• refers to the edible flesh
• is animal flesh that is
eaten as food
• What we eat are the muscles of animals
• Meat and poultry are excellent nutrient sources of:
– Protein (builds and repairs body tissue, makes you
feel fuller longer)
– Iron (helps carry oxygen to body tissues through
blood, helps produce energy)
– B vitamins (support metabolism, maintain healthy
skin and muscle tone, enhance immune system
function, promote cell growth)
High Heat Develops Flavor
The Maillard reaction occurs when the
amino acids and sugars in the food are
subjected to heat, which causes them to
combine. In turn, hundreds of different flavor
compounds are created. These compounds
break down to form yet more new flavor
compounds, and so on, and so on.
Low Heat Preserves Moisture
For large cuts of meat or poultry, we often
advocate a low-and-slow cooking
method. This approach allows the center
to come up to the desired internal
temperature with less risk of overcooking
the outer layers.
Match the Cut to the Cooking Method
Tender cuts with little connective tissue
generally come from parts of the animal that
receive little exercise (like the loin, the area
along the back of the cow or pig). These cuts
respond best to quicker, dry-heat cooking
methods, such as grilling or roasting.
Don’t Forget About Carryover Cooking
Since the temperature of meat will continue to
rise as it rests, an effect called carryover
cooking, meat should be removed from the
oven, grill, or pan when it’s 5 to 10 degrees
below the desired serving temperature.
Carryover cooking doesn’t apply to poultry and
Why Resting Meat Is Essential
The purpose of resting meat is to allow the
juices, which are driven to the center during
cooking, to redistribute themselves throughout
the meat. As a result, meat that has rested will
shed much less juice than meat sliced straight
• Boneless cuts (beef, pork and
lamb) – economical and suitable for
quick and easy methods of cooking,
• Boned and rolled joints of
meat – smaller joints to reduce
cooking time and making it easier to
• Lean and extra lean cuts –
trimmed cuts of meat which are
lower in fat.
• Cubes of meat – sold cut
into cubes, ready for making
stews, kebabs and casseroles.
• Lean minced meat – meat
is trimmed of fat and minced.
• Thin strips – meat is pre-
cut into strips, suitable for
quick cooking methods, e.g.
1. It refers to the animal flesh
that is eaten as food.
2. What vitamins builds and
repairs body tissue, makes you
feel fuller longer?
3. The meat that has been
cooled to a temperature just
above freezing (1-3°) within 24
hours after slaughter
4. They are meat products that have
been treated with salt, sodium nitrate
(salitre), sugar, and spices.
5. Cooked meat products and only
requires to be reheated.
6. It is the type of meat that is
7. This are trimmed cuts of meat
which are lower in fat.
8. The meat is pre-cut into strips,
suitable for quick cooking method.
9. The meat today which has
smaller joints to reduce cooking
time and making it easier to carve.
10. This is meat immediately after
State the meat of the
Heavily salting a
tough cut of meat
and letting it sit an
hour or two before
you cook it is an
effective way to
break down tough
muscle fibers, no
Cooking tough cuts of
meat with low-
temperature heat over
a long period of time is
a great way to
tenderize it. Tough
fibers, collagen and
connective tissues will
break down, leaving
you with tender meat.
1. Washing Generally, the
only occasion in which you
will have to wash meat is
when it comes into contact
with blood during
preparation. After washing,
dry the food thoroughly with
absorbent kitchen paper.
2. Skinning Most of the meat
you dealt with has been already
skinned by the supplier.
3. Dicing Meat are diced when
it is cut into cubes for various
types of casseroles, stems,
curries, and dishes such as
steak, kidney pie and pudding.
4. Trimming Reasons for trimming:
a.Improve the appearance of the cut or
b. Leave as much of the meat intact as
c. Leave an even thickness of fat (where
fat is to be left). How much fat you trim off
will depend on the type of meat,
preference, and the cooking process to be
used. d. Remove as much gristles and
sinews as possible.
5. Slicing It is the cutting of meat
by determining the direction of the
grain (the muscle fibers), and cut
across the grain. This is
particularly important with tougher
cuts such as steak, in which the
grain is also quite obvious.You
slice meat with―instead of
6. Seasoning It is the addition of salt and
white or black pepper to improve the flavor
a. Use white pepper or cayenne pepper
on food which you want to keep attractive
with white color. b. Add salt to roast and
grill after the meat has browned. Adding
salt before cooking will extract the juices
of the meat to the surface, and slows
down the browning reactions (which need
high temperature and dry heat).
7. Coating The two basic coatings
a.Flour – coat the meat before
cooking, otherwise the flour becomes
sticky and unpleasant.
b. Bread crumbs – coat the meat in
flour, then egg wash (egg wash is
made of lightly beaten whole egg
with a little water/milk) and finally
with the bread crumbs.
Methods of cooking meat
1.Dry heat cooking, such as
roasting, broiling, or sautéing.
2. Moist heat cooking, like
braising, steaming, or poaching.
Dry heat cooking
Dry heat cooking refers to any
cooking technique where the heat
is transferred to the food item
without using any moisture. Dry-
heat cooking typically involves
high heat, with
temperatures of 300°F
Good marinade will add
flavor to your favorite meat
and make it more tender and
juicy. Making a marinade is
The first, is an ACID, such as lemon juice,
vinegar, yogurt, or wine. The acid is
important as it breaks down the meat and
The second, is OIL. This protects and
preserves the food while marinated and also
when it‘s being cooked.
The third, is any HERB AND/OR SPICE. This is
what gives a marinade its unique flavor and
Pork Chop Marinade
This is a great Asian style
marinade that works well on all
cuts of pork, particularly pork
chops, reminiscent of a Teriyaki
marinade with a hint of heat from
the chili sauce.
•1/4 cup olive oil
•1/4 cup soy sauce
•1 clove garlic, minced
•2 tbsp sugar
•salt and ground black pepper to
•2 pounds pork tenderloin
Whisk together the olive oil, soy sauce, garlic,
mustard, salt, and pepper in a bowl.
Place the pork loin in a large resealable plastic
bag and pour in the marinade.
Marinate in the refrigerator at least 1 hour
Preheat an oven to 350 degrees F (175
Transfer the pork loin to a baking dish; pour
marinade over the pork.
Cook in the preheated oven until the pork is
longer pink in the center.
½- medium onion coarsely chopped
4 medium scallions green onions chopped
2-3 Tablespoons Fresh Thyme
1½ tablespoons fresh ginger chopped
8 Garlic cloves chopped
1 Tablespoon cinnamon powder
1 Tablespoon Allspice coarsely ground
1 tablespoon coarsely white pepper
½ Tablespoon freshly grated nutmeg
2 tablespoons dark brown sugar
2 Tablespoons Honey
2 Tablespoons Maggi Sauce or Soy sauce
1 Tablespoon bouillon powder such as knorr
1 cup Fresh Mango, Pineapple(optional)
1 or more Scotch Bonnet Pepper adjust to taste
In a food processor combine all the ingredients. Adjust
for taste and heat level with more or less spice.
Refrigerate and use when ready.
If it is your first time working with Hot peppers use
For a more intense Jerk Flavor leave out the fruits and
use less than half of the onions.
Since scotch bonnet pepper are hard to find here in the
U.S. Substitute Scotch bonnet pepper with Habanero
pepper. Or for am milder taste use habanero peppers
and leave out the seeds.
You can easily make this paleo by omitting the sugar
and using honey and/ or coconut sugar instead
Pork Rib Marinade
BBQ Guru posted this marinade
recipe to the forum. It uses a pork
rub for the seasoning with vinegar
and water to turn it into a
1⁄4cup brown sugar
1⁄4teaspoon ground black pepper
1⁄2teaspoon garlic powder 1⁄2teaspoon
1⁄3cup Worcestershire sauce
1 1⁄2ounces soy sauce
2tablespoons inglehoffer original stone
1⁄4cup kc masterpeice original barbecue
2lbs country side pork ribs
Wisk together the Brown Sugar, Pepper,
Garlic Powder, Onion Powder, Water,
Worcesteshire Sauce and Soy Sauce.
Then wisk in the Mustard. Reserve 1/4
cup of the marinade.
Trim the pork ribs and place in a
sealable plastic bag in a large bowl.
Pour in the marinade remove the excess
air and seal the bag. Let the ribs
marinade at room temerature for 30
Heat up the grill and clean the grates.
Mix the reserve marinade with the
Remove the meat from the marinade and
discard the remaining marinade.
Brush the meat with the marinade &
Barbecue sauce and grill over direct high
heat with the grill covered turning every
10-15 minutes. When meat temp reaches
155° remove from grill and enjoy.
2 pounds pork spareribs, cut into 2-inch cubes
salt and pepper to taste
1 thumb-size fresh ginger, peeled and grated
1 can (20 ounces) pineapple chunks, drained
and juice reserved
1/4 cup soy sauce
1/2 cup banana ketchup
1 tablespoon oil
1 small onion, peeled and chopped
2 cloves garlic, peeled and minced
1 cup water
Season spare ribs with salt and pepper to
Extract juice from grated ginger and
discard the pressed ginger.
In a large bowl, combine pineapple juice
(reserved from the canned pineapples), soy
sauce, banana ketchup, and ginger juice.
Add spare ribs and marinate in the
refrigerator for about 30 minutes. Drain meat
well and reserve liquid.
In a pot over medium heat, heat oil. Add
onions and garlic and cook until softened.
Add spareribs and cook, turning as needed,
until lightly browned.
Add reserved marinade and water and bring
to a boil. Lower heat, cover and cook for
about 40 to 50 minutes or until meat is fork-
tender and the sauce is reduced.
Add pineapple chunks and cook for about 2
to 3 minutes or until heated through. Serve
Want to get that great Teriyaki flavor
into your favorite dish? This
marinade will surely add flavor to
whatever you're grilling. This
marinade works particularly well with
pork and poultry.
Stir soy sauce, honey, rice vinegar,
sesame oil, brown sugar, sesame
seeds, garlic, and ginger together in
a small saucepan over medium-high
Whisk cornstarch into water in a
bowl; add to soy sauce mixture.
Cook sauce, stirring regularly, at a
simmer until thickened, 5 to 7
This is a great, sweet bourbon
marinade that works perfectly on
any food. This is a mild marinade
so you will want several hours
marinating time with it before you
1/3 cup/80 mL Dijon mustard
1/4 cup/60 mL olive oil
1/4 cup/60 mL white vinegar
1 tablespoon/15 mL dry bay
1 clove garlic (minced)
1 teaspoon/5 mL salt
1/2 teaspoon/2.5 mL black pepper
1. Mix together mustard and vinegar.
Add minced garlic, dried sage, bay
leaves, salt and black pepper. Using a
whisk, combine mixture while slowly
adding oil. This will create an
emulsion, blending the oil into the
remaining ingredients. Let mixture
stand for 5-10 minutes so flavors can
2. Use right away or store in the
refrigerator in an air tight container
for up to 5 days after preparation.
3. Marinate pork for up to 12
hours, chicken for 4-8 hours,
vegetables and vegetable
substitutes for 30-60 minutes.
Cook as directed.
1.Presentation must have three
Centerpiece may be an uncut
portion of the main food item.
Slices or serving portions of the
main food item, arrange artistically.
Garnish, arranged artistically in
proportion to the cut slices.
2. The food should be easy to handle and
serve, so one portion can be removed without
ruining the arrangement.
3. Simple arrangements are easier to serve,
and more likely to be still attractive when
they are half demolished by the guests.
4. Attractive platter are made of metals,
mirrors, china, plastic or woods, presentable
and suitable for use with food.
5 .It must look attractive and appropriate not
only by itself, but among other presentations
on the table.
t h e 5 B a s i c
e l e M e n t s o f
P l a t i n g
1. Create a Framework Start with drawings and
sketches to visualize the plate. Find inspiration
from a picture or object.
A.Drying – This is the most common
method of preserving meat. Drying
involves the reduction of the original 70%
of water content of the meat to about
B. Smoking – Meat is smoked to create a
distinctive color and flavor, thus helping its
preservation. The flavor, color, and
attractive glaze on the surface of the meat
is desired like in ham, bacon, and tinapA.
C. Curing – In this method, salt, sugar,
potassium or sodium nitrate, and other
curing elements such as ascorbic acid,
phosphate blend, and spices are used
to prolong the keeping quality of meat.
D. Refrigerating – Meat is stored at a
temperature range of 2 to 10ºC to
retard mold and bacterial growth for a
E. Freezing – Meat is preserved at a
temperature of 10ºC and below. Freezing
deactivates enzymes and bacteria. Meat
can be preserved for two months to one
year using this method.
F. Canning – Meat preserved by canning is
packed in sealed cans or jars which are
subjected to a temperature of 100ºC and
above 5-7 kilo pressured for a specific
period of time.
1.It means to cook in a moderate
amount of fat over a moderate
2.It means to cook food on a flat,
3.It means to cook food in water
that is bubbling gently.
4.It means to cut food into bite size
pieces, brown it and then cook it
covered, with moisture added.
5. It means to submerge something
completely in cooking oil
6. It means to cook by exposing
food to hot, dry air in an oven
7. It means to cook food in water
that is bubbling rapidly.
8. It means to brown the food first
and then cook it covered, with
9. It means to cook food on metal
bars over radiant heat.
10. It is the addition of salt and
white or black pepper to improve
the flavor of food.
11. The tool used for pounding the
meat is called __________.
12. Papaya, pineapple, kiwi and
Asian pear, contains ___________
that help tenderize meat.
13. Lemon or lime juice,
buttermilk or yogurt contains
________ that help tenderize
14. A cooking without any water
15. It makes food safe to eat as
it kills micro organisms.
1-7. What are the basic preparation
State it in the chronological order.
8-9. Give at least two dry heat
10-11. Give at least two moist heat
• The color depends on the
concentration of myoglobin in
muscle fiber. When myoglobin is
exposed to oxygen reddish color
• Redness depends on species,
animal age, and narrow muscle
Red Meat Examples:
Cow: Beef (adult cattle)
Veal: (baby calves)
Carabeef: (water buffalo meat)
Sheep: in its first year is called a LAMB,
Juvenile sheep: older than one year is
meat of an adult sheep is MUTTON,
“a term only used for the meat, not the living
• Beef is the meat of domesticated
mature cattle usually over 12
months of age
• It is usually bright, cherry red in
color with creamy white fat.
Grades of Beef
• U.S. Prime
– Highest in quality, higher fat content, well
• U.S. Choice
– High quality, lower fat content, less distributed
• U.S. Select
-- Acceptable quality, but is less juicy and tender
due to leanness
-- Lowest grade commonly sold at grocery store
Composition of Meat:
• Water is about 75% of muscle tissue. Shrinkage
can be a big problem in cooking meat which
result to loss of weight and loss of profit.
• About 20% of the muscle tissue is a protein.
Protein coagulates when it is heated. This
means firmer and loses moisture. Coagulation is
related to doneness.
• 5 % of the muscle tissue is fat. A beef
carcass can be as much as 30% fat.
1. Juiciness – Marbling is fat deposited
within the muscle tissue. Juiciness
depends on how
much marble contains in the meat.
2. Tenderness – Marbling separates muscle
fibers, making them easier to chew.
3. Flavor – Flavor depends on the marbling.
Cattle are classified as:
• Bulls – male intact cattle, usually not raised
to be eaten.
• Calves – young cows or bulls prized for their
• Cows – female cattle after the first calving,
raised principally for milk and calf
• Steers – male cattle castrated prior to
maturity and principally raised for beef.
Effects of Cooking Meats
• Changes in pigment – myoglobin
from bright red color to grayish
• Changes in meat protein- Decrease
in length of fiber causing shrinkage.
Excessive heating makes the meat
tougher, stringy and rubbery.
Effects of Cooking Meats
• Fat melts , causing shrinkage
• Loss in moisture
• Heat converts collagen into
gelatin. This requires more heat
• Long cooking develops better
Six Stages of Doneness:
• very rare - red, juices blood, soft, jelly-like
• rare -raw red portion of meat is small, around
is pink brown outer surface, juices are red
• medium rare –interior portion is rich pink.
Meat is plump and firm
• medium – modified rose, pink juices are less
• medium well – pink color disappears, juices
are clear gray, firm to touch
• Well - gray inside and out, shrunken, little or
no juice appear, brown and dry.
Storage of Meats:
1. Check purchases as soon as it arrives to ensure
2. Do not wrap tightly, bacteria and mold thrive
in moist. Allow air to circulate to inhibits the
growth of bacteria.
3. Do not open vacuum packed meats until it is
ready to use.
4. . Store at 32⁰ to 36⁰ F
5. Store fresh meat in the coldest part of
the refrigerator (40°F/5°C or lower).
6.Use refrigerated fresh meats within 3-4
days. Ground meats and variety meats
are more perishable than other meats,
use them within 1-2 days.
7.Refrigerator cured & smoke meats,
sausages, and ready to serve meats,
unless the label says otherwise. Leave
them in their original wrappers.
8.Freeze meats for longer storage.
(0°F/18°C or colder) for maximum
–you can freeze luncheon meat,
hotdog, and ham up to 2 months. –
Ground meats will keep for 3 months. –
Pork cuts for 6 months
–Lamb will keep up to 9 months.
• Beef will keep for a year.
Hygiene Practices in Storing Meat
1. See to it that physical equipment and
layout are conducive to sanitary practices.
2. Handle, store, and refrigerate food
properly to prevent spoilage and
3. Safeguard the food during distribution
4. Wash and sanitize dishes, glasses,
utensils, and equipment.
5. Clean floors walls, ceilings, counters,
tables, and chairs regularly.
6. Eliminate vermin and rodents from food
7. Maintain adequate employer
supervision and a constant program of
education in sanitation for food service
8. Make sure that food service employees
are in good health, and are not carriers of
communicable diseases. The three
principal groups of communicable
diseases that must be guarded against in
public feeding operations are respiratory,
intestinal, and skin diseases. Require
medical examinations for food service
9. Provide a regular employee education
on food service sanitation.
1.What protein is responsible for the
redness of the meat?
2.It is the meat of domesticated
mature cattle usually over 12
months of age is called
3.It is a meat grade that is high, lower
fat content, less distributed
4. It is a meat grade highest in
quality, higher fat content, well
5. Lowest grade commonly
sold at grocery store
6. It is the fat deposited within
the muscle tissue.
7. The male intact cattle, usually
not raised to be eaten.
8. T he inner lining of the stomach
of ruminant animal.
9. These are the thymus glands of
veal and lamb.
10. These are cleaned intestines
of an animal.
11.-16.: What are the six
stage of doneness?
17.-20: Give at least four
effects of cooking meat.