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O Brincar e o desenvolvimento infantil para Winnicott

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Trabalho da disciplina Desenvolvimento Humano I - Psicologia UNIME - O Brincar e o desenvolvimento infantil para Winnicott.

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O Brincar e o desenvolvimento infantil para Winnicott

  1. 1. A Criança e O Brincar : O Desenvolvimento Infantil segundo Donald W. Winnicott Seminário de Desenvolvimento Humano I Psicologia UNIME Novembro 2013
  2. 2. Equipe Heric Luara Maylu Monaelle Nilma
  3. 3. Donald Woods Winnicott  Plymouth, Inglaterra (1896 – 1971)  Nascido em uma família rica e aparentemente feliz  Pediatra (40 anos de prática) e Psicanalista inglês  Discípulo de Melanie Klein
  4. 4. O Brincar e o Desenvolvimento Os conceitos de criança e de infância já foram diferentes do que conhecemos hoje. Por muito tempo acreditava-se que a criança era apenas um “adulto em miniatura”, daí a necessidade de trabalhar para ajudar a família desde cedo.
  5. 5. O Brincar para Winnicott Winnicott trabalhava com crianças separadas de suas famílias em conseqüência da Segunda Guerra Mundial. Ele constatou a importância do brincar e dos primeiros anos de vida na construção da identidade pessoal.
  6. 6. O Brincar para Winnicott Winnicott redimensionou o conceito da brincadeira, situando o brincar do analista e o valor que essa atividade possui em si, instituída como uma atividade infantil, e que também faz parte do mundo adulto.
  7. 7. O Brincar para Winnicott Para ele os analistas infantis por se ocuparem tanto dos possíveis significados do brincar não possuíam um claro enunciado descritivo sobre o brincar. Para ele “Brincar é algo além de imaginar e desejar, brincar é o fazer.
  8. 8. O Brincar para Winnicott Para a criança, o brincar é a sua linguagem (expressa suas alegrias, frustrações, habilidades e dificuldades). É a maneira encontrada para se expressar no mundo e comunicar a sua realidade interior.
  9. 9. O Brincar para Winnicott Winnicott aproximou a sessão de psicanálise à noção do brincar. Para ele, a sessão se dá mediante a sobreposição de duas áreas do brincar — a do paciente e a do analista.
  10. 10. O Brincar para Winnicott
  11. 11. O Brincar para Winnicott Se o paciente não pode brincar, o trabalho do analista é ajudá-lo a sair desta impossibilidade para a situação do que brinca. Se o analista ele mesmo não pode brincar, neste caso simplesmente não serve para o ofício 
  12. 12. O Brincar para Winnicott Winnicott considera a criança em processo contínuo de constitui-se sujeito em um corpo que se desenvolve, amadurece e cresce em inter-relação permanente com o ambiente, em sua teoria versa que pelo brincar a criança se apropria de experiências com e através de um espaço situado entre o real e a fantasia.
  13. 13. “A criança joga (brinca) para expressar agressão, adquirir experiência, controlar ansiedades, estabelecer contatos sociais como integração da personalidade e por prazer”. (Winnicott)
  14. 14. O Brincar para Winnicott Ao brincar é necessário para a criança focar sua atenção na brincadeira e desenvolver a sua criatividade, curiosidade, autoconfiança, motivação, empatia, cooperação. Aprende a lidar com as frustrações, as regras, ganhar e perder nos jogos e outros conhecimentos e habilidades em relação ao seu comportamento necessários para o cotidiano.
  15. 15. O Brincar para Winnicott O espaço que o brincar winnicottiano ocupa fica na fronteira da subjetividade, e é chamado de espaço potencial. O brincar facilita a comunicação, tanto consigo como com os outros.
  16. 16. O Brincar para Winnicott Quando a criança brinca ela está dando sinais de sua vivacidade, está se socializando com outras crianças e ao mesmo tempo consigo (eu). Ao mesmo tempo que brinca a criança cria relações.
  17. 17. O Brincar para Winnicott Para o psicanalista, enquanto brinca a criança revela relatos íntimos que são falas reveladoras para a realização do trabalho terapêutico.
  18. 18. O Brincar para Winnicott O brincar como o concebe Winnicott não se limita às crianças apenas, mas se estende aos adultos também.
  19. 19. O Brincar para Winnicott “É no brincar, e talvez apenas no brincar, que a criança ou o adulto fruem sua liberdade de criação.” (Winnicott).
  20. 20. O Brincar para Winnicott A mãe “brinca” com seu bebê mesmo antes do seu nascimento, pois ela fica imaginando/idealizando como será ser mãe e associa as lembranças de sua infância, quando brincava com sua boneca.
  21. 21. O Brincar para Winnicott Após o nascimento do bebê já há uma relação criada da mãe para com o bebê e do bebê para com a mãe, pois esse já reconhece sua voz que ouvia desde o útero. No início, essa relação acontece como se o bebê fosse o brinquedo (a boneca) de sua mãe, a partir dessa interação a criança vai aprendendo a linguagem do brincar e se apropriando dela.
  22. 22. “… a brincadeira que é universal e que é própria da saúde: o brincar facilita o crescimento e, portanto, a saúde…” (Winnicott)
  23. 23. Obrigado!
  24. 24. Referências  Educar para crescer - http://educarparacrescer.abril.com.br/comportamento/donald- winnicott-427693.shtml  O Brincar e a experiência analítica - http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?pid=S151614982003000100003&script=sci_arttext  O Brincar em Winnicott http://www.portaleducacao.com.br/psicologia/artigos/33505/o-brincar-em-winnicott  O Brincar segundo Winnicott e Aucouturier http://www.avm.edu.br/monopdf/7/PAULINA%20DE%20ALMEIDA%20MARTINS %20MICELI.pdf  Pediatria Brasil - http://www.pediatriabrasil.com.br/2013/09/importancia-brincarcrianca-desenvolvimento-infantil.html  Wikipedia - http://pt.wikipedia.org/wiki/Donald_Woods_Winnicott

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