Reports & Proposals


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Reports & Proposals

  1. 1. Reports & Proposals
  2. 2. Imp Questions <ul><li>Q. What are the different types of reports that are used within an organization? </li></ul><ul><li>Q. What are the characteristics of effective written reports? </li></ul>
  3. 3. <ul><li>SHORT REPORTS & PROPOSALS </li></ul><ul><li>MEMORANDUM REPORTS </li></ul><ul><li>Many short reports are intended for internal use, and their writers often use the memo format. A memo report is usually more structured; it will have a recognizable introduction, body, and conclusion, which a memorandum does not necessarily have. Progress reports, periodic reports and justification reports are often presented in memo format. The broad purpose of all types of memorandum reports is to supply information needed to keep the organization operating smoothly. </li></ul>
  4. 4. <ul><li>PROGRESS REPORT </li></ul><ul><li>Ordinarily sent upward in the organization, progress reports inform management of: (1) rate of progress as compared to the schedule (2) goals for subsequent time periods and a forecast for completion of the project. The more specifically this information is presented, the more helpful a progress report will be. </li></ul><ul><li>PERIODIC REPORT </li></ul><ul><li>Periodic informational reports are prepared on a regular basis. Whether daily, weekly or monthly, the purpose of these periodic reports is to keep others informed of some aspects of operations. Introductory information is generally not included as this report is directed to a knowledgeable receiver. </li></ul>
  5. 5. <ul><li>JUSTIFICATION REPORT </li></ul><ul><li>Justification reports are written in order to justify something – a change in procedure, an increase in budget, or perhaps reasons for resisting any new policy. </li></ul><ul><li>LETTER REPORT </li></ul><ul><li>Many short reports intended for external communication are presented in the format of a letter report. This report is similar to a letter in appearance and includes many of the same features. Most letter reports are comprised of introduction, body & close. </li></ul>
  6. 6. <ul><li>CHARACTERISTICS OF EFFECTIVE WRITTEN REPORT </li></ul><ul><li>1. Tactful: Avoid offensive language, don’t insult your readers, and don’t categorize them. </li></ul><ul><li>2. Impersonal: Generally, don’t use the ‘you’ attitude; the report demands a more impersonal writing. </li></ul><ul><li>3. Positive: Use a positive tone whenever possible. </li></ul><ul><li>4. Active: Use active voice to emphasize an idea </li></ul><ul><li>5. Unified: Be sure that each sentence and paragraph contain only one central idea. </li></ul>
  7. 7. <ul><li>6. Coherent: Proper headings help coherence. </li></ul><ul><li>7. Clear: Use easy to understand words </li></ul><ul><li>8. Concise: Avoid trite expressions, wordy phrases, unnecessary repetition, and abstract words </li></ul><ul><li>9. Readable: Consider the education level of your reader. </li></ul><ul><li>10. Mechanically sound: Check and recheck grammar. </li></ul>
  8. 8. <ul><li>PROPOSALS </li></ul><ul><li>A proposal is an attempt to persuade someone that you are especially qualified to fill one of his or her needs in exchange for compensation. Proposals are usually written documents and come in a variety of sizes and formats. The two types of proposals are the solicited and the unsolicited. A solicited proposal is written in answer to a request. An unsolicited proposal is initiated by the proposer; no motivation is provided by the intended recipient. </li></ul><ul><li>Sections included in a proposal a. introduction b. statement of the problem c. objectives d. method or plan e. materials/equipment/personnel available for use </li></ul><ul><li>f. cost or budget g. summary </li></ul>