Fiber optic cables are cables that contain several thousands of optical fibers in a protective, insulated jacket. The optical fibers are very thin strands of pure glass, which transmit information in the form of light. Fiber optic cables have revolutionized the world of network communication ever since their inception nearly 4 decades ago. Today, these cables have almost obliterated traditional methods of networking, which use metallic wires. Some of the most popular uses of fiber optic cables are listed below.
Single Mode Single Mode cable is a single stand of glass fiber with a diameter of 8.3 to 10 microns that has one mode of transmission. Single Mode Fiber with a relatively narrow diameter, through which only one mode will propagate typically 1310 or 1550nm. Carries higher bandwidth than multimode fiber, but requires a light source with a narrow spectral width. Synonyms are mono-mode optical fiber, single-mode fiber, single-mode optical waveguide, uni-mode fiber. Single-mode fiber gives you a higher transmission rate and up to 50 times more distance than multimode, but it also costs more. Single-mode fiber has a much smaller core than multimode. The small core and single light-wave virtually eliminate any distortion that could result from overlapping light pulses, providing the least signal attenuation and the highest transmission speeds of any fiber cable type. Single-mode optical fiber is an optical fiber in which only the lowest order bound mode can propagate at the wavelength of interest typically 1300 to 1320nm.
Multi-Mode Multimode cable is made of glass fibers, with common diameters in the 50-to-100 micron range for the light carry component (the most common size is 62.5). POF is a newer plastic-based cable which promises performance similar to glass cable on very short runs, but at a lower cost. Multimode fiber gives you high bandwidth at high speeds over medium distances. Light waves are dispersed into numerous paths, or modes, as they travel through the cable's core typically 850 or 1300nm. Typical multimode fiber core diameters are 50, 62.5, and 100 micrometers. However, in long cable runs (greater than 3000 feet [914.4 ml), multiple paths of light can cause signal distortion at the receiving end, resulting in an unclear and incomplete data transmission.
9 Uses of Fiber Optic Cables Shares Internet Fiber optic cables transmit large amounts of data at very high speeds. This technology is therefore widely used in internet cables. As compared to traditional copper wires, fiber optic cables are less bulky, lighter, more flexible and carry more data. Cable Television The use of fiber optic cables in the transmission of cable signals has grown explosively over the years. These cables are ideal for transmitting signals for high definition televisions, because they have greater bandwidth and speed. Also, fiber optic cables are cheaper as compared to the same quantity of copper wire. Telephone Calling telephones within or outside the country has never been so easy. With the use of fiber optic communication, you can connect faster and have clear conversations without any lag on either side. Computer Networking Networking between computers in a single building or across nearby structures is made easier and faster with the use of fiber optic cables. Users can see a marked decrease in the time it takes to transfer files and information across networks. Surgery and Dentistry Fiber optic cables are widely used in the fields of medicine and research. Optical communication is an important part of non-intrusive surgical methods, popularly known as endoscopy. In such applications, a minute, bright light is used to light up the surgery area within the body, making it possible to reduce the number and size of incisions made. Fiber optics are also used in microscopy and biomedical research. Lighting and Decorations The use of fiber optics in the area of decorative illumination has also grown over the years. Fiber optic cables provide an easy, economical and attractive solution to lighting projects. As a result, they are widely used in lighting decorations and illuminating Christmas trees. Mechanical Inspections Fiber optic cables are widely used in the inspection of hard-to-reach places. Some such applications are on-site inspections for engineers and also inspection of pipes for plumbers. Military and Space Applications With the high level of data security required in military and aerospace applications, fiber optic cables offer the ideal solution for data transmission in these areas. Automotive Industry Fiber optic cables play an important role in the lighting and safety features of present day automobiles. They are widely used in lighting, both in the interior and exterior of vehicles. Because of its ability to conserve space and provide superior lighting, fiber optics is used in more vehicles every day. Also, fiber optic cables can transmit signals between different parts of the vehicle at lightning speed. This makes them invaluable in the use of safety applications such as traction control and airbags.
Bandwidth - Fibre optic cables have a much greater bandwidth than metal cables. The amount of information that can be transmitted per unit time of fibre over other transmission media is its most significant advantage. With the high performance single mode cable used by telephone industries for long distance telecommunication, the bandwidth surpasses the needs of today's applications and gives room for growth tomorrow. Low Power Loss - An optical fibre offers low power loss. This allows for longer transmission distances. In comparison to copper; in a network, the longest recommended copper distance is 100m while with fibre, it is 2000m. Interference - Fibre optic cables are immune to electromagnetic interference. It can also be run in electrically noisy environments without concern as electrical noise will not affect fibre. Size - In comparison to copper, a fibre optic cable has nearly 4.5 times as much capacity as the wire cable has and a cross sectional area that is 30 times less. Weight - Fibre optic cables are much thinner and lighter than metal wires. They also occupy less space with cables of the same information capacity. Lighter weight makes fibre easier to install. Safety - Since the fibre is a dielectric, it does not present a spark hazard. Security - Optical fibres are difficult to tap. As they do not radiate electromagnetic energy, emissions cannot be intercepted. As physically tapping the fibre takes great skill to do undetected, fibre is the most secure medium available for carrying sensitive data. Flexibility - An optical fibre has greater tensile strength than copper or steel fibres of the same diameter. It is flexible, bends easily and resists most corrosive elements that attack copper cable.
Cost - Cables are expensive to install but last longer than copper cables. Transmission - transmission on optical fibre requires repeating at distance intervals. Fragile - Fibres can be broken or have transmission loses when wrapped around curves of only a few centimetres radius. However by encasing fibres in a plastic sheath, it is difficult to bend the cable into a small enough radius to break the fibre. Protection - Optical fibres require more protection around the cable compared to copper.
Sl no. Topic
2 Physical Structure
3 Propagation Modes
4 Single Mode
5 Multi Mode
6 Single Mode vs Multi mode
An optical fiber cable is a cable containing one or more optical
fibers that are used to carry light.
These are based on principle of total internal reflection of
These are the fastest transmission media.