Successfully reported this slideshow.
We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. You can change your ad preferences anytime.



Published on

Tonsils are the first line of defense against ingested aero-digestive foreign pathogens.

Published in: Health & Medicine


  1. 1. TONSILFirst Line Of Defense Against Ingested Or Inhaled Foreign Pathogens.
  2. 2. What is Tonsil ? • Tonsils are collections of lymphoid tissue facing into the aerodigestive tract.
  3. 3. Waldeyer’s Ring • Waldeyer's tonsillar ring includes 1. Adenoid tonsil 2. Two tubal tonsils 3. Two palatine tonsils 4. Lingual tonsil.
  4. 4. Type Epithelium capsule Crypts Location Adenoids Ciliated pseudostratified columnar Incompletely encapsulated No crypts, but small folds Roof of pharynx Tubal tonsils Ciliated pseudostratified columnar Roof of pharynx Palatine tonsils Non-keratinized stratified squamous Incompletely encapsulated Long, branched Sides of oropharynx between palatoglossal and palatopharyngeal arches Lingual tonsils Non-keratinized stratified squamous Incompletely encapsulated Long, branched Behind terminal sulcus (tongue)
  5. 5. Functions • Immune system's first line of defense against ingested or inhaled foreign pathogens. • Tonsils have on their surface specialized antigen capture cells called M cells that allow for the uptake of antigens produced by pathogens. These M cells then alert the underlying B cells and T cells in the tonsil that a pathogen is present and an immune response is stimulated. • B cells are activated and proliferate in areas called germinal centres in the tonsil. These germinal centres are places where B memory cells are created and secretory antibody (IgA) is produced. • Tonsils produce T lymphocytes, also known as T-cells, in a manner similar to, but different from, the way the thymus does.
  6. 6. Clinical • Tonsilitis : Tonsils can become enlarged or inflamed. • Tonsillolith : It is material that accumulates on the tonsil. They can range up to the size of a peppercorn and are white/cream in color. o The main substance is mostly calcium. o Have a strong unpleasant odor because of hydrogen sulfide and methyl mercaptan and other chemicals.
  7. 7. Thank You