Project Management

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Project Management

  1. 1. Project Management
  2. 2. <ul><li>An undertaking that has a beginning and an end and is carried out to meet established goals within cost, schedule and quality objectives </li></ul><ul><li>Characteristics </li></ul><ul><li>Defined beginning and end </li></ul><ul><li>Resources allocated </li></ul><ul><li>Undertaken once </li></ul><ul><li>To achieve an end </li></ul><ul><li>Cuts across organization functions </li></ul>
  3. 3. <ul><li>Examples: </li></ul><ul><li>New product, service or object </li></ul><ul><li>Changing organizational structure </li></ul><ul><li>Developing or modifying IS </li></ul><ul><li>Implementing a new business procedure or process </li></ul>
  4. 4. Project Management <ul><li>Is the combination of systems, techniques, and people used to control and monitor activities undertaken within the project </li></ul><ul><li>The objective of project management is a successful project meaning that the project is completed at the specified level of quality, on time and within budget. </li></ul>
  5. 5. Challenges <ul><li>Team building </li></ul><ul><li>Expected problems </li></ul><ul><li>Unexpected problems </li></ul><ul><li>Delayed benefit </li></ul><ul><li>Specialists </li></ul><ul><li>Potential for conflict </li></ul>
  6. 6. Project & Strategy <ul><li>Strategic project management envisages strategy as a stream of projects intended to achieve organizational breakthroughs </li></ul><ul><li>Many projects are undertaken as consequences of the overall strategic planning process </li></ul><ul><li>Projects arise on a bottom-up basis. Need to be congruent to overall strategy </li></ul>
  7. 7. PM as core competence <ul><li>Construction </li></ul><ul><li>Consultancy </li></ul><ul><li>Continuous improvement approach should be taken to developing and consolidating the methodology </li></ul><ul><li>Kerzner (PMMM) </li></ul><ul><li>Level 1: common knowledge </li></ul><ul><li>Level 2: common processes </li></ul><ul><li>Level 3: singular methodology </li></ul><ul><li>Level 4: benchmarking </li></ul><ul><li>Level 5: continuous improvement </li></ul>
  8. 8. Breakthrough project <ul><li>Is a project that will have a material impact on either the business’s external competitive edge, its internal capabilities or its financial performance </li></ul><ul><li>Advantages: </li></ul><ul><li>Resources are concentrated where they will do the most good </li></ul><ul><li>Projects of marginal value are avoided </li></ul><ul><li>Managerial attention remains focussed </li></ul>
  9. 9. The Project Life Cycles <ul><li>Project definition </li></ul><ul><li>Project design </li></ul><ul><li>Project delivery </li></ul><ul><li>Project development </li></ul>
  10. 10. Analyses <ul><li>Fish bone </li></ul><ul><li>Determining performance drivers </li></ul><ul><li>Gap </li></ul><ul><li>From - to </li></ul>
  11. 11. Initiating a project <ul><li>Resource limitation </li></ul><ul><li>Appointment of a project manager </li></ul><ul><li>Assessing suitability </li></ul><ul><li>Risk/return analysis </li></ul><ul><li>Weighted scoring </li></ul><ul><li>Organizational priority </li></ul><ul><li>Feasibility studies </li></ul><ul><li>SWOT </li></ul>
  12. 12. <ul><li>Project constraints </li></ul><ul><li>Risk management </li></ul><ul><li>Stakeholders analysis </li></ul><ul><li>Preparation of a business case </li></ul><ul><li>Why the project is needed </li></ul><ul><li>What it will achieve </li></ul><ul><li>How it will proceed </li></ul><ul><li>Necessary to prevent mission creep and maintain focus </li></ul>
  13. 13. Business case <ul><li>Contents </li></ul><ul><li>Background </li></ul><ul><li>Objectives </li></ul><ul><li>Important assumptions and constraints </li></ul><ul><li>Summary risk analysis </li></ul><ul><li>Summary budget </li></ul><ul><li>Time estimate </li></ul><ul><li>Project scope </li></ul>
  14. 14. <ul><li>Project charter: authorization – resources </li></ul><ul><li>Strategic aspects of the project plan </li></ul><ul><li>Careful planning </li></ul><ul><li>Time & cost overruns </li></ul><ul><li>POC </li></ul>
  15. 15. Why projects fails <ul><li>Realistic timescales </li></ul><ul><li>Use of shared resources </li></ul><ul><li>Sequencing of work </li></ul><ul><li>Unproven technology </li></ul><ul><li>Changing client specifications </li></ul><ul><li>Politics </li></ul><ul><li>Force field analysis: degree of difficulty </li></ul><ul><li>Enablers and Constraints </li></ul>
  16. 16. Practical aspect of Project Planning <ul><li>WBS </li></ul><ul><li>Dependencies & interactions </li></ul><ul><li>Project budget (top-down, bottom-up) </li></ul><ul><li>Gantt charts </li></ul><ul><li>Network analysis (CPA) </li></ul><ul><li>PERT </li></ul><ul><li>Resource histogram (planning tool for determining time and amount required) </li></ul>
  17. 17. Project Manager <ul><li>Takes the responsibility for ensuring the desired result is achieved on time and within budget </li></ul><ul><li>Responsibilities </li></ul><ul><li>Effective and efficient use of resource utilization </li></ul><ul><li>Keep management informed </li></ul><ul><li>Manage project to the best of his/her ability </li></ul><ul><li>Behave ethically </li></ul><ul><li>Maintain customer orientation </li></ul><ul><li>Monitor progress of the project </li></ul><ul><li>Ensure project team has the required resources </li></ul><ul><li>Help new team members settle down </li></ul>
  18. 18. Leaderships style and team management <ul><li>Project needs, group needs, individual needs </li></ul><ul><li>Stages of team formation </li></ul><ul><li>Membership: co-ordinator, plant, resource investigator, team worker, specialist, shaper, monitor evaluator, implementer, finisher </li></ul><ul><li>Teams: work organization, control, knowledge generation, decision making, communication, social needs, size, cohesion-synergy </li></ul>
  19. 19. <ul><li>Team problems: </li></ul><ul><li>Adherence to group norms </li></ul><ul><li>Disagreements </li></ul><ul><li>Personality problems </li></ul><ul><li>Rigid leadership </li></ul><ul><li>Difference of opinion </li></ul><ul><li>Too much harmony (group think) </li></ul><ul><li>Reward system </li></ul><ul><li>Too many meetings </li></ul><ul><li>Powerlessness </li></ul><ul><li>Risk averse </li></ul>
  20. 20. Controlling projects <ul><li>Progress report: shows the current status of the project, usually in relation to the planned status. The report should monitor progress towards key milestones </li></ul><ul><li>Dealing with slippage: </li></ul><ul><li>Do nothing </li></ul><ul><li>Add resources </li></ul><ul><li>Work smarter </li></ul><ul><li>Re-plan </li></ul><ul><li>Re-schedule </li></ul><ul><li>Introduce incentive </li></ul><ul><li>Briefings & motivation </li></ul><ul><li>Change the specifications </li></ul>
  21. 21. <ul><li>Fast tracking </li></ul><ul><li>Crashing </li></ul><ul><li>Risk management: what could go wrong </li></ul><ul><li>Stages </li></ul><ul><li>Plan the risk management approach </li></ul><ul><li>Identify and record risks </li></ul><ul><li>Asses the risks </li></ul><ul><li>Plan and respond </li></ul><ul><li>Implement risk management strategies </li></ul><ul><li>Review the risk management approach </li></ul>
  22. 22. Project completion <ul><li>Project outcomes/contingencies issues </li></ul><ul><li>Report – gain client sign off </li></ul><ul><li>Post completion audit </li></ul><ul><li>Lessons learnt – used for the benefits of future projects </li></ul><ul><li>Summary </li></ul><ul><li>Review of the end result </li></ul><ul><li>Cost benefit review </li></ul><ul><li>recommendations </li></ul>
  23. 23. Benefits realization <ul><li>Establish the benefits measurement </li></ul><ul><li>Refining the benefits profile </li></ul><ul><li>Monitoring benefits </li></ul><ul><li>Transition management </li></ul><ul><li>Support for benefits realization </li></ul><ul><li>Measuring the benefits </li></ul>
  24. 24. Project management software <ul><li>MS Project / SmartDraw </li></ul><ul><li>Planning </li></ul><ul><li>Estimating </li></ul><ul><li>Monitoring </li></ul><ul><li>Reporting </li></ul><ul><li>Ads: enables quick re-planning, document quality, encourages constant progress tracking, what if analysis </li></ul><ul><li>Disads: difficult to use for some people, pressure due to co policy, too much focus on software </li></ul>

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