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PRECOLONIAL PERIOD:THE TRADITIONALIST GROUP OF MNDANAO
THE TRADITIONALIST GROUP OF MINDANAO second largest island in the Philippine Island "The Land of Promise" animist beliefs are still clung to—Davao and Cotabato delegations of dancers from certain remote regions would come down to so-called "Tribalfests“—display dances, rituals, musicmaking and other skills
THE TRADITIONALIST GROUP OF MINDANAO dancers physique (movements are localized), serves to aid in identifying the people behind the dance among certain groups: * Bagobo/Mandaya - focused on foot movements * Manobos - stress on freer and more complex movements of arms * non-Christian (Pangalay) - most sophisticated and complex of arm-and-upper-body movements
BAGOBO one of the principal non-Christian groups of the Davao Provinces of Mindanao synonyms for the term Bagobo: * Guianga * Tigdapaya * Guanga * Eto * Gulanga live to the west and the northwest of Davao Gulf
BAGOBO neighbors living between Sarangani Bay and the western shore of the Gulf of Davao: * Kulaman * Bilaan * Tagakaolo * Ata also found southern Bukidnon and in northeastern Cotabato highest dream of every young male Bagobo was to attain the distinction of becoming a bagani (warrior, one who has disposed of more than one enemy)
BAGOBO (RELIGION) need to offer sacrifice 20th century, eluding authorities, Bagobo has— once in a blue moon—manage to make the traditional human sacrifice of a slave in Pag- huaga rite, most important among the rituals of the Ginum, it being held to satisfy the Pamulak Manobo, god of life and death, and other deities
MANOBO were the original settlers of Mindanao - Manobo languages are distributed over a vast region including Cotabato, Bukidnon, Davao, Agusan, Surigao, and Camiguin Islands (accdg. to the late anthropologist Dr. Frank Lynch and linguist Dr. Richard Elkins) practice ancestor-worship and are polytheistic; have an ancient and rich ethnic cultural background: chanting, playing musical instrument (drum, gong, nose-flute, stampers, Jews harp, budlong)
MANOBO listed in the map of the Filipino People, published by the National Museum of the Philippines, Manila, 1974, are the ff. subgroups of Manobo: *Agusan-Surigao *Ata *Banwaon *Bliy *Bukidnon *Cotabato *Dibabawon *Higaonon *Hianen *Kulamanen *Manuvu/Obo *Matigsalug *Rajah Kabungsuan *Sarangani *Tagabawa *Tasaday *Tigwa *Umayamnon *western Bukidnon
MANOBO (DANCES) marked by mimicry and symbolism mimetic dances found by Garvan were always performed exclusively by men: * bathing dance * apian dance * dagger dance for two men * depilation or sexual dance war dance unfolded to the rhythm of the drums which were played with remarkable velocity by 2 players, one stationed at each end
MANOBO (DANCES) warriors believe that they are under the special protection of the war-god Tag-Busan principal beat in the social dance is dactyllic principal musical instruments are the guimbal and agong
MANOBO (RELIGION) gods worshipped: North (Domalongdong), South (Ongli), East (Tagolambong), West (Magbabaya) religious dances were at one time performed exclusively by the priests or priestesses religious dance done exclusively by male and female priests (baylan) religious dances may be followed by social and/or mimetic dances, and by the chanting by the baylan of certain legends
TAGAKAULO were seen by Fay Cooper Cole only one, but he mentions them as being recognized as a distinct ethnic unit by the Jesuits inhabited a part of the Davao seacost area bordering the Davaoy Gulf and extending from Casilaran Cove to a little below the Lais River were represented at Davao Citys Tribalfest 76, and that of 78 were part of the group brought over by the Panamin to perform in the FATs Festival 78
TAGAKAULO "pagan“—singing of the Alimocon bird is taken as a bad omen Origin of the term Tagakaulo by Rajah Carlito Buntas - tagakaulo were once the most dangerous tribe in Southern Davao, in the center of upper Malita called Kalatagan Accdg to Datu Macatuno: - the name Taga-ulo was derived from the equivalent of executioner - another explanation, tagakaulo means " inhabitants of the headwaters"
MANSAKA ethnically related to the Mandayas tribal group of Mansaka live in the hills of Barrio Masara, Maco, Davao del Norte has not reached the level of the cultural development of the Filipino Muslim lived peacefully , hunting game, planting a little
MANSAKA (DANCES) characterized by the rhythmic movement of the knees, feet, arms, and hands musical instruments used are two-stringed guitar fashioned from woods, flute, and drums of deerskin
MANDAYA man "people", daya "up the river" inhabit the Mindanao east coast along the upper Agusan River Dean C. Worcester found them to be fine- looking and light in color, fully clothed, skillful metal-workers who fashioned artistic circular plates of silver ornamented with geometric patterns, which plates they often used for personal adornment
MANDAYA have been known to be enthusiastic slave- takers and obdurate fighters Shona Mactavish: " their movements appeared to have adapted something of the fierce beauty of the CalouEagle"
T’BOLI also referred to as Tagabili a minority national group which is compararively sophistictes in language, dress, and mythology deity of the T’boli are either benefecient or harmful legend : first man and the first woman were formed from clay by Hiyuwe (goddess of good), and Sidakwe (goddess of evil)
T’BOLI Rev. Father Gabriel Casal, O. S. B who has done extensive research into T’boli culture, finds the T’boli to be light of build and thoroughly Malayan in features, without any trace of the Chinese strain reports: “the most beautiful of brown eyes is commonlace among T’boli women and children—often enough being the limpdity of honey against the sunlight”
T’BOLI only men practice sacrificaton, and they do so as a means of proving their courage traditional T’boli cloth—deep reddish brown, white, and black—adds a fascinating touch to the appearance of a T’boli Believe that all objects house a spirit, whose good will they curry
T’BOLI Casal concludes that the T’boli religion permeates the T’boli’s whole life, and also imprisons him through its iron grip of conservatism while, at the same time, giving his life a unified meaning—and of this spiritual orientation Casal states: “it might well be the factor that has preserved the tribe’s identity through the centuries.”
T’BOLI at a Panamin-organized performance at the CCP sometime in 1975 sponsored by ADB and witnessed by this author, the ff T’boli numbers were shown: T’boli Horsefight Drum Rhythms T’boli Bird-Dance T’boli Monkey Dance T’boli Festival Dance
BILAAN are to be found in Southern Cotabato, and also in Davao said to belong to the same ethnic group as the Manobos, Tagabilis, and Kalayans other synonyms of Bilaan: Vilanes Balud Tumarao
BILAAN believe that they are creatures of Melu, the creator believe that, originally there were only two beings in the universe: Melu (creator) and Tau Dalona Tana
BILAAN anthropologists suspect that the Bilaans were among the first of ancestral Indonesians who migrated to the Philippines some 5000-6000 years ago, and that they then settled on the wide Koronadal Valley, where they classify and identify themselves as: Tagalagad Biraan Bilan Tagakogon Baraan Buluanes Bilaan
BILAAN small but agile semi-nomadic and still practice a form of barter using gongs, swords, krises, and agricultural products as the media of exchange type of clothing is similar to that of the Bagobo women’s skirt is of hemp, and they were a comb of bamboo or rattan splints kinds of dances were full of graceful play and ploy
BUKIDNON mountain people live in the Visayan uplands of Aklan and southeastern Negros, as well as in the mountains of Cagayan de Oro and Bukidnon in Mindanao believed to be descendants of Visayanswho had formerly inter-married with Negritos believe in aswangs
BUKIDNON male Bukidnons are expert hunters, fishermen, and blacksmiths female Bukidnons attend to the household chores 2 dances-of-offering from Bukidnon: Inahaw Dugso
TIRURAY live in the deep forests of northwest Cotabato in southwestern Mindanao, and south of the Cotabato River composed or, relative to their respective environments: coastal, reverine, and mountain groups linked to Maguindanaos legend: Tirurays and the Maguindanaosoriginally had but one set of parents, and that said first parents had two sons
SUBANON so-called because they live along riverbanks and streams Live in Zamboanga and in Misamis Occidental anitos or spirits are worshipped and contacted by the Subanons during such times as th occurrence of illness of poor harvests
SUBANON deities that they worship: Tagma-sa-dugat (lord of sea) Tagma-sa-yuta (lord of earth) Tagma-sa-mga-bugund (lord of woods) Tagma-sa-saguit (lord protector of the sick)