End modern day slavery


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  • “ Human traffickers have found Craigslist to be one of the most efficient, effective and free ways to post children and women for sale.” – Katherine Chon, Co-Founder of the Polaris Project
  • End modern day slavery

    1. 1. Press Conference (Toronto, Ontario) October 12, 2010 Prof. Benjamin Perrin, author of Invisible Chains: Canada’s Underground World of Human Trafficking www.endmoderndayslavery.ca National Public Awareness Campaign to End Modern-Day Slavery
    2. 2. Overview <ul><li>What is Human Trafficking? </li></ul><ul><li>Key Findings </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Foreign Sex Trafficking </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Forced Labour Trafficking </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Domestic Sex Trafficking </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Technology of Trafficking </li></ul><ul><li>Demand </li></ul>
    3. 3. Overview <ul><li>Evaluating Canada’s Response </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Protecting Victims </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Prosecuting Traffickers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Preventing Human Trafficking </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Situation in Ontario </li></ul><ul><li>Traffickers Have a Plan, But Canada Doesn’t </li></ul><ul><li>Recommendations </li></ul><ul><li>Questions? </li></ul>
    4. 4. What is Human Trafficking? <ul><li>The UN Protocol to Prevent, Suppress and Punish Trafficking in Persons (2000) states that human trafficking occurs when: </li></ul><ul><li>1) an individual recruits, transports, transfers, harbours or receives people </li></ul><ul><li>2) by means of deception, fraud, coercion, abuse of power, payment to others in control of the victim, threats of force, use of force or abduction </li></ul><ul><li>3) for the purpose of sexual exploitation, forced labour/services, removal of organs, servitude, slavery or practices similar to slavery. </li></ul>
    5. 5. Key Findings <ul><li>Human trafficking is national in scope: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cases in Victoria, Vancouver, Calgary, Edmonton, Saskatoon, Winnipeg, Toronto, Ottawa, Montreal, Quebec City, Halifax, and numerous smaller cities and towns </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Both sex trafficking and forced labour trafficking are occurring in Canada </li></ul><ul><li>Victims are Canadian citizens and newcomers, adults and children, women and men </li></ul><ul><li>Hundreds, perhaps thousands, of victims </li></ul><ul><li>Canada is failing to effectively address this hidden national tragedy </li></ul>
    6. 6. Key Findings: Foreign Trafficking Victims in Canada <ul><li>Gender: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>74% women </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>26% men </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Age: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>94% adults </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>6% minors </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Form of Exploitation: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>46% forced labour </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>42% sexual exploitation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>12% unspecified </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Less than 10% of victims came forward on their own or with a lawyer to immigration authorities; most identified by police </li></ul>
    7. 7. Key Findings: Foreign Trafficking Victims in Canada <ul><li>Top-four source countries: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>China </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Moldova </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The Philippines </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Romania </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Victims by continent: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>59%: Asia </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>33%: Central/Eastern Europe </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>4%: Africa </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>4%: South America </li></ul></ul>
    8. 8. Key Findings: Foreign Sex Trafficking in Canada <ul><li>Long-term sex slaves and women from war zones brought to Canada </li></ul><ul><li>Prostituted women in developing countries recruited by traffickers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Debt bondage” as a common control tactic </li></ul></ul><ul><li>False offers of employment used to lure victims to Canada </li></ul><ul><li>Victims have been found in diverse “indoor” settings: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Micro-brothels” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Escort agencies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Massage parlours </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Strip clubs: contracts “smack of slavery” (Canada Revenue Agency) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Advertised through Craigslist </li></ul></ul>
    9. 9. Key Findings: Forced Labour Trafficking in Canada <ul><li>Friday’s forced labour construction case in Hamilton a dramatic example </li></ul><ul><li>Sectors most susceptible to forced labour trafficking are “3D”: dirty, difficult, dangerous </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Agriculture, construction, cleaning, domestic work, and hospitality  all sectors with forced labour victims in Canada </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Victims are as young as 13 </li></ul><ul><li>RCMP records under Access to Information Act reveal conditions: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sleeping on mattresses in storage rooms </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Using garbage bins for wash basins </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bank cards taken by employers for “tax purposes” </li></ul></ul>
    10. 10. Key Findings: Canadian Sex Trafficking Victims <ul><li>National in scope </li></ul><ul><li>Canadian women and girls as young as 13 recruited by sex traffickers through: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Group homes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Aboriginal youth shelters </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Centres for abused women </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Walking home </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>At high schools </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Shopping malls </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bus stations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Parks </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Facebook/MySpace </li></ul></ul>
    11. 11. Key Findings: Canadian Sex Trafficking Victims <ul><li>$280,000: estimated annual revenue of one Canadian sex trafficking victim </li></ul><ul><li>Male and female recruiters/traffickers </li></ul><ul><li>Tactics similar to torture used </li></ul><ul><li>Violent street gangs active inter and intra-provincially: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>North Preston’s Finest (Nova Scotia-based) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ledbury-Banff Crips (Ottawa-based) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Haitian gangs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Independent criminals </li></ul></ul>
    12. 12. Key Findings: Canadian Sex Trafficking Victims in U.S. <ul><li>Canadian women have become sex trafficking victims in the U.S.: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Approached in shopping malls </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Free trip to Florida” scam </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Jessie Foster’s case </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>$10,000 per weekend: price paid for a Canadian sex trafficking victim in Las Vegas (Edmonton Police) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>RCMP “incident” report released under Access to Information Act reveals how a Canadian victim was </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ lured from Edmonton to Las Vegas, raped and beaten, then flown to Fort Lauderdale, raped and beaten again then forced into prostitution.” </li></ul></ul>
    13. 15. Technology of Trafficking: Craigslist Aiding Sex Traffickers <ul><li>Calgary Police Service: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>2007: rescued missing under-age girl from B.C. sold for sex on Craigslist </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Operation Carmel” (2007-2009): 30 arrests, 3 under-age girls rescued, women from Vancouver/Winnipeg sold by gang associates – all on Craigslist </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Operation Street Fighter”: Asian organized crime uses Cragislist as “medium of choice” to sell women </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Peel Regional Police: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Imani Nakpangi, first convicted human trafficker used Craigslist to advertise 14 year old victim with fetal alcohol syndrome and 15 year old homeless girl (June 2008) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Multiple Craigslist cases </li></ul></ul><ul><li>B.C. Lower Mainland (March 2009): victim from China sold in “micro-brothels”, advertised on Craigslist </li></ul><ul><li>North Vancouver RCMP case (July 2009): high school girls </li></ul>
    14. 16. Technology of Trafficking: Craigslist: Canada vs. U.S. Toronto Vancouver U.S. Cities 180 160 140 120 100 80 60 40 20 0 Monthly % Change from First Point Craigslist implemented additional measures in the U.S. but not Canada to crack down on explicit and under-age sex ads
    15. 17. Technology of Trafficking: Craigslist “Walmart of Child Sex Trafficking” (CNN) In September 2010, Craigslist permanently shut down its erotic/adult services section in the U.S. (but not Canada) due to infiltration by sex traffickers and pressure from law-makers. Public Safety Minister Vic Toews and his provincial counterparts should demand the same. If Craigslist is unwilling to shut down its erotic services section in Canada, then charges should be laid under the Criminal Code against the company, its founder Craig Newmark, and CEO Jim Buckmaster for aiding and abetting human trafficking, child trafficking, and the prostitution of minors.
    16. 18. Demand <ul><li>Human trafficking is demand-driven </li></ul><ul><li>Thousands of Canadian men have paid for sex with trafficking victims, including minors – some police have “logbooks” </li></ul><ul><li>Few, if any, have ever been charged – critical gap in response </li></ul><ul><li>Manitoba’s “Stop Sex With Kids” campaign </li></ul><ul><li>Purchasers/johns don’t know or don’t care if they’re paying for a trafficking victim </li></ul><ul><li>Sweden’s unique approach </li></ul>
    17. 20. Evaluating Canada’s Response: Prosecuting Traffickers <ul><li>April 2007 – April 2009: 30 accused under Criminal Code for human trafficking </li></ul><ul><ul><li>71% domestic sex trafficking </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>23% foreign sex trafficking </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>6% forced labour trafficking </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Victim intimidation concerns </li></ul><ul><li>Inadequate sentences </li></ul><ul><li>“ Trafficking-related” prostitution offences critical tool for police – the same offences declared unconstitutional by Ontario Superior Court recently </li></ul>Imani Nakpangi (June 2008) Canada’s First Convicted Human Trafficker
    18. 21. Evaluating Canada’s Response: Protecting Victims <ul><li>The Good... </li></ul><ul><ul><li>B.C. Office to Combat Trafficking in Persons </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Action Coalition on Human Trafficking (ACT-Alberta) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Peel Regional Police “New Beginnings” Program </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Non-governmental organizations making significant contributions </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The Bad... </li></ul><ul><li>No national referral mechanism for victims </li></ul><ul><li>Lack of provincial plans in Quebec and Ontario: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Victims re-traumatized </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>11-year-old child trafficking victim locked in segregated immigration detention for a month (Montreal) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Adult foreign sex trafficking victim locked in immigration detention (Toronto) </li></ul></ul>
    19. 22. Government of Ontario: Cost of Inaction Paid by Victims <ul><li>Ontario is the top destination province in Canada for foreign victims of human trafficking (46%) </li></ul><ul><li>Street gangs and criminal networks are also actively targeting Canadian-born women and under-age girls for sex trafficking </li></ul><ul><li>Ontario does not have a provincially-mandated body to coordinate services to meet the needs of victims of human trafficking </li></ul><ul><li>Victims have suffered due to the province’s failure to provide services </li></ul><ul><li>Police and non-governmental organizations are very concerned about lack of support and services in Ontario for victims </li></ul><ul><li>Police in Ontario are charging an increasing number of traffickers, but victims need better help </li></ul><ul><li>Calling on Premier Dalton McGuinty to take action </li></ul>
    20. 23. Government of Ontario: What is the provincial government doing to help trafficking victims? “ I don’t think anything has been done.” – Detective Sergeant Mike Hamel, Toronto Police Service, Sex Crimes Unit “ We have very little infrastructure in place that would make it easy or give that victim the confidence to call the police. We just don’t seem to have the resources.” – Detective Wendy Leaver, Special Victims Unit, Toronto Police Service “ We need money for clothes and they need money for food. We had one girl from Alberta that our unit paid for out of petty cash, because our battered women’s shelters were full.” – Constable Kristine Arnold, Peel Regional Police, Vice Unit
    21. 24. Evaluating Canada’s Response: Preventing Human Trafficking <ul><li>Prevention education for Quebec youth starts at 12 years of age </li></ul><ul><li>Temporary Foreign Worker program safeguards – need for “whistle-blower” protection </li></ul><ul><li>Cross-border efforts with Integrated Border Enforcement Teams </li></ul><ul><li>Universally recognized need for public awareness to see “invisible chains” of exploitation </li></ul>
    22. 26. Traffickers Have a Plan, But Canada Doesn’t “ You'll start to dress her, think for her, own her. If you and your victim are sexually active, slow it down. After sex, take her shopping for one item. Hair and/or nails is fine. She'll develop a feeling of accomplishment.” “ The shopping after a month will be replaced with cash. The love making turns into raw sex. She'll start to crave the intimacy and be willing to get back into your good graces. After you have broken her spirit, she has no sense of self value. Now pimp, put a price tag on the item you have manufactured.” – Excerpt from “ The Pimp Game; An Instructional Manual” (Royal, 1998)
    23. 28. Recommendations <ul><li>Calling on Prime Minister Stephen Harper’s government to: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Adopt a National Action Plan to Combat Human Trafficking: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Fund integrated Human Trafficking Task Forces and support NGOs </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Work with provinces to ensure victims can access needed services </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Amend the Criminal Code: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Criminalize purchasing of sex acts, but not selling (Sweden’s model) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Change definition of “exploitation” in human trafficking offences to be consistent with UN Protocol Against Trafficking in Persons </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Pre-travel notification for convicted sex offenders and restrict their online access, particularly social networking </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Amend the Immigration and Refugee Protection Act: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Protection permits to allow trafficking victims to remain in Canada to recover from their ordeals </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>“ Whistle-blower” protection for exploited temporary foreign workers </li></ul></ul></ul>
    24. 29. Recommendations <ul><li>Provincial Governments: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Create and fund agency to coordinate help for victims </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ensure eligibility of victims for provincial services </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Confront demand with car confiscation programs, “john schools” and public awareness campaigns </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fund “exit” programs and detox beds for those seeking to leave prostitution (85-95% want out, but see no option) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Train frontline professionals in “warning signs” of trafficking </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Implement prevention education in schools from the Canadian Centre for Child Protection </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Increase funding for Vice Units and specialized Crown prosecutors to prosecute traffickers </li></ul></ul>
    25. 30. Recommendations <ul><li>Other recommendations in Chapter 17 of Invisible Chains for: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Police </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Businesses </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Parents </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Average Canadians </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Community responses save lives and public awareness is key – average Canadians have recently helped trafficking victims escape by seeing the “invisible chains” controlling them </li></ul>
    26. 31. Questions? Rally in Montreal in Support of Bill C-268 (stronger sentences for child traffickers) Grandmothers Protecting Our Children Sacred Walk (Winnipeg)