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The Systems Development EnvironmentIntroduction  Information Systems Analysis and Design      Complex process whereby com...
Data and Processes  Three key components of an information system      Data      Data Flows      Processing Logic  Data...
Approaches to Systems Development  Process-Oriented Approach      Focus is on how and when data are moved and transformat...
Organizational Responsibilities in Systems Development     Systems development is a team effort     Systems Analysts work ...
Skills of a Successful Systems Analyst       Analytical             Understanding of organizations             Problem ...
Other IS Managers / Technicians      Database Administrator            Involved in design, development and maintenance o...
Systems Development Life Cycle      System Development Methodology          Standard process followed in an organization ...
 Sometimes life cycle is iterative – phases are repeated as required        until acceptable system is found       Somet...
 Structure requirements and eliminate redundancies                Generate alternative designs                Compare a...
Approaches to Development  Prototyping      Designing and Building a scaled-down working version of the system       with...
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System Analysis and design Class 1

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System Analysis and design Class 1 university of Hadramout, Yemen

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System Analysis and design Class 1

  1. 1. The Systems Development EnvironmentIntroduction Information Systems Analysis and Design  Complex process whereby computer-based information systems are developed and maintained  Main goal is to improve employee efficiency by applying software solutions to key business tasks  A structured approach must be used in order to ensure success Application Software  Result of systems analysis and design  Designed to support specific organizational functions or processes Systems Analyst performs analysis and design based upon:  Understanding of organization’s objectives, structure and processes  Knowledge of how to exploit information technology for advantageSoftware Engineering Process A process used to create an information system Consists of:  Methodologies  A sequence of step-by-step approaches that help develop the information system  Techniques  Processes that the analyst follows to ensure thorough, complete and comprehensive analysis and design  Tools  Computer programs that aid in applying techniques
  2. 2. Data and Processes Three key components of an information system  Data  Data Flows  Processing Logic Data vs. Information  Data  Raw facts about people, objects, and events in an organization such as customer’s account number  Information  Data that have been processed and presented in a form that humans can understand Data  Understanding the source and kind of data a system uses is key to good system design  Various techniques are used to describe data and the relationship among data Data Flow  Groups of data that move and flow through the system from one place to another  Include description of sources and destination for each data flow Processing Logic  Describe steps in the transformation of data and events that trigger these steps
  3. 3. Approaches to Systems Development Process-Oriented Approach  Focus is on how and when data are moved and transformation of data in an information system  Involves creating graphical representations such as data flow diagrams and charts  Data are tracked from sources, through intermediate steps and to final destinations  Natural structure of data is not specified  Disadvantage: existence of several data files each locked within different applications.  To change a single data element all files has to be updated Data-Oriented Approach  Depicts ideal organization of data, independent of where and how data are used  Data model describes kinds of data and business relationships among the data  Business rules depict how organization captures and processes the dataDatabases and Application Independence Database  Shared collection of logically related data. Organized to facilitate capture, storage and retrieval by multiple users in an organization Designed around subjects: like ( Customers, Suppliers) Application Independence  Separation of data and definition of data from applications that use these data
  4. 4. Organizational Responsibilities in Systems Development Systems development is a team effort Systems Analysts work in a team  Project Based  Includes  IS Manager  Programmers  Users  Other specialists  Characteristics of Successful Teams  Diversity of backgrounds  Tolerance of diversity  Clear and complete communication  Trust  Mutual Respect  Reward structure that promotes shared responsibilityOrganizational Responsibilities in Systems Development IS Manager  May have a direct role in systems development if the organization is small  Typically involved in allocating resources to and overseeing system development projects.  May prescribe what methodologies, techniques and tools to be used Systems Analyst  Key individuals in the systems development process
  5. 5. Skills of a Successful Systems Analyst  Analytical  Understanding of organizations  Problem solving skills  System thinking  Ability to see organizations and information systems as systems  Technical  Understanding of potential and limitations of technology  Management  Ability to manage projects, resources, risk and change  Interpersonal  Effective written and oral communication skills Programmers  Convert specifications into instructions that the computer understands  Write program documentation and programs for testing systems Business Managers  Have power to fund projects and allocate resources  Set general requirements and constraints for projects
  6. 6. Other IS Managers / Technicians  Database Administrator  Involved in design, development and maintenance of databases  Network and telecommunications experts  Develop systems involving data and/or voice communications  Human Factors Specialists  Involved in training users and writing documentation  Internal Auditors  Ensure that required controls are built into the systemTypes of Information Systems and Systems Development Transaction Processing Systems (TPS)  Automate handling of data about business activities (transactions) Management Information Systems (MIS)  Converts raw data from transaction processing system into meaningful form Decision Support Systems (DSS)  Composed of database designed to help decision makers  Provides interactive environment for decision makers to manipulate data and models Expert Systems (ES)  Codifies and manipulate knowledge instead of information  Users communicate with an ES through interactive dialogue
  7. 7. Systems Development Life Cycle System Development Methodology  Standard process followed in an organization  Consists of:  Analysis  Design  Implementation  Maintenanceof information systems Systems Development Life Cycle (SDLC) SDLC – traditional methodology used to develop, maintain, and replace information systems Consists of six phases:  Project Identification and Selection  Project Initiation and Planning  Analysis  Design  Implementation  Maintenance Systems Development Life Cycle  Phases are not necessarily sequential  Each phase has a specific outcome and deliverable  It is possible to complete some activities in one phase in parallel with some activities of another phase
  8. 8.  Sometimes life cycle is iterative – phases are repeated as required until acceptable system is found  Sometimes life cycle is spiral – constantly cycle through the phases at different levels  Individual companies use customized life cyclesPhases of the Systems Development Life CycleProject Identification and Selection  Two Main Activities  Identify and analyze organizations information system needs  Prioritization and translation of need into a development schedule  Helps organization to determine whether or not resources should be dedicated to a project.Project Initiation and Planning  Two Activities  Formal preliminary investigation of the problem at hand  Presentation of reasons why system should or should not be developed by the organization  Determining scope of the proposed systemAnalysis  Study of current procedures and information systems  Sub phases  Determine requirements  Study current system
  9. 9.  Structure requirements and eliminate redundancies  Generate alternative designs  Compare alternatives  Recommend best alternativeDesign – convert the description into logical and then physical systemspecifications  Logical Design  Concentrates on business aspects of the system  Independent of any specific hardware or software platform  Physical Design  Logical specifications are transformed into technical specificationsImplementation  Information system is  Coded – programmers write programs  Tested – programmers and analysts test individual programs and entire system to find errors and correct  Installed – application software is installed on hardware  Supported – documentation and training programs are provided Maintenance  Information system is systematically repaired and improved depending on organization’s needs over time  Programmers modify the system to reflect changing business conditions  It is a repetition of other life cycle phases and is not a separate phase
  10. 10. Approaches to Development Prototyping  Designing and Building a scaled-down working version of the system with any computer language (4GLs) or development tools (CASE)  Advantages:  Users are involved in design  Captures requirements in concrete form Rapid Application Development (RAD)  Utilizes prototyping to delay producing system design until after user requirements are clear Joint Application Design (JAD)  Users, Managers and Analysts work together for several days  System requirements are reviewed  Structured meetings Computer-aided software engineering (CASE) tools  Facilitate creation of a central repository for system descriptions and specifications

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