court websites. Also court links are available from comprehensive legal websites. </li></ul><ul><li>U.S. Supreme Court cases are available from 1754 (HeinOnline). </li></ul><ul><li>Additionally there are several open legal resource websites for court cases. </li></ul><ul><li>Also provides Table of Authorities and Citing cases. </li></ul>
  39. 88. Case Law - 2 <ul><li>Sample briefs and oral arguments from the U.S.Supreme Court are available from official, law firm and comprehensive legal websites. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Findlaw – </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>U.S.DOJ – </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mayer-Brown – </li></ul></ul>
  40. 89. Caselaw - Websites <ul><li>U.S.Courts – </li></ul><ul><li>U.S.Supreme Court – </li></ul><ul><li>Altlaw – </li></ul><ul><li>Prcydent – </li></ul><ul><li>Enfacto – </li></ul><ul><li>Comprehensive Sites: Findlaw,Justia,Cornell etc. </li></ul>
  41. 91. Meta Search Engines - General <ul><li>Travel </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Kayak ( ) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mobissimo ( ) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Phone Directories </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Argali ( ) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Jobs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Indeed ( ) </li></ul></ul>
  42. 93. PACER <ul><li>P ublic A ccess to C ourt E lectronic R ecords (PACER) is an electronic public access service that allows users to obtain case and docket information from Federal Appellate, District and Bankruptcy courts, and from the U.S. Party/Case Index. </li></ul><ul><li>Also provides federal case statistical reports. </li></ul><ul><li>It is a clearing house website. Pay as you go access to federal court records. </li></ul>
  43. 105. Statutory Law (Congress) <ul><li>Bills, Committee reports, Congressional Record, United States Code (U.S.C.) available in full text. </li></ul><ul><li>Congressional Record from vols. 1-149 (1873-2003) is available from HeinOnline. </li></ul><ul><li>Revised statutes of U.S. 1875, 1878 and USC from 1925 are available in full text from HeinOnline ( ) </li></ul><ul><li>Statutes At Large, Public and Private laws are available from gpo ( ) website. </li></ul><ul><li>Statutes At Large from vol.1(1789) onwards is available from HeinOnline. </li></ul>
  44. 106. Statutory Law - Websites <ul><li>Thomas – </li></ul><ul><li>Gallerywatch – </li></ul><ul><li>Statenet – </li></ul><ul><li>GPO – </li></ul><ul><li>House of Representatives – </li></ul>
  45. 109. Other Popular (new) Search Engines <ul><li>Cha-Cha ( ) for mobile </li></ul><ul><li>Powerset ( ) (Natural Language search) </li></ul><ul><li>Zuula ( ) </li></ul>
  46. 111. Lawyer Directories <ul><li>Martindale ( </li></ul><ul><li>Avvo ( </li></ul>
  47. 113. Legislative History <ul><li>In order to know the original/legislative intent of Acts (Law/Statute) one needs to know how to do the legislative history research. </li></ul><ul><li>All the documents published between the introduction of bill and that bill enacted into law have to be consulted. </li></ul><ul><li>Documents include: Bills, Committee Reports, Committee Prints, Floor Debates, Hearings and Presidential signing messages. </li></ul><ul><li>Thomas (,GPO ( ) provides some of these documents. </li></ul><ul><li>Compiled histories can be found at HeinOnline ( </li></ul>
  48. 115. Administrative Law (Federal) <ul><li>Daily Federal Register, List of CFR Sections Affected (LSA), Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), e-CFR, information from various agencies available from government and private websites. </li></ul><ul><li>Federal Register, from vol.1(1936) onwards including indexes and C.F.R. from 1938 onwards are available in full text from HeinOnline ( ) </li></ul><ul><li>Presidential documents such as Weekly Compilations, Executive Orders, State of the Union Addresses etc. are available. </li></ul>
  49. 116. Adm.Law - Websites <ul><li>GPO – </li></ul><ul><li>Federal Register – </li></ul><ul><li>Regulations – </li></ul><ul><li>US Gov – </li></ul><ul><li>The CRE – </li></ul><ul><li>Statenet – </li></ul>
  50. 117. Adm. Law - Websites - 2 <ul><li>Statelocal – </li></ul><ul><li>General Code – </li></ul><ul><li>Municode – </li></ul>
  51. 118. Other Popular (meta) Search Engines <ul><li>Vivisimo </li></ul><ul><ul><li>http:// </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Gigablast </li></ul><ul><ul><li>http:// </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Wisenut </li></ul><ul><ul><li> </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dogpile </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li> </li></ul></ul>
  52. 120. Legal Specific – Comprehensive Sites <ul><li>. Findlaw ( ) </li></ul><ul><li>. Justia ( ) </li></ul><ul><li>. Cornell University ( ) </li></ul><ul><li>. HeirosGamos ( ) </li></ul><ul><li>. Megalaw ( ) </li></ul><ul><li>. Virtualchase( </li></ul>
  53. 126. Law Dictionaries <ul><li>Links to law dictionaries are available from comprehensive legal websites and legal blogs. </li></ul><ul><li> ; are few of many available. </li></ul><ul><li>Paralegalgateway ( ) offers a comprehensive list of law dictionaries. </li></ul><ul><li>Deans Law Dictionary ( ) is a digital law dictionary has 21,309 pages providing cases and rules wherever it is necessary. It has over 185,000 terms and over 300,000 case cites. </li></ul>
  54. 127.
  55. 128. Pennsylvania Specific <ul><li>Case Law </li></ul><ul><li>Supreme, Superior and Commonwealth Courts </li></ul><ul><ul><li> </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li> </li></ul></ul>
  56. 129. Legal News/Research Articles <ul><li>Llrx </li></ul><ul><ul><li> </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Jurist </li></ul><ul><ul><li>http:// </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Courttv </li></ul><ul><ul><li> </li></ul></ul><ul><li>American Lawyer Media </li></ul><ul><ul><li> </li></ul></ul>
  57. 130. Law Encyclopedias <ul><li>Currently, there is no free legal encyclopedia comparable to C.J.S. or A.M.JUR 2d available online. </li></ul><ul><li>Wex from Cornell ( http:// ) and Jurispedia ( ) are few examples of collaborative legal encyclopedias. </li></ul><ul><li>LexisNexis provides Zimmerman’s guide( ) to legal topics. Lectlaw ( ) site also provides extensive subject guide for legal topics. </li></ul>
  58. 134. Statutory Law <ul><li>State Legislature </li></ul><ul><ul><li> </li></ul></ul><ul><li>House of Representatives </li></ul><ul><ul><li> </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Consolidated Statutes </li></ul><ul><ul><li> </li></ul></ul>
  59. 135. Administrative Law <ul><li>Pacode </li></ul><ul><ul><li> </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Pabulletin </li></ul><ul><ul><li> </li></ul></ul>
  60. 136.
  61. 137. Periodical Articles <ul><li>Law Review articles are available from law school law review sites (full text/abstracts). </li></ul><ul><li>Comprehensive legal websites provide links to law reviews. </li></ul><ul><li>Indexes to legal periodical articles are available from HeinOnline and LegalTrac (subscription required) </li></ul><ul><li>HeinOnline provides law reviews from the date of inception (volume one) in full text. Articles are available in pdf format. </li></ul>
  62. 138. Comprehensive Sites <ul><li>Pennsylvania Legal Research Web Sites </li></ul><ul><ul><li> </li></ul></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><ul><li> </li></ul></ul><ul><li>PaLawnet </li></ul><ul><ul><li> </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>PaLawLibrary </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li> </li></ul></ul>
  63. 139.
  64. 140. Free Info. From Fee-Based Sites <ul><li>Lexisone </li></ul><ul><ul><li> </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Incite (From </li></ul><ul><li>Loislaw </li></ul><ul><ul><li> </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Versuslaw </li></ul><ul><ul><li> </li></ul></ul>
  65. 143. Legal News <ul><li>Up-to-date legal news is available from various general and exclusive legal news websites. </li></ul><ul><li>Legal news (court news) is available from several online legal newspapers and comprehensive legal websites. Full access to online legal newspapers may require a subscription. </li></ul>
  66. 147. Trutv ( <ul><li>Trutv originally courttv is a useful resource for up-to-date information on current law-related issues and events. </li></ul><ul><li>Trial coverage is the cornerstone of TruTV’s daytime programming and focusses on America’s most newsworthy and controversial legal proceedings. </li></ul><ul><li>News about the law/crime from this site is now part of cnn ( </li></ul>
  67. 149. LexisOne ( <ul><li>This site is a privately owned website launched by LexisNexis. The site is tailored to service the needs of small law firms. The site allows users to retrieve cases from all jurisdictions (10 year back) and selected legal forms at no charge. </li></ul>
  68. 150. Miscellaneous Legal Sites <ul><li>Trialjuries </li></ul><ul><ul><li> </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Icourthouse (Jury System) </li></ul><ul><ul><li> </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Jurytest ( ) </li></ul>
  69. 151. Legal Forms <ul><li>There are sites which offer free legal forms. </li></ul><ul><li>There are fee-based sites which offer legal forms for every type and jurisdiction. </li></ul><ul><li>Docstoc ( ) and Your Free Legal Forms ( ) sites provide several legal forms free of cost that are uploaded by people to share with others. </li></ul><ul><li>State and federal government sites also provide court and agency forms. </li></ul>
  70. 154. Public Records <ul><li>Knowx </li></ul><ul><ul><li> </li></ul></ul><ul><li>ChoicePoint </li></ul><ul><ul><li> </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Accurint </li></ul><ul><ul><li> </li></ul></ul>
  71. 155. People Finder <ul><li>555-1212 </li></ul><ul><ul><li> </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Switchboard </li></ul><ul><ul><li> </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Bigfoot </li></ul><ul><ul><li> </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Worldpages </li></ul><ul><ul><li> </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Argali (meta engine) </li></ul><ul><ul><li> </li></ul></ul>
  72. 157. Alternatives To LexisNexis/Westlaw <ul><li>LexisNexis and Westlaw offers several package deals and subscription rates (federal/state/flat/transactional etc.) </li></ul><ul><li>There are several fee-based low cost online services available for legal research and practice. Loislaw ( ), Versuslaw ( ), Fastcase ( ) are few popular ones. </li></ul>
  73. 163. Lawyer Directories <ul><li>To find a lawyer several free online lawyer directories are available. </li></ul><ul><li>Sites such as Martindale ( ) and Avvo ( ) provide ratings of lawyers and law firms. </li></ul><ul><li>Lawyerfinder ( ) and Lawyers ( ) of LexisNexis are other popular sites. </li></ul><ul><li>Majority of the sites allow you to find lawyers by name, city, and practice area (subject speciality) etc. </li></ul>
  74. 167. Law Technology Sources <ul><li>It is necessary to keep up with new technologies applicable to law practice and legal research. </li></ul><ul><li>Several blogs, online legal technology journals, comprehensive legal websites offer information free of cost. </li></ul><ul><li>Litilaw ( ) provides articles of interest to litigators. American Lawyer Media ( ) provides legal practice technology information. LTN (Legal Technology News) ( ) provides latest technology product development news as well as articles related to legal technology.Free subscription is available for print/online LTN. </li></ul>
  75. 175. Paralegal <ul><li>Paralegals have to know how to conduct using various legal research tools manual as well as free and fee-based sources. </li></ul><ul><li>Several blogs and professional association sites are available providing relavant information on various topics and issues. </li></ul>
  76. 178. Trial Preparation (Juries) <ul><li>Brief writing and case testing (before trial) websites are available for practicing attorneys for fee. </li></ul>
  77. 183. Statistics <ul><li>Statistics are necessary when you are writing a research paper or even to include in a brief. </li></ul><ul><li>There are several government and private websites available providing variety of statistical information. </li></ul>
  78. 189. Private Useful Sites <ul><li>In addition to government and commercial websites, several law firms and individual attorneys provide useful information through their websites. </li></ul><ul><li>Usually they are on a specific topic such as immigration, tax, patents etc. </li></ul>
  79. 193. Federal Government Sites <ul><li>Government sites especially federal government sites offer wealth of reliable information. </li></ul><ul><li>Case law, legal news, recent legislation, legal forms etc. available from these sites. </li></ul><ul><li>Some of them offer free email service upon free registration. </li></ul>
  80. 199. Public Records / Background Checks <ul><li>Mailing address and telephone numbers can be obtained from sites such as Whitepages ( ), Anywho ( ), Whowhere ( ), ( etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Several city and county sites provide real estate records. </li></ul><ul><li>Other information such as tax records, liens, bankruptcy, driver’s license, criminal records etc. can be found from commercial sites such as Knowx ( ), Accurint ( ), Online Detective ( ), Criminal Research ( </li></ul>
  81. 205. More Useful Sites <ul><li>There are several sites providing citation information, free legal advice, free legal forms, free public domain documents such as cases, statutes, administrative regulations etc. </li></ul>
  82. 208. Uniform Law Commissioners <ul><li>Aim of the Conference of Commissioners is to try to achieve uniformity in those areas of law where such uniformity is practical and beneficial. </li></ul><ul><li>Users can access acts, drafts, and legislation of the NCCUSL, or can select committees of the conference that they wish to research such as the Permanent Editorial Board for the UCC, or the Committee on the Uniform Securities Act. </li></ul>
  83. 211. Legal Abbreviations <ul><li>Cardiff ( ) site provides name of the publication for the abbreviation and abbreviation for a legal publication. </li></ul><ul><li>The website’s legal abbreviation database covers law periodicals, law reports, and even some legislative publications, and major textbooks. </li></ul>
  84. 213. Citation Tools <ul><li>Citeit! ( is a computer software program designed specifically to assist in the legal research and writing process. </li></ul><ul><li>Users can search more than 30 legal databases, including LexisNexis and Westlaw. </li></ul><ul><li>Once users find applicable information for their research, Citeit! automatically creates a bibliography in standard Bluebook format. </li></ul><ul><li>Citrus ( www.cit-r-us ) automatically inserts citations according to Bluebook rules as you type in Word or Wordperfect. </li></ul>
  85. 225. Working Papers in Law <ul><li>In addition to law reviews and other legal periodical publications, there are some organizations provide funding and also an opportunity for the authors to publish their research articles. </li></ul><ul><li>Social Science Research Network (SSRN), American Bar Foundation (ABF), and New England Law Library Consortium (NELLCO) are few of many examples. </li></ul>
  86. 229. Pennsylvania Legal Websites <ul><li>State Government – </li></ul><ul><li>Appellate Courts – </li></ul><ul><li>General Assembly – </li></ul><ul><li>Legislative Reference Bureau – </li></ul>
  87. 230. Pa.Legal Websites - 2 <ul><li>Pennsylvania Code – </li></ul><ul><li>Pennsylvania Bulletin – </li></ul><ul><li>Palawlibrary – </li></ul><ul><li>Rao’s Pennsylvania Site – </li></ul><ul><li>MyPLS – </li></ul>
  88. 231. Pa.Legal Websites - 3 <ul><li>Allegheny County Bar Association – </li></ul><ul><li>Pennsylvania Bar Association – </li></ul><ul><li>Pennsylvania Bar Institute – </li></ul><ul><li>Pennsylvania Board of Law Examiners – </li></ul><ul><li>Pennsylvania CLE – </li></ul>
  89. 232. Pa.Legal Websites - 4 <ul><li>Pa.Legal Intelligencer – </li></ul><ul><li>Pa.Law Weekly – </li></ul><ul><li>Philadelphia Bar Association – </li></ul>
  90. 254. LexisNexis –Legal Practice Software <ul><li>PCLaw – Billing & Accounting </li></ul><ul><li>Juris – Billing & Accounting </li></ul><ul><li>CaseMap – Case Management </li></ul><ul><li>Martindale – Lawyer Directory </li></ul><ul><li>Accurint – Background Checks </li></ul><ul><li>InterAction – CRM </li></ul><ul><li>Total Litigator – Collaboration Tool </li></ul><ul><li>Time Matters – Calendar Application </li></ul><ul><li>Net Documents – Document Management </li></ul><ul><li>Law Prediscovery – EDD </li></ul><ul><li>Concordance – EDD </li></ul><ul><li>LexisNexis Total Search – Knowledge Management </li></ul><ul><li>Lexis Document Profiling – Risk Management </li></ul><ul><li>CourtLink – Docket Search Database of Filings </li></ul>
  91. 255. Thomson West – Legal Practice Software <ul><li>LiveNote – Real Time Court Reporting </li></ul><ul><li>Hubbard One – Prospective Client Connection </li></ul><ul><li>PeopleMap – Public Records, Legal Filings </li></ul><ul><li>Elite – Case Management </li></ul><ul><li>ProLaw – Case Management </li></ul><ul><li>West KM – Knowledge Management </li></ul><ul><li>Case Notebook – Case Management </li></ul><ul><li>Westlaw Litigator – Complete Litigation </li></ul><ul><li>CourtExpress – Docket Search Database of Filings </li></ul>
  92. 263. Constitutional Law <ul><li>National Constitutions site provides an alphabetical list of countries and links to constitutional pages. </li></ul><ul><li>United States Constitution: There are several websites provide the full text of the constitution. Cornell ( ) site provides annotations (cases and other related information.) </li></ul>
  93. 268.