Mac os casestudy


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Mac os casestudy

  1. 1. Introduction to Operating System An operating system (OS) is a collection of software that manages computer hardware resources and provides common services for computer programs. The operating system is a vital component of the system software in a computer system. Application programs require an operating system to function. Types: Real-time Multi-user Multi-tasking Distributed Embedded Introduction to Mac OS Conception: From the beginning, Apple deliberately sought to minimize by design the user's conceptual awareness of the operating system as such. Tasks that on other products required a more explicit working knowledge of an operating system would on a Macintosh be accomplished by intuitive mouse gestures and manipulation of graphical control panels. The intention was that the product would thus be more user-friendly and so more easily mastered. This would differentiate it from devices using other operating environments, such as MS-DOS machines, which were more technically challenging to operate. Mac OS is a series of graphical user interface-based operating systems developed by Apple Inc. (formerly Apple Computer, Inc.) for their Macintosh line of computer systems. Mac OS is credited with popularizing the graphical user interface. This is the operating system that runs on Macintosh computers. It is pronounced, "mack-oh-es." The Mac OS (currently OSX) has been around since the first
  2. 2. Macintosh was introduced in 1984. Since then, it has been continually updated and many new features have been added to it. Each major OS release is signified by a new number (i.e. Mac OS 8, Mac OS 9). Since the core of the Mac OS was nearly decades old, Apple decided to completely revamp the operating system. In March of 2001, Apple introduced a completely new version of the Mac OS that was written from the ground up. The company dubbed it "Mac OS X," correctly pronounced "Mac OS 10." Unlike earlier versions of the Mac OS, Mac OS X is based on the same kernel as Unix and has many advanced administrative features and utilities. Though the operating system is much more advanced than earlier versions of the Mac OS, it still has the same ease-of-use that people have come to expect from Apple software. History of Mac OS: On January 24, 1984, Apple Computer Inc. (now Apple Inc.) introduced the Macintosh personal computer, with the Macintosh 128K model, which came bundled with what was later renamed the Mac OS, but then known simply as the System Software. The Macintosh is generally credited with popularizing the graphical user interface. The Mac OS has been pre-installed on almost every Macintosh computer sold. The operating system was also sold separately in retail stores. The original Macintosh system software was partially based on the Lisa OS, previously released by Apple for the Lisa computer in 1983 and, as part of an agreement allowing Xerox to buy shares in Apple at a favorable rate, it also
  3. 3. used concepts from the Xerox PARC Xerox Alto, which Steve Jobs and several other Macintosh team members had previewed. Development: The Macintosh project started in early 1979 with Jef Raskin, who envisioned an easy-to-use, low- cost computer for the average consumer. In September 1979, Raskin began looking for an engineer who could put together a prototype. Bill Atkinson, a member of the Apple Lisa team, introduced him to Burrell Smith, a service technician who had been hired earlier that year. In January 1981, Steve Jobs completely took over the Macintosh project. Jobs and a number of Apple engineers visited Xerox PARC in December 1979, three months after the Lisa and Macintosh projects had begun. After hearing about the pioneering GUI technology being developed at Xerox PARC from former Xerox employees like Raskin, Jobs negotiated a visit to see the Xerox Alto computer and Smalltalk development tools in exchange for Apple stock options. The final Lisa and Macintosh operating systems used concepts from the Xerox Alto, but many elements of the graphical user interface were created by Apple including the menu bar, pop-up menus and the concepts of drag and drop and direct manipulation. Unlike the IBM PC, which used 8 kB of system ROM for power-on self-test (POST) and basic input/output system (BIOS), the Mac ROM was significantly larger (64 kB) and held key OS code. Much of the original Mac ROM was coded by Andy Hertzfeld, a member of the original Macintosh team. He was able to conserve some of the precious ROM space by interleaving some of the assembly language code. In addition to coding the ROM, he also coded the kernel, the Macintosh Toolbox and some of the desktop accessories (DAs) as well. The icons of the operating system, which represented folders and application software were designed by Susan Kare, who later designed the icons for Microsoft Windows 3.0. Bruce Horn and Steve Capps wrote the Macintosh Finder as well as a number of Macintosh system utilities. Apple was very strong in advertising their newfound machine. After it was created, the company bought all 39 pages of advertisement space in the Newsweek magazine, 1984 November/December edition. Apple was so successful in its marketing for the Macintosh, that it quickly outshone its more sophisticated predecessor, the Lisa, in sales — so much so that Apple quickly developed a product called MacWorks which allowed the Lisa to emulate Macintosh system software through System 3, by which time it had been discontinued as the re-branded Macintosh XL. Many of Lisa's operating system advances would not appear in the Macintosh operating system until System 7 or later.
  4. 4. Versions Mac OS can be divided into two families: • The Mac OS Classic family, which was based on Apple's own code . • The OS X operating system, developed from Mac OS Classic family, and NeXTSTEP, which was UNIX based. • "Classic" Mac OS (1984–2001) The "classic" Mac OS is characterized by its total lack of a command line; it is a completely graphical operating system. Versions of Mac OS up through System 4 only ran one application at a time. Even so, it was noted for its ease of use. Mac OS gained cooperative multitasking with System 5, which ran on the Mac SE and Macintosh II. It was criticized for its very limited memory management, lack of protected memory, and susceptibility to conflicts among operating system "extensions" that provide
  5. 5. additional functionality (such as networking) or support for a particular device. Some extensions may not work properly together, or work only when loaded in a particular order. Troubleshooting Mac OS extensions could be a time-consuming process of trial and error. Users of the classic Mac OS generally upgraded to OS X, but many criticized it as being more difficult and less user-friendly than the original Mac OS, for the lack of certain features that had not been re-implemented in the new OS, or for being slower on the same hardware (especially older hardware), or other, sometimes serious incompatibilities with the older OS. Because drivers (for printers, scanners, tablets, etc.) written for the older Mac OS are not compatible with OS X, and due to the lack of OS X support for older Apple machines, a significant number of Macintosh users continued using the older classic Mac OS • OS X OS X, introduced as Mac OS X and renamed OS X in 2012, is the latest version of Apple's operating system. Although it is officially designated as simply "version 10" of the Mac OS, it has a history largely independent of the earlier Mac OS releases. The operating system is the successor to Mac OS 9 and the "classic" Mac OS. It is however a Unix operating system, based on the NeXTSTEP operating system and the Mach kernel which Apple acquired after purchasing NeXT Computer - with its CEO Steve Jobs returning to Apple at that time. OS X also makes use of the BSD code base. There have been six significant releases of OS X, the most recent being OS X 10.8, referred to as Mountain Lion. OS X also had six significant releases as OS X Server. The first of these, OS X Server 1.0, was released in beta in 1999. The server versions are architecturally identical to the client versions, with the differentiation found in their inclusion of tools for server management, including tools for managing OS X-based workgroups, mail servers, and web servers, amongst other tools. As of the name change to OS X, OS X Server is no longer sold as a separate operating system, the server tools can be added to OS X, giving the same functionality.
  6. 6. OS X Server was the default operating system for Xserve (which has now been discontinued), it's an optional feature on the Mac Mini and the Mac Pro, and it's also installable on most other Macs. Unlike the client version, OS X Server can be run in a virtual machine using emulation software such as Parallels Desktop and VMWare Fusion. OS X is also the basis for iOS, (previously iPhone OS) used on Apple's iPhone, iPod Touch, and iPad. Versions of os x: Version Codename Date Announced Release Date Most Recent Version Rhapsody Developer Release Grail1Z4 / Titan1U August 31, 1997 DR2 (May 14, 1998) Mac OS X Server 1.0 Hera March 16, 1999 1.2v3 (October 27, 2000) Mac OS X Developer Preview March 16, 1999 DP4 (April 5, 2000) Public Beta Kodiak September 13, 2000 Mac OS X 10.0 Cheetah March 24, 2001 10.0.4 (June 22, 2001) Mac OS X 10.1 Puma July 18, 2001 September 25, 2001 10.1.5 (June 6, 2002) Mac OS X 10.2 Jaguar May 6, 2002 August 24, 2002 10.2.8 (October 3, 2003) Mac OS X 10.3 Panther June 23, 2003 October 24, 2003 10.3.9 (April 15, 2005) Mac OS X 10.4 Tiger May 4, 2004 April 29, 2005 10.4.11 (November 14, 2007) Mac OS X 10.5 Leopard June 26, 2006 October 26, 2007 10.5.8 (August 5, 2009) Mac OS X 10.6 Snow Leopard June 9, 2008 August 28, 2009 10.6.8 v1.1 (July 25,
  7. 7. 2011) Mac OS X 10.7 Lion October 20, 2010 July 20, 2011 10.7.4 (May 9, 2012) OS X 10.8 Mountain Lion February 16, 2012 July 25, 2012 10.8.1 (August 23, 2012) With the exception of Mac OS X Server 1.0 and the original public beta, Mac OS X versions are named after big cats. Prior to its release, version 10.0 was code named "Cheetah" internally at Apple, and version 10.1 was code named internally as "Puma". After the immense buzz surrounding version 10.2, codenamed "Jaguar", Apple's product marketing began openly using the code names to promote the operating system. 10.3 was marketed as "Panther", 10.4 as "Tiger", 10.5 as "Leopard", 10.6 as "Snow Leopard", 10.7 as "Lion" and the current version 10.8 as "Mountain Lion". "Panther", "Tiger" and "Leopard" are registered as trademarks of Apple, but "Cheetah", "Puma" and "Jaguar" have never been registered. Apple has also registered "Lynx" and "Cougar" as trademarks, though these were allowed to lapse. Computer retailer Tiger Direct sued Apple for its use of the name "Tiger". On May 16, 2005 a US federal court in the Southern District of Florida ruled that Apple's use did not infringe on Tiger Direct's trademark.
  8. 8. Public Beta: "Kodiak": On September 13, 2000 Apple released a $29.95[80] "preview" version of Mac OS X (internally codenamed Kodiak) in order to gain feedback from users. The "PB" as it was known marked the first public availability of the Aqua interface and Apple made many changes to the UI based on customer feedback. Mac OS X Public Beta expired and ceased to function in Spring 2001. Version 10.0: "Cheetah": On March 24, 2001, Apple released Mac OS X v10.0 (internally codenamed Cheetah). The initial version was slow, incomplete, and had very few applications available at the time of its launch, mostly from independent developers. While many critics suggested that the operating system was not ready for mainstream adoption, they recognized the importance of its initial launch as a base on which to improve. Simply releasing Mac OS X was received by the Macintosh community as a great accomplishment, for attempts to completely overhaul the Mac OS had been underway since 1996, and delayed by countless setbacks. Following some bug fixes, kernel panics became much less frequent. Version 10.1: "Puma": Later that year on September 25, 2001, Mac OS X v10.1 (internally codenamed Puma) was released. It had better performance and provided missing features, such as DVD playback. Apple released 10.1 as a free upgrade CD for 10.0 users, in addition to the US$129 boxed version for people running Mac OS 9. It was discovered that the upgrade CDs were full install CDs that could be used with Mac OS 9 systems by removing a specific file; Apple later re-released the CDs in an actual stripped-down format that did not facilitate installation on such systems. On January 7, 2002, Apple announced that Mac OS X was to be the default operating system for all Macintosh products by the end of that month. Version 10.2: "Jaguar": On August 23, 2002, Apple followed up with Mac OS X v10.2 "Jaguar", the first release to use its code name as part of the branding. It brought great raw performance improvements, a sleeker look, and many powerful user-interface enhancements (over 150, according to Apple), including Quartz Extreme for compositing graphics directly on an ATI Radeon or Nvidia GeForce2 MX AGP-based video card with at least 16 MB of VRAM, a system-wide repository for contact information in the new Address Book, and an instant messaging client named iChat. The Happy Mac which had appeared during the Mac OS startup sequence for almost 18 years was replaced with a large grey Apple logo with the introduction of Mac OS X v10.2.
  9. 9. Version 10.3: "Panther": Mac OS X v10.3 "Panther" was released on October 24, 2003. In addition to providing much improved performance, it also incorporated the most extensive update yet to the user interface. Panther included as many or more new features as Jaguar had the year before, including an updated Finder, incorporating a brushed-metal interface, Fast user switching, Exposé (Window manager),FileVault, Safari, iChat AV (which added videoconferencing features to iChat), improved Portable Document Format (PDF) rendering and much greater Microsoft Windows interoperability. Support for some early G3 computers such as "beige" Power Macs and "WallStreet" PowerBooks was discontinued. Version 10.4: "Tiger": Mac OS X v10.4 "Tiger" was released on April 29, 2005. Apple stated that Tiger contained more than 200 new features. As with Panther, certain older machines were no longer supported; Tiger requires a Mac with a built-in FireWire port. Among the new features, Tiger introduced Spotlight, Dashboard, Smart Folders, updated Mail program with Smart Mailboxes, QuickTime 7, Safari 2,Automator, VoiceOver, Core Image and Core Video. The initial release of the Apple TV used a modified version of Tiger with a different graphical interface and fewer applications and services. On January 10, 2006, Apple released the first Intel-based Macs along with the 10.4.4 update to Tiger. This operating system functioned identically on the PowerPC- based Macs and the new Intel-based machines, with the exception of the Intel release dropping support for the Classic environment. Only PowerPC Macs can be booted from retail copies of the Tiger client DVD, but there is a Universal DVD of Tiger Server 10.4.7 (8K1079) that can boot both PowerPC and Intel Macs. Version 10.5 “Leopard”: Mac OS X v10.5 "Leopard" was released on October 26, 2007. It was called by Apple "the largest update of Mac OS X". It brought more than 300 new features. Leopard supports both PowerPC- and Intel x86- based Macintosh computers; support for the G3 processor was dropped and the G4 processor required a minimum clock rate of 867 MHz, and at least 512 MB of RAM to be installed. The single DVD works for all supported Macs (including 64-bit machines). New features include a new look, an updated Finder, Time Machine, Spaces, Boot Camp pre-installed, full support for 64-bit applications (including graphical applications), new features in Mail and iChat, and a number of new security features. Leopard is an Open Brand UNIX 03 registered product on the Intel platform. It was also the first BSD-based OS to receive UNIX 03 certification. Leopard dropped support for the Classic Environment and all Classic applications.
  10. 10. It was the final version of Mac OS X to support the PowerPC architecture. Version 10.6: "Snow Leopard" "Snow Leopard" was released on August 28, 2009. Rather than delivering big changes to the appearance and end user functionality like the previous releases of Mac OS X, Snow Leopard focuses on "under the hood" changes, increasing the performance, efficiency, and stability of the operating system. For most users, the most noticeable changes are: the disk space that the operating system frees up after a clean install compared to Mac OS X 10.5 Leopard, a more responsive Finder rewritten in Cocoa, faster Time Machine backups, more reliable and user friendly disk ejects, a more powerful version of the Preview application, as well as a faster Safari web browser. The rewrite of Finder in Apple's native Cocoa API allows the Finder to take advantage of the new technologies introduced in Snow Leopard. An update of the web browser, Safari 4, includes a boost in JavaScript andHTML performance, which results in faster web browsing. The majority of this performance boost is enabled by the new SquirrelFish JavaScript interpreter, improving the JavaScript rendering performance of Safari by over 50%. The new Top Sites also displays the most frequently visited and/or bookmarked sites in a panorama view, allowing the user to easily access their favorite sites along with a new Cover Flow view for the user's browsing history. Safari 4 is now also more crash resistant, being able to isolate plug-ins which are the main cause of web browser crashes. Mac OS X v10.6 also features Microsoft Exchange Server support for Mail, iCal, and Address Book, new 64-bit technology capable of supporting greater amounts of RAM, an all new QuickTime X with a refreshed user interface and more functionality that used to be only available to QuickTime Pro owners. Back-end platform changes include improved support for multi-core processors through Grand Central Dispatch which attempts to ease the development of applications with multi-core support, and thus improve their CPU utilization. It used to be that developers needed to code their programs in such a way that their software would explicitly take advantage of the multiple cores, which could easily become a tedious and troublesome task, especially in complex software. It also includes advanced GPU performance with OpenCL (a cross platform open standard for GPGPU distinct from CUDA, Dx11 Compute Shader or STREAM) by providing support to offload work normally only destined for a CPU to the graphic card's GPU. This can be especially useful in tasks that can be heavily parallelized. An update introduced support for the Mac App Store, Apple's digital distribution platform for OS X applications.[100]
  11. 11. Snow Leopard only supports machines with Intel CPUs, requires at least 1 GB of RAM, and drops default support for applications built for the PowerPC architecture (Rosetta can be installed as an additional component to retain support for PowerPC-only applications).[101] Version 10.7:”Lion”: Mac OS X Lion was announced atWWDC 2011 at Moscone West. Mac OS X v10.7 "Lion" was released on July 20, 2011. It brought developments made in Apple's iOS, such as an easily navigable display of installed applications (Launchpad) and (a greater use of) multi- touch gestures, to the Mac. This release removed Rosetta, making it incapable of running PowerPC applications. Changes made to the GUI (Graphical User Interface) include the Launchpad (similar to the home screen of iOS devices), auto-hiding scrollbars that only appear when they are being used, and Mission Control, which unifies Exposé, Spaces, Dashboard, and full-screen applications within a single interface.Apple also made changes to applications: they resume in the same state as they were before they were closed (similar to iOS). Documents auto-save by default. Version 10.8: "Mountain Lion" OS X v10.8 "Mountain Lion" was announced on February 16, 2012, and was released online via the App Store on July 25.It incorporates some features seen in iOS 5. These include Game Center, support foriMessage in the new Messages messaging application, and Reminders as a to-do list app separate from iCal (which is renamed as Calendar, like the iOS app). It also includes support for storing iWork documents iniCloud.[103] Notification Center, which makes its debut in Mountain Lion, is a desktop version similar to the one in iOS 5.0 and higher. Application pop-ups are now concentrated on the corner of the screen, and the Center itself is pulled from the right side of the screen. Mountain Lion also includes more Chinese features including support for Baidu as an option for Safari search engine, QQ, and services for Mail, Contactsand Calendar, Youku, Tudou and Sina Weibo are integrated into share sheets.s
  12. 12. A Sampling of Mac OS X Features Mac OS X has many "cool", "interesting", and useful features, a number of which directly contribute to the overall usability of the system. This page briefly describes a few features representative of why Mac OS X is a good (Desktop) operating system. • Aqua The graphical user interface of Mac OS X is called Aqua. This includes the look and feel, behavior, and integration of GUI elements. The GUI application environments of Mac OS X, Carbon, Cocoa, and Java, all support Aqua. Classic does not, and Mac OS 9 applications running under Classic look like they did on Mac OS 9. Finally, Mac OS X includes an optimized X Window server, including a native Aqua window manager (quartz-wm) that lets you run X11 applications alongside native Aqua programs. quartz-wm provides Aqua window controls, drop shadows, etc. However, the X11 application's own look and feel will be the one provided by the particular X11 toolkit being used. Aqua has numerous distinctive features: Mac OS X uses high-quality photorealistic icons that are rendered at various sizes up to 128x128, allowing for features such as in-place document preview and in-icon status indication. Mac OS X has a number of functional and unique user interface elements, such as sheets, which are document-modal dialogs that attached to and appear to come out of a document's title bar. The Desktop, Dock, and the Finder are also different (in my opinion, mostly better, from a productivity/usability point of view) from their counterpart on Windows. Aqua Human Interface Guidelines is a thorough description (almost 300 pages) of what guidelines to adhere to while creating applications for Mac OS X as well as an overview of various Aqua GUI elements.
  13. 13. While the lucidity and attractiveness of Aqua is visible immediately as you look at a Mac OS X desktop (with the disclaimer that this is a subjective area, so many people may not like how it looks), it may take a little while to get used to before you appreciate Aqua's usability. • Data and Information Management While not really Utopian, Mac OS X makes a very good attempt at keeping various data and information organized by context, rather than having files strewn all over the place. System and Application "preferences" can be global (system-wide) or per-user, and are kept organized as such. The various APIs make sure that (if used properly), all of a user's data is stored deterministically. One of the most useful features of Mac OS X is its support for synchronization of your computer's configuration, or personality, if you will. Currently this data set includes the address book, calendar, and Safari bookmarks, although Apple should add more entities. If you are doing a new installation or clean upgrade of your system, it is a boon to have the following: on the "old" installation, click a button to synchronize the above information to a device, which can be your iPod, or your .Mac account. On the "new" machine, you can reverse synchronize and have this information injected. • Devices Apple has excellent support for FireWire devices, hardly surprising since they invented FireWire. You can readily boot from external drives, treat a Mac to behave as if it were an external FireWire drive (boot it with the T key pressed, which puts the computer in Target Disk Mode), and even connect two computers together using TCP/IP over a FireWire cable. The iSight and the iPod use FireWire connections too. Apple has also been pushing Bluetooth with their newer computers, although you can get adapters for older models. In addition to using Bluetooth for communicating with phones and PDAs, Apple also uses it for their wireless keyboard and mouse, which are very well designed and work well with Mac OS X (well, the mouse still has one button). Even though Apple computers have custom "chips" (the KeyLargo IC, for example, is an I/O controller that provides USB, UDMA, EIDE, sound, communication support, etc. all on a single IC), Apple uses a number of "standard" components (RAM, IDE/SATA disk drives, optical drives, ...) in their machines, things are not always black and white. For example, an arbitrary DVD burner may not work with iDVD, though usually a workaround can be found.
  14. 14. • I18N Mac OS X is localized to a number of regions. It supports Unicode 4.0, various input methods, and multiscript support (a single document can contain multiple scripts). Apple provides tools, including support in Xcode, so that developer can internationalize their applications. Some specific components included are ICU, libiconv and support for wchar_t. ‘I’ was most impressed by how easy it is to input various Indian languages, including Hindi, on Mac OS X - out of the box. ‘I ‘can write an email containing English, Hindi, and other languages, using the QWERTY keyboard to input Hindi phonetically - it is very intuitive (assuming you do know Hindi, of course), and far better than my experience on other systems. • iLife Apple's iLife suite (iDVD, iMovie, iPhoto, iTunes, and GarageBand) are quite possibly the best applications you can get bundled with any operating system. While I do not use iDVD and iMovie myself (I have been experimenting with their professional counterparts, DVD Studio Pro and Final Cut Pro), I find iTunes and iPhoto to be excellent at what they set out to do, although nitpickers can find "issues" no matter what. These two applications manage and organize your assets (music and digital photos), with the option of leaving the "originals" untouched. Asset metadata is stored in a relational database, into which you can have multiple views. *iPhoto iPhoto can import images from a digital camera. It lets you do some basic operations on images, such as constraining as per various standard sizes, crop, resize, enhance, do red-eye reduction, retouch, convert to black and white, adjust brightness and contrast, etc. You can have a number of output channels for your photos: you can print them on a printer, order prints using Kodak's online print service, email pictures, create a slideshow, burn them onto optical media, create .Mac slides, export them to a thumbnailed web gallery, and even create a book in WYSIWYG fashion that Apple can print and bind for a fee. *iTunes
  15. 15. Unless you have some uniquely specific needs, have a gargantuan gripe against Apple, or are a masochist, you would probably find iTunes on Mac OS X to be the final word in music management. iTunes is a powerful and sophisticated jukebox, an interface to Apple's online music store, and a companion program to the iPod. I believe it represents the best that software can possibly do in making your music experience on a computer pleasant. • Power Management Mac OS X in conjunction with Macintosh hardware make up for some impressive power and thermal management. The four independently controlled thermal zones and the nine fans of the Power Mac G5 have been discussed aplenty. Mac OS X includes drivers and other logic for the 21 temperature sensors in that machine. The PowerBooks have sophisticated thermal management as well. You can 'grep -i' for "thermal" and "temperature" in the output of 'ioreg -l' on Mac OS X for related miscellaneous information. Based on power/thermal feedback, processor and bus speeds can be reduced to conserve power and control heat. All current Apple notebook batteries have remaining charge indicators. On the PowerBooks, you can change the battery without powering-off courtesy an internal backup battery that holds charge for a few minutes. Note that you do need to put the machine to sleep to do this. Note that by default the system tries to keep network connections alive even if the machine sleeps. For example, if you login (via SSH, say) from one PowerBook to another, and both of them go to sleep, your login will stay alive. • Security Mac OS X includes various security features, services, and APIs (including what's available on typical *nix systems), such as those for controlling/managing passwords, certificates, public/private keys, application-level privileged operations (capabilities), trust policies, etc. Mac OS X supports Kerberos, OpenSSL, and PAM as well. Note that many of the above services are exposed through the Keychain Services API, which any application can use, for example, to "remember" your passwords. It is possible to have a single keychain password instead of multiple passwords across different applications.
  16. 16. Root login is disabled by default, and sudo is used for administrative access. You can use /usr/bin/security from the command line to control the security framework. Relatively recent security related enhancements include FileVault (encryption of a user's home directory) and Secure File Deletion (see above). As mentioned earlier, Mac OS X is not a trusted system, or as focussed on security as say, OpenBSD, but it should at least be as secure as any modern day *nix system. It does make use of a large amount of open source software, so it would share many of the weaknesses and strengths of those components. Potentially, Apple's integration of such components might create new weaknesses, but I have found their software engineering to be extremely admirable in general. • Speech Interface Mac OS X includes both speech recognition (part of Carbon) and synthesis frameworks, that are fairly well integrated with the system. Applications can make use of APIs to these frameworks. "Speakable Items", a user customizable interface to the speech recognition engine, is available to arbitrary applications, wherein you can add your own items. The speech interfaces also add to the accessibility features of Mac OS X. In addition to speech recognition and synthesis, Mac OS X offers visual assistance (zoom features, enhanced contrast, grayscale display), aural assistance (screen flashing), typing assistance (sticky keys, slow keys), and mouse assistance (mouse keys, full keyboard access). XNU kernel Developer(s) Apple Inc. Operating system Darwin, iOS & Mac OS X Type Kernel
  17. 17. License Apple Public Source License 2.0 XNU is the computer operating system kernel that Apple Inc. acquired and developed for use in the Mac OS X operating system and released as free and open source software as part of the Darwin operating system. XNU is an acronym for X is Not Unix. Originally developed by NeXT for the NeXTSTEP operating system, XNU was a hybrid kernel combining version 2.5 of the Mach kernel developed at Carnegie Mellon University with components from 4.3BSD and an object-oriented API for writing drivers called Driver Kit. After Apple acquired NeXT, the Mach component was upgraded to 3.0, the BSD components were upgraded with code from the FreeBSD project and the Driver Kit was replaced with a C++ API for writing drivers called I/O Kit. Kernel design Like some other modern kernels, XNU is a hybrid, containing features of both monolithic kernels and microkernels, attempting to make the best use of both technologies, such as the message passing capability of microkernels enabling greater modularity and larger portions of the OS to benefit from protected memory, as well as retaining the speed of monolithic kernels for certain critical tasks.
  18. 18. Applications of OS X 1. Contacts (application): Contacts, called Address Book before OS X Mountain Lion, is a computerized address book included with Apple's OS X. It includes various syncing capabilities and integrates with other OS X applications and features.
  19. 19. 2. Calculator (Mac OS): Calculator is a basic calculator application made by Apple and bundled with Mac OS X. It has three modes: basic, scientific, and programmer. Basic includes a number pad, buttons for adding, subtracting, multiplying, and dividing, as well as memory keys. Scientific mode supports exponents and trigonometric functions, and programmer mode gives the user access to more options related to computer programming. 3. Dashboard (Mac OS): Dashboard is an application for Apple's Mac OS X operating systems, used for hosting mini- applications known as widgets. First introduced in Tiger, it is a semi-transparent layer that is invisible to the user unless activated by clicking its icon in the Dock. Alternatively, the user can invoke Dashboard by
  20. 20. moving the cursor into a pre-assigned hot corner, by pressing a hot key, or mouse button, any of which can be set to the user's preference.
  21. 21. 4.iTunes: iTunes is a media player computer program used for playing, downloading, saving, and organizing digital music and video files on desktop or laptop personal computers. It can also manage contents on iPod, iPhone, iPod Touch and iPad devices. iTunes was introduced by Apple Inc. on January 9, 2001. 5.Mac App Store: The Mac App Store is a digital distribution platform for Mac OS X applications. It is developed by Apple Inc. The platform was announced on October 20, 2010. Apple began accepting app submissions from registered developers on November 3, 2010 in preparation for its launch. It was released on January 6, 2011, as part of the free Mac OS X v10.6.6 update for all current Snow Leopard users.After 24 hours of release, Apple announced that there was a total of more than one million downloads.
  22. 22. What are the Advantages and Disadvantages of Mac OS? Every operating system (OS) has its good and bad points, and Mac OS X is no different. I'm going to list and clearly describe what the major advantages and disadvantages of Mac OS are. These include security (an advantage), and gaming (a disadvantage). • Advantages of Mac OS: • Security Mac OS is a two-layered system: the attractive GUI sits atop a Unix core, and Unix is best-known for its security features. It's simply impossible to install a destructive trojan or virus unless the user explicity allows it root access via typing in the admin password. Mac OS's built-in firewall is set up to work unobtrusively out of the box as well as being highly configurable. Mac OS users should be vigilant about strange files and never allow an application they aren't certain of admin access, but they don't need special anti-virus software. • Reliability Because OS X was designed from scratch from the ground up, Mac OS is incredibly stable. Apple controls production from start to finish, so every part of a Mac is designed and tested to work together. • Ease of Use
  23. 23. Apple's known for hiring the best industrial and interface designers around, and it shows in the intuitive nature of the GUI. I don't mean to sound like I'm verging into fangirl territory here; it's just true. Like the OS's reliability, the OS's functionality is designed to just work. • Disadvantages of Mac OS: • Price All that flashy secure reliable power comes at a price. Macs cost more than machines that run other operating systems, though publications like MacWorld occasionally run feature-to-feature comparisons and find that comparably-equipped Mac and other machines run about the same price. The result is you're paying a premium to have what is often the highest-end hardware on the market. Apple's been steadily upgrading OS X every few years for $129 or so a pop, which isn't cheap. Intermediate upgrades are free, but digit upgrades (10.4 to 10.5, for example) cost. • Gaming If you're a computer gamer, Mac OS isn't going to do it for you. Boot Camp and Parallels will allow you to run games natively in Windows, but there may be a performance hit. Some games are produced for Mac OS, but the number is very small. • Fewer Software Options Highly specialized software can be difficult to source for Mac OS, such as industry-specific applications, and businesses you work with may provide files in one of the few non-Mac OS formats left in the computer world, such as Microsoft Publisher.
  24. 24. XNU kernel Developer(s) Apple Inc. Operating system Darwin, iOS & Mac OS X Type Kernel License Apple Public Source License 2.0
  25. 25. XNU is the computer operating system kernel that Apple Inc. acquired and developed for use in the Mac OS X operating system and released as free and open source software as part of the Darwin operating system. XNU is an acronym for X is Not Unix. Originally developed by NeXT for the NeXTSTEP operating system, XNU was a hybrid kernel combining version 2.5 of the Mach kernel developed at Carnegie Mellon University with components from 4.3BSD and an object-oriented API for writing drivers called Driver Kit. After Apple acquired NeXT, the Mach component was upgraded to 3.0, the BSD components were upgraded with code from the FreeBSD project and the Driver Kit was replaced with a C++ API for writing drivers called I/O Kit. Kernel design: Like some other modern kernels, XNU is a hybrid, containing features of both monolithic kernels and microkernels, attempting to make the best use of both technologies, such as the message
  26. 26. passing capability of microkernels enabling greater modularity and larger portions of the OS to benefit from protected memory, as well as retaining the speed of monolithic kernels for certain critical tasks. Utilities 1.Bluetooth File Exchange:
  27. 27. Bluetooth File Exchange is a utility that comes with the Mac OS X operating system, used to exchange files to or from a Bluetooth-enabled device. For example, it could be used to send an image to a cellphone, or to receive an image or other document from a PDA. As of Tiger (OS X 10.4.6), Bluetooth File Exchange supports: • Receiving files, including multiple selected files • Sending files • Creating remote folders • Navigating into a folder by double clicking 2. Disk Utility:
  28. 28. Disk Utility is the name of a utility created by Apple for performing disk-related tasks in Mac OS X. These tasks include:[1] • the creation, conversion, compression and encryption of disk images from a wide range of formats read by Disk Utility to .dmg or, for CD/DVD images, .cdr; • mounting, unmounting, and ejecting disks (including both hard disks, removable media and disk images); • enabling or disabling journaling • verifying and repairing permissions • disk erasing, formatting, partitioningand cloning 3.Font Book:
  29. 29. Apple's Font Book is a font manager that comes with Mac OS X since version 10.3 (Panther). The program enables users to: • Preview and install font files, avoiding multiple instances of the same font. • Review installed fonts using various sample texts and sizes. • Activate/deactivate individual fonts or collections. • Check the data integrity of font files. • Export font collections for use on another computer. 4. Image Capture:
  30. 30. s Image Capture is an application program from Apple that enables users to upload pictures from digital cameras or scanners which are either connected directly to the computer or the network. It provides no organizational tools like iPhoto but is useful for collating pictures from a variety of sources with no need for drivers. Image Capture is scriptable with AppleScript, and may be manipulated with Mac OS X v10.4 (Tiger)'s "Automator" application. As of Mac OS X 10.4, Image Capture's AppleScript dictionary does not open in Script Editor. As of Mac OS X 10.6 only the Image Capture Web Server opens in Script Editor.
  31. 31. 5. Audio MIDI Setup: The Audio MIDI Setup utility is a program that comes with the Mac OS X operating system for adjusting the computer's audio input and output configuration settings and managing MIDI devices. It was first introduced in Mac OS X as a simplified way to configure MIDI Devices.
  32. 32. Mac OS on non Apple-labeled computers Although apparently a violation of Apple's EULA,running OS X operating systems compiled for x86 or x86_64 ("Intel 64") on a non-Apple PC is possible using several approaches. If the processor is an Intel Core 2 or later, but not an Intel Atom, Apple's standard mach_kernel is sufficient. If the processor is an Atom, the user-supported "legacy" mach_kernel_atom, derived from the appropriate mach_kernel, is required. If the processor is a pre-Core 2 Intel, say, a late Pentium 4 either with or without EM64T, but usually with H-T, the user-supported "legacy" mach_kernel_non-atom, derived from the appropriate mach_kernel, is required. Installation of MacOS X requires a MacOS X Installer emulator, the most straightforward of which is a USB flash drive-type Installer emulator. Once the installation has been successfully completed to the hard drive, the hard drive may be booted using the emulator portion of the USB flash drive as a "helper" and a boot loader Installer may be downloaded and used to place the boot loader on the hard drive's boot blocks. Thereafter, MacOS X may be booted from the hard drive alone; the installed boot loader takes care of any required device injection and/or kernel patching. MacOS X is generally compatible with any Intel desktop-based system or Intel-based motherboard, ICH6 or later,however compatibility past Snow Leopard cannot be assured with ICH6. Compatibility with ICH7 and with Lion and 945 (G)MCH has already been demonstrated and proved. Compatibility with ICH7 or later and any associated MCH/(G)MCH is quite good, certainly including Lion, and possibly also including Mountain Lion. MacOS X compatibility with Intel laptop- or netbook-based systems is quite variable but has been successful on a few Intel Atom-based netbooks.