More Related Content


  1. Cook Meat
  2.  Meat • refers to the edible flesh of animals • is animal flesh that is eaten as food
  3. • What we eat are the muscles of animals • Meat and poultry are excellent nutrient sources of: – Protein (builds and repairs body tissue, makes you feel fuller longer) – Iron (helps carry oxygen to body tissues through blood, helps produce energy) – B vitamins (support metabolism, maintain healthy skin and muscle tone, enhance immune system function, promote cell growth)
  4. Composition: Meat consist of : Water – 75% Protein – 19% Intramuscular fat – 2.5 % Carbohydrates – 2.3%
  5. Tools and materials: Tools and EquipmEnT
  6. French Knife
  7. Utility Knife
  8. Boning Knife
  9. Slicer Knife
  10. Butcher Knife
  11. Steak Knife
  12. Cleaver Knife
  13. Knife Sharpener
  14. Cutting Board
  15. Cooling Rack
  16. Skewer
  17. Mixing bowls
  18. Meat thermometer
  19. Meat twine
  20. Meat mallet
  21. Principles of Meat Preparation
  22. High Heat Develops Flavor The Maillard reaction occurs when the amino acids and sugars in the food are subjected to heat, which causes them to combine. In turn, hundreds of different flavor compounds are created. These compounds break down to form yet more new flavor compounds, and so on, and so on.
  23. Low Heat Preserves Moisture For large cuts of meat or poultry, we often advocate a low-and-slow cooking method. This approach allows the center to come up to the desired internal temperature with less risk of overcooking the outer layers.
  24. Match the Cut to the Cooking Method Tender cuts with little connective tissue generally come from parts of the animal that receive little exercise (like the loin, the area along the back of the cow or pig). These cuts respond best to quicker, dry-heat cooking methods, such as grilling or roasting.
  25. Don’t Forget About Carryover Cooking Since the temperature of meat will continue to rise as it rests, an effect called carryover cooking, meat should be removed from the oven, grill, or pan when it’s 5 to 10 degrees below the desired serving temperature. Carryover cooking doesn’t apply to poultry and fish.
  26. Why Resting Meat Is Essential The purpose of resting meat is to allow the juices, which are driven to the center during cooking, to redistribute themselves throughout the meat. As a result, meat that has rested will shed much less juice than meat sliced straight after cooking.
  27. Market Forms of Meat
  28. Market Forms of Meat • Fresh Meat – this is meat immediately after slaughter, without undergoing chilling or freezing.
  29. Market Forms of Meat Chilled Meat – is meat that has been cooled to a temperature just above freezing (1-3°) within 24 hours after slaughter.
  30. Market Forms of Meat • Cured Meat – are meat products that have been treated with a curing agent solution like salt, sodium nitrate (salitre), sugar, and spices. (brining)
  31. Market Forms of Meat Frozen Meat – are meat cuts frozen to an eternal temperature of (-40°C).
  32. Market Forms of Meat Canned Meat – are cooked meat products and only requires to be reheated.
  33. Market Forms of Meat Dried Meats – dehydrated meats. (beef jerky)
  34. Meats from Different Animals
  35. Pork – meat from domesticated pigs, typically high in fat, commonly slaughtered one year or less of age to ensure tender cuts
  36. Beef- meat from cattle over one year old
  37. Lamb – meats of domesticated sheep
  38. Carabeef – meat from carabao
  39. Chevon – meat from deer/goat
  40. Veal – flesh of a young calf, 4- 5 months old
  41. Meat Cuts
  42. Cut in Pig Carcass
  43. Cut in Cow Carcass
  44. Cut in Deer Carcass
  45. Cut in Sheep Carcass
  46. Where we buy meat
  47. Meat today… • Boneless cuts (beef, pork and lamb) – economical and suitable for quick and easy methods of cooking, e.g. grilling. • Boned and rolled joints of meat – smaller joints to reduce cooking time and making it easier to carve. • Lean and extra lean cuts – trimmed cuts of meat which are lower in fat.
  48. Meat today… • Cubes of meat – sold cut into cubes, ready for making stews, kebabs and casseroles. • Lean minced meat – meat is trimmed of fat and minced. • Thin strips – meat is pre- cut into strips, suitable for quick cooking methods, e.g. stir-frying.
  49. 1. It refers to the animal flesh that is eaten as food. 2. What vitamins builds and repairs body tissue, makes you feel fuller longer? 3. The meat that has been cooled to a temperature just above freezing (1-3°) within 24 hours after slaughter
  50. 4. They are meat products that have been treated with salt, sodium nitrate (salitre), sugar, and spices. 5. Cooked meat products and only requires to be reheated. 6. It is the type of meat that is dehydrated. 7. This are trimmed cuts of meat which are lower in fat.
  51. 8. The meat is pre-cut into strips, suitable for quick cooking method. 9. The meat today which has smaller joints to reduce cooking time and making it easier to carve. 10. This is meat immediately after slaughter.
  52. State the meat of the following animals: 1.Carabao 2.Goat 3.Cattle 4.Pig 5.Sheep
  53. 1. 2. 4.. 3.
  54. 7 . 8 6 . 5.
  55. 9. 10.
  56. Correct answers: 1.Meat 2. Protein 3. Chilled meat 4. Cured meat 5. Canned meat 6. Dried meat 7. Lean meat 8. Strips 9. Boned and rolled joints 10. Fresh meat
  57. 1.Carabeef 2.Chevon 3.Beef 4.Pork 5.Lamb
  58. 1.Head 2.Loin 3.Belly 4.Leg/ham 5.Plate 6.Chuck 7.Round 8.Rib 9.Leg 10.Flank
  59. Easy Ways to Tenderize Tough Cuts of Meat
  60. Mechanical Method
  61. Just beat it Pounding meat with a mallet is a surprisingly effective way to tenderize it. The downside is that it can actually work too well, turning your meat into mush.
  62. Slice it right Slicing cooked steak thinly. The idea is to break up the long, tough meat fibers so they are shorter and thus easier to chew.
  63. Marinate with acid Acids can help break down tough meat. Soaking meat in a marinade made with lemon or lime juice, buttermilk or even yogurt can help tenderize tough proteins.
  64. Marinate with enzymes Several fruits, such as papaya, pineapple, kiwi and Asian pear, contain enzymes that help tenderize meat.
  65. Salt it Heavily salting a tough cut of meat and letting it sit an hour or two before you cook it is an effective way to break down tough muscle fibers, no fussy marinade needed.
  66. Slow-cook it Cooking tough cuts of meat with low- temperature heat over a long period of time is a great way to tenderize it. Tough fibers, collagen and connective tissues will break down, leaving you with tender meat.
  67. Basic Preparation Methods of Meat
  68. 1. Washing Generally, the only occasion in which you will have to wash meat is when it comes into contact with blood during preparation. After washing, dry the food thoroughly with absorbent kitchen paper.
  69. 2. Skinning Most of the meat you dealt with has been already skinned by the supplier. 3. Dicing Meat are diced when it is cut into cubes for various types of casseroles, stems, curries, and dishes such as steak, kidney pie and pudding.
  70. 4. Trimming Reasons for trimming: a.Improve the appearance of the cut or joint b. Leave as much of the meat intact as possible. c. Leave an even thickness of fat (where fat is to be left). How much fat you trim off will depend on the type of meat, preference, and the cooking process to be used. d. Remove as much gristles and sinews as possible.
  71. 5. Slicing It is the cutting of meat by determining the direction of the grain (the muscle fibers), and cut across the grain. This is particularly important with tougher cuts such as steak, in which the grain is also quite obvious.You slice meat with―instead of against―the grain.
  72. 6. Seasoning It is the addition of salt and white or black pepper to improve the flavor of food. a. Use white pepper or cayenne pepper on food which you want to keep attractive with white color. b. Add salt to roast and grill after the meat has browned. Adding salt before cooking will extract the juices of the meat to the surface, and slows down the browning reactions (which need high temperature and dry heat).
  73. 7. Coating The two basic coatings are: a.Flour – coat the meat before cooking, otherwise the flour becomes sticky and unpleasant. b. Bread crumbs – coat the meat in flour, then egg wash (egg wash is made of lightly beaten whole egg with a little water/milk) and finally with the bread crumbs.
  74. Methods of cooking meat 1.Dry heat cooking, such as roasting, broiling, or sautéing. 2. Moist heat cooking, like braising, steaming, or poaching.
  75. Dry heat cooking Dry heat cooking refers to any cooking technique where the heat is transferred to the food item without using any moisture. Dry- heat cooking typically involves high heat, with temperatures of 300°F or hotter.
  76. Roasting & Baking
  77. Grilling and Broiling
  78. Sauteing and Pan Frying
  79. Combi- nation
  80. Dry heat methods Dry heat methods mean cooking without any water or steam, although some kind of cooking oil is often used. Dry heat methods are for foods which are naturally tender.
  81. Saute Fairly high heat, very little fat … which means to toss quickly in a pan with very little fat and a fairly high heat.
  82. Pan fry Moderate heat & a moderate amount of fat …which means to cook in a moderate amount of fat over a moderate heat. Usually breaded foods like cutlets are pan fried.
  83. Deep fry Completely submerged in hot fat which means to submerge something completely in cooking oil
  84. Pan broil …which means to cook something in a pan with no added fat. A moderate heat, no fat. Usually foods which have their own fat, like steaks, burgers or bacon
  85. Roast or bake …which means to cook by exposing food to hot, dry air in an oven To cook by exposing to hot, dry air.
  86. Griddle …which means to cook food on a flat, hot surface. To cook on a flat, hot surface. This is very common because a griddle can cook many foods quickly.
  87. Grill …which means to cook food on metal bars over radiant heat. To cook on bars, over radiant heat.
  88. M o i s t h e a t m e t h o d s
  89. Simmering …which means to cook food in water that is bubbling gently. Usually foods that need to cook for a long time.
  90. Boiling …which means to cook food in water that is bubbling rapidly.
  91. Steaming …which means to cook food by exposing it to steam
  92. C o m b i n a t i o n m e t h o d s Combination methods mean cooking food using first a dry heat and then adding liquid or steam. Combination methods are used to tenderize tough cuts of meat
  93. Braising …which means to brown the food first and then cook it covered, with moisture added.
  94. Stewing …which means to cut food into bite size pieces, brown it and then cook it covered, with moisture added.
  95. Mari nades
  96. Mar inades Good marinade will add flavor to your favorite meat and make it more tender and juicy. Making a marinade is very simple.
  97. The first, is an ACID, such as lemon juice, vinegar, yogurt, or wine. The acid is important as it breaks down the meat and tenderizes it. The second, is OIL. This protects and preserves the food while marinated and also when it‘s being cooked. The third, is any HERB AND/OR SPICE. This is what gives a marinade its unique flavor and zest.
  98. Types of Marinades
  99. Pork Chop Marinade This is a great Asian style marinade that works well on all cuts of pork, particularly pork chops, reminiscent of a Teriyaki marinade with a hint of heat from the chili sauce.
  100. •1/4 cup olive oil •1/4 cup soy sauce •1 clove garlic, minced •2 tbsp sugar •salt and ground black pepper to taste •2 pounds pork tenderloin
  101. Whisk together the olive oil, soy sauce, garlic, mustard, salt, and pepper in a bowl. Place the pork loin in a large resealable plastic bag and pour in the marinade. Marinate in the refrigerator at least 1 hour before cooking. Preheat an oven to 350 degrees F (175 degrees C). Transfer the pork loin to a baking dish; pour marinade over the pork. Cook in the preheated oven until the pork is no longer pink in the center.
  102. Jamaican Jerk Marinade You've heard of Jerk seasonings and Jerk rubs, well this is a jerk marinade that gets that jerk flavor deep into the meat.
  103. ½- medium onion coarsely chopped 4 medium scallions green onions chopped 2-3 Tablespoons Fresh Thyme 1½ tablespoons fresh ginger chopped 8 Garlic cloves chopped 1 Tablespoon cinnamon powder 1 Tablespoon Allspice coarsely ground 1 tablespoon coarsely white pepper ½ Tablespoon freshly grated nutmeg 2 tablespoons dark brown sugar 2 Tablespoons Honey 2 Tablespoons Maggi Sauce or Soy sauce 1 Tablespoon bouillon powder such as knorr 1 cup Fresh Mango, Pineapple(optional) 1 or more Scotch Bonnet Pepper adjust to taste
  104. Instructions In a food processor combine all the ingredients. Adjust for taste and heat level with more or less spice. Refrigerate and use when ready. Recipe Notes If it is your first time working with Hot peppers use gloves. For a more intense Jerk Flavor leave out the fruits and use less than half of the onions. Since scotch bonnet pepper are hard to find here in the U.S. Substitute Scotch bonnet pepper with Habanero pepper. Or for am milder taste use habanero peppers and leave out the seeds. You can easily make this paleo by omitting the sugar and using honey and/ or coconut sugar instead
  105. Pork Rib Marinade BBQ Guru posted this marinade recipe to the forum. It uses a pork rub for the seasoning with vinegar and water to turn it into a marinade.
  106. 1⁄4cup brown sugar 1⁄4teaspoon ground black pepper 1⁄2teaspoon garlic powder 1⁄2teaspoon onion powder 1⁄4cup water 1⁄3cup Worcestershire sauce 1 1⁄2ounces soy sauce 2tablespoons inglehoffer original stone ground mustard 1⁄4cup kc masterpeice original barbecue sauce 2lbs country side pork ribs
  107. Wisk together the Brown Sugar, Pepper, Garlic Powder, Onion Powder, Water, Worcesteshire Sauce and Soy Sauce. Then wisk in the Mustard. Reserve 1/4 cup of the marinade. Trim the pork ribs and place in a sealable plastic bag in a large bowl. Pour in the marinade remove the excess air and seal the bag. Let the ribs marinade at room temerature for 30 minutes.
  108. Heat up the grill and clean the grates. Mix the reserve marinade with the barbecue sauce. Remove the meat from the marinade and discard the remaining marinade. Brush the meat with the marinade & Barbecue sauce and grill over direct high heat with the grill covered turning every 10-15 minutes. When meat temp reaches 155° remove from grill and enjoy.
  109. Pork Spareribs 2 pounds pork spareribs, cut into 2-inch cubes salt and pepper to taste 1 thumb-size fresh ginger, peeled and grated 1 can (20 ounces) pineapple chunks, drained and juice reserved 1/4 cup soy sauce 1/2 cup banana ketchup 1 tablespoon oil 1 small onion, peeled and chopped 2 cloves garlic, peeled and minced 1 cup water
  110. Instructions Season spare ribs with salt and pepper to taste. Extract juice from grated ginger and discard the pressed ginger. In a large bowl, combine pineapple juice (reserved from the canned pineapples), soy sauce, banana ketchup, and ginger juice. Add spare ribs and marinate in the refrigerator for about 30 minutes. Drain meat well and reserve liquid.
  111. In a pot over medium heat, heat oil. Add onions and garlic and cook until softened. Add spareribs and cook, turning as needed, until lightly browned. Add reserved marinade and water and bring to a boil. Lower heat, cover and cook for about 40 to 50 minutes or until meat is fork- tender and the sauce is reduced. Add pineapple chunks and cook for about 2 to 3 minutes or until heated through. Serve hot.
  112. Teriyaki Marinade Want to get that great Teriyaki flavor into your favorite dish? This marinade will surely add flavor to whatever you're grilling. This marinade works particularly well with pork and poultry.
  113. •2 tablespoons honey •2 tablespoons rice vinegar •2 tablespoons sesame oil •2 tablespoons brown sugar •2 tablespoons sesame seeds (optional) •2 cloves minced garlic •1 (1 inch) piece fresh ginger, grated •1/4 cup cold water •1 tablespoon cornstarch
  114. Stir soy sauce, honey, rice vinegar, sesame oil, brown sugar, sesame seeds, garlic, and ginger together in a small saucepan over medium-high heat. Whisk cornstarch into water in a bowl; add to soy sauce mixture. Cook sauce, stirring regularly, at a simmer until thickened, 5 to 7 minutes.
  115. Bourbon Marinade This is a great, sweet bourbon marinade that works perfectly on any food. This is a mild marinade so you will want several hours marinating time with it before you grill.
  116. Mustard-VinegarMarinade This is a simple mustard marinade that tenderizes and adds flavor. It works well on pork or poultry.
  117. 1/3 cup/80 mL Dijon mustard 1/4 cup/60 mL olive oil 1/4 cup/60 mL white vinegar 1 tablespoon/15 mL dry bay leaves 1 clove garlic (minced) 1 teaspoon/5 mL salt 1/2 teaspoon/2.5 mL black pepper
  118. 1. Mix together mustard and vinegar. Add minced garlic, dried sage, bay leaves, salt and black pepper. Using a whisk, combine mixture while slowly adding oil. This will create an emulsion, blending the oil into the remaining ingredients. Let mixture stand for 5-10 minutes so flavors can combine.
  119. 2. Use right away or store in the refrigerator in an air tight container for up to 5 days after preparation. 3. Marinate pork for up to 12 hours, chicken for 4-8 hours, vegetables and vegetable substitutes for 30-60 minutes. Cook as directed.
  120. Basic PrinciPles o f P l a t t e r P r e s e n t a t i o n
  121. 1.Presentation must have three elements Centerpiece may be an uncut portion of the main food item. Slices or serving portions of the main food item, arrange artistically. Garnish, arranged artistically in proportion to the cut slices.
  122. 2. The food should be easy to handle and serve, so one portion can be removed without ruining the arrangement.
  123. 3. Simple arrangements are easier to serve, and more likely to be still attractive when they are half demolished by the guests.
  124. 4. Attractive platter are made of metals, mirrors, china, plastic or woods, presentable and suitable for use with food.
  125. 5 .It must look attractive and appropriate not only by itself, but among other presentations on the table.
  126. t h e 5 B a s i c e l e M e n t s o f P l a t i n g
  127. 1. Create a Framework Start with drawings and sketches to visualize the plate. Find inspiration from a picture or object.
  128. 2. Keep It Simple
  129. 3. Balance the Dish Play with colors, shapes and textures to ensure diners are not overwhelmed.
  130. 4. Get the Right Portion Size
  131. 5. Highlight the Key Ingredient
  132. Methods of Preserving Meat
  133. A.Drying – This is the most common method of preserving meat. Drying involves the reduction of the original 70% of water content of the meat to about 15%. B. Smoking – Meat is smoked to create a distinctive color and flavor, thus helping its preservation. The flavor, color, and attractive glaze on the surface of the meat is desired like in ham, bacon, and tinapA.
  134. C. Curing – In this method, salt, sugar, potassium or sodium nitrate, and other curing elements such as ascorbic acid, phosphate blend, and spices are used to prolong the keeping quality of meat. D. Refrigerating – Meat is stored at a temperature range of 2 to 10ºC to retard mold and bacterial growth for a limited period.
  135. E. Freezing – Meat is preserved at a temperature of 10ºC and below. Freezing deactivates enzymes and bacteria. Meat can be preserved for two months to one year using this method. F. Canning – Meat preserved by canning is packed in sealed cans or jars which are subjected to a temperature of 100ºC and above 5-7 kilo pressured for a specific period of time.
  136. 1.It means to cook in a moderate amount of fat over a moderate heat. 2.It means to cook food on a flat, hot surface. 3.It means to cook food in water that is bubbling gently. 4.It means to cut food into bite size pieces, brown it and then cook it covered, with moisture added.
  137. 5. It means to submerge something completely in cooking oil 6. It means to cook by exposing food to hot, dry air in an oven 7. It means to cook food in water that is bubbling rapidly. 8. It means to brown the food first and then cook it covered, with moisture added.
  138. 9. It means to cook food on metal bars over radiant heat. 10. It is the addition of salt and white or black pepper to improve the flavor of food. 11. The tool used for pounding the meat is called __________. 12. Papaya, pineapple, kiwi and Asian pear, contains ___________ that help tenderize meat.
  139. 13. Lemon or lime juice, buttermilk or yogurt contains ________ that help tenderize tough proteins. 14. A cooking without any water or steam. 15. It makes food safe to eat as it kills micro organisms.
  140. 1-7. What are the basic preparation for meat? State it in the chronological order. 8-9. Give at least two dry heat cooking method. 10-11. Give at least two moist heat cooking method
  141. 1. Pan Fry 2. Griddle 3. Simmer 4. Stew 5. Deep fry 6. Roast or bake 7. Boiling 8. Braising 9. Grill 10.Seasoning 11. Mallet 12.Enzymes 13.Acid 14.Dry heat method 15.Cooking
  142. 1.Washing generally 2.Skinning 3.Dicing 4.Trimming 5.Slicing 6.Seasoning 7.coating
  143. 8-9: Saute Pan fry Deep fry Pan broil Roast or bake Griddle Grill 10-11 Simmering Boiling Steaming
  144. RED MEAT
  145. Red Meat • The color depends on the concentration of myoglobin in muscle fiber. When myoglobin is exposed to oxygen reddish color appears. • Redness depends on species, animal age, and narrow muscle fibers.
  146. Red Meat Examples: Cow: Beef (adult cattle) Veal: (baby calves) Carabeef: (water buffalo meat) Sheep: in its first year is called a LAMB, Juvenile sheep: older than one year is HOGGET; meat of an adult sheep is MUTTON, “a term only used for the meat, not the living animal”
  147. BEEF • Beef is the meat of domesticated mature cattle usually over 12 months of age • It is usually bright, cherry red in color with creamy white fat.
  148. Grades of Beef • Prime (best) •Choice • Select or Good •Standard •Commercial
  149. Grades of Beef • U.S. Prime – Highest in quality, higher fat content, well distributed marbling • U.S. Choice – High quality, lower fat content, less distributed marbling • U.S. Select -- Acceptable quality, but is less juicy and tender due to leanness -- Lowest grade commonly sold at grocery store
  150. Composition of Meat: Water • Water is about 75% of muscle tissue. Shrinkage can be a big problem in cooking meat which result to loss of weight and loss of profit. Protein • About 20% of the muscle tissue is a protein. Protein coagulates when it is heated. This means firmer and loses moisture. Coagulation is related to doneness.
  151. Fat • 5 % of the muscle tissue is fat. A beef carcass can be as much as 30% fat. 1. Juiciness – Marbling is fat deposited within the muscle tissue. Juiciness depends on how much marble contains in the meat. 2. Tenderness – Marbling separates muscle fibers, making them easier to chew. 3. Flavor – Flavor depends on the marbling.
  152. Cattle are classified as: • Bulls – male intact cattle, usually not raised to be eaten. • Calves – young cows or bulls prized for their meat. • Cows – female cattle after the first calving, raised principally for milk and calf production.. • Steers – male cattle castrated prior to maturity and principally raised for beef.
  153. Variety Meats/ Organ Meats • Liver, heart, kidney, and tongue of beef, veal, lamb and pork.
  154. Tripe – the inner lining of the stomach of ruminant (cud-chewing) animals.
  155. Sweetbreads – these are the thymus glands of veal and lamb.
  156. • Chitterlings – cleaned intestines
  157. Effects of Cooking Meats • Changes in pigment – myoglobin from bright red color to grayish brown. • Changes in meat protein- Decrease in length of fiber causing shrinkage. Excessive heating makes the meat tougher, stringy and rubbery.
  158. Effects of Cooking Meats • Fat melts , causing shrinkage • Loss in moisture • Heat converts collagen into gelatin. This requires more heat • Long cooking develops better flavor
  159. Six Stages of Doneness: • very rare - red, juices blood, soft, jelly-like • rare -raw red portion of meat is small, around is pink brown outer surface, juices are red • medium rare –interior portion is rich pink. Meat is plump and firm • medium – modified rose, pink juices are less • medium well – pink color disappears, juices are clear gray, firm to touch • Well - gray inside and out, shrunken, little or no juice appear, brown and dry.
  160. Storage of Meats: Fresh Meats: 1. Check purchases as soon as it arrives to ensure the quality. 2. Do not wrap tightly, bacteria and mold thrive in moist. Allow air to circulate to inhibits the growth of bacteria. 3. Do not open vacuum packed meats until it is ready to use. 4. . Store at 32⁰ to 36⁰ F
  161. 5. Store fresh meat in the coldest part of the refrigerator (40°F/5°C or lower). 6.Use refrigerated fresh meats within 3-4 days. Ground meats and variety meats are more perishable than other meats, use them within 1-2 days. 7.Refrigerator cured & smoke meats, sausages, and ready to serve meats, unless the label says otherwise. Leave them in their original wrappers.
  162. 8.Freeze meats for longer storage. (0°F/18°C or colder) for maximum keeping quality. –you can freeze luncheon meat, hotdog, and ham up to 2 months. – Ground meats will keep for 3 months. – Pork cuts for 6 months –Lamb will keep up to 9 months. • Beef will keep for a year.
  163. Hygiene Practices in Storing Meat products 1. See to it that physical equipment and layout are conducive to sanitary practices. 2. Handle, store, and refrigerate food properly to prevent spoilage and contamination. 3. Safeguard the food during distribution and service.
  164. 4. Wash and sanitize dishes, glasses, utensils, and equipment. 5. Clean floors walls, ceilings, counters, tables, and chairs regularly. 6. Eliminate vermin and rodents from food areas. 7. Maintain adequate employer supervision and a constant program of education in sanitation for food service workers.
  165. 8. Make sure that food service employees are in good health, and are not carriers of communicable diseases. The three principal groups of communicable diseases that must be guarded against in public feeding operations are respiratory, intestinal, and skin diseases. Require medical examinations for food service employees. 9. Provide a regular employee education on food service sanitation.
  166. 1.What protein is responsible for the redness of the meat? 2.It is the meat of domesticated mature cattle usually over 12 months of age is called ________________. 3.It is a meat grade that is high, lower fat content, less distributed marbling.
  167. 4. It is a meat grade highest in quality, higher fat content, well distributed marbling. 5. Lowest grade commonly sold at grocery store 6. It is the fat deposited within the muscle tissue.
  168. 7. The male intact cattle, usually not raised to be eaten. 8. T he inner lining of the stomach of ruminant animal. 9. These are the thymus glands of veal and lamb. 10. These are cleaned intestines of an animal.
  169. 11.-16.: What are the six stage of doneness? 17.-20: Give at least four effects of cooking meat. - 16:
  170. 1.Myoglobin 2.Beef 3.U.S. Choice 4.U.S. Prime 5.U.S. Select 6.Marbling 7.Bull 8.Tripe 9.Sweetbreads 10.Chitterlings
  171. 1.very rare 2.rare 3. medium rare 4. medium 5. medium well 6. Well