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Pyjama Pedagogy


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On the internet, nobody knows you're teaching in your pyjamas.

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Pyjama Pedagogy

  1. 1. Pyjama Pedagogy: A framework for a Successful eLearning Strategy Bhuva Narayan & Emma Mihaly
  2. 4. No shirts, shoes, or tails required for this class!
  3. 5. Agenda <ul><li>What is eLearning? </li></ul><ul><li>The Online Learning Environment </li></ul><ul><li>ePedagogy </li></ul><ul><li>Importance of Instructional Design </li></ul><ul><li>Importance of Online Facilitation </li></ul><ul><li>Strengths and Weaknesses of eLearning </li></ul><ul><li>Best Practice: What others are doing at QUT </li></ul><ul><li>Dialogue and Reflection </li></ul>
  4. 6. <ul><li>http: //headrush . typepad .com/photos/uncategorized/schoolboy_1.jpg </li></ul> uk/e-learning/images/holyrood_park .jpg The Old is New Again…
  5. 7. What is eLearning? <ul><li>eLearning (electronic learning): Term covering a wide set of applications and processes, such as Web-based learning, computer-based learning, virtual classrooms, and digital collaboration. It includes the delivery of content via Internet, intranet/extranet (LAN/WAN), audio- and videotape, satellite broadcast, interactive TV, CD-ROM, and more……. </li></ul><ul><li>Eva Kaplan-Leiserson – Learning Circuits </li></ul>
  6. 8. New Learning Technologies <ul><li>Communication Tools </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Asynchronous discussion boards </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Synchronous chat spaces </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Instant messaging & text messaging </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Multiple-way audio & video interactions </li></ul></ul>
  7. 9. <ul><li>Content Tools </li></ul><ul><li>Audio/Video Delivery of Files </li></ul><ul><li>Interactive Simulations </li></ul><ul><li>Multiple-player environments </li></ul><ul><li>Learning Object Repositories </li></ul><ul><li>Pod Casting/RSS Feeds </li></ul>New Learning Technologies
  8. 10. <ul><li>Assessment Tools </li></ul><ul><ul><li>In-class polling tools </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Online assessments & surveys </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Online assignment collection w/feedback delivery </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Electronic portfolios </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Electronic journaling/blogging </li></ul></ul>New Learning Technologies
  9. 11. <ul><li>“ E-learning as we know it has been around for ten years or so. During that time, it has emerged from being a radical idea—the effectiveness of which was yet to be proven—to something that is widely regarded as mainstream …It's the core to numerous business plans and a service offered by most colleges and universities.  And now, e-learning is evolving with the World Wide Web as a whole and it's changing to a degree significant enough to warrant a new name: eLearning 2.0.&quot; </li></ul><ul><li>Stephen Downes, eLearn Magazine, October 2005 </li></ul>Growth of eLearning
  10. 12. Modes of eLearning <ul><li>Three “flavors” of eLearning </li></ul><ul><li>Supplemental </li></ul><ul><li>Presents and shares some content online; however mostly same as that provided in-class time with tasks often remaining the same. </li></ul><ul><li>Benefits of access to additional resources. </li></ul><ul><li>Hybrid/Blended </li></ul><ul><li>Replaces some portion of in-class time with online tasks and activities </li></ul><ul><li>Fully Online/Distance </li></ul><ul><li>Replaces all in-class time with online tasks and activities </li></ul>
  11. 13. Modes of Learner Engagement <ul><li>Three “flavors” of Learner Engagement </li></ul><ul><li>Learner-instructor Engagement </li></ul><ul><li>Provides content selection and activity design as well as motivation, feedback, and dialogue between the instructor and student </li></ul><ul><li>Learner-content Engagement </li></ul><ul><li>Provides opportunities in which students obtain information from the material and/or activities to build knowledge </li></ul><ul><li>Learner-learner Engagement </li></ul><ul><li>Provides the exchange of information, ideas and dialog between students and synthesizes the creation of knowledge </li></ul><ul><li>Toni Pauls, “The Importance of Interaction in Online Courses” </li></ul>
  12. 14. <ul><li>eLearning </li></ul><ul><li>& </li></ul><ul><li>The Emergence of the </li></ul><ul><li>“ Networked Learning Environment” </li></ul>
  13. 15. The Networked Learning Environment The Classroom <ul><li>A true networked learning environment exists when any student or teacher can: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>- view instructional content </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>- collaborate with Educators and/or peers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>- evaluate academic performance </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>- access any learning resources at any time to achieve their educational objectives </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>- engage beyond the traditional bricks and mortar of the classroom </li></ul></ul>Cluster of schools Institution of Higher Learning Public Hotspots Access including Libraries Home Access School Wireless Computer Lab School Library School LAN Common Platform Collaboration
  14. 16. Cartoon from The next time someone asks me where I’m from, I’m from…
  15. 17. The Path to the Networked Learning Environment MISSION CRITICAL EXPLORATORY TIME SUPPORTED STRATEGIC TRANSFORMATIVE: THE NETWORKED LEARNING ENVIRONMENT Phase I Phase 2 Phase 3 Phase 4 Phase 5 <ul><li>Course web sites </li></ul><ul><li>Commercial enterprise course management system </li></ul><ul><li>Online courses, organisations, and institutional services integrated with back-office systems </li></ul><ul><li>Fully online courses with learning communities and shared digital content resources </li></ul><ul><li>When any student or teacher can view instructional content, collaborate with teachers, evaluate academic performance, and access learning resources at any time to achieve their educational objectives. </li></ul>GROWTH
  16. 18. Driving forces behind the evolvement of a Networked Learning Environment MISSION CRITICAL EXPLORATORY TIME SUPPORTED STRATEGIC TRANSFORMATIVE: THE NETWORKED LEARNING ENVIRONMENT Phase I Phase 2 Phase 3 Phase 4 Phase 5 Educational & Industry Standards Teacher Input Open Development Environment
  17. 19. The Benefits of a Networked Learning Environment MISSION CRITICAL EXPLORATORY TIME SUPPORTED STRATEGIC TRANSFORMATIVE: THE NETWORKED LEARNING ENVIRONMENT Phase I Phase 2 Phase 3 Phase 4 Phase 5 BENEFITS Evaluations & Outcomes Management Student Centred Learning Access to High Quality Content Teacher Efficiency Anytime / Anywhere Access
  18. 20. Influence of the Networked Learning Environment on Teaching and Learning Information Exchange Information Delivery Collaborative Work Isolated Work (Mostly) Outcomes Inputs Critical Thinking & Informed Decision Making Factual, Knowledge-Based Learning Multimedia Single Media (Mostly) Student Centered Teacher Centered Networked Learning Environment Traditional Learning Environment
  19. 21. Networked Learning Environment 1.0 vs. 2.0 Networked Learning Environment 1.0 Networked Learning Environment 2.0 Platform Adoption Extending the Platform Courses Social Networks Education Segments Lifelong Learning
  20. 23. <ul><li>ePedagogy </li></ul>
  21. 24. Some pedagogical models applied in eLearning <ul><li>Wealth of knowledge on learning and many schools of thought… </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Behaviourism, cognitive, constructivism, social-learning, reflective, experiential </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Key characteristics: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Learning by doing (Piaget, Papart) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Learning in the company of others (Wenger) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Learning through dialogue (Vygotsky, Mercer) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Learning through reflection (Dewey, Jarvis, Edwards) </li></ul></ul>
  22. 25. <ul><li>A new type of student walks into the campus, a ‘Digital Native’ </li></ul><ul><ul><li>He assumes that education and technology have already merged </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>To her technology is not experimental but is mainstream </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Students see the Internet both for information delivery, collaboration, additional support mechanisms and interpersonal communication </li></ul></ul><ul><li>A new type of institution is emerging, ‘Digital Dependent.’ </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Not &quot;if eLearning&quot; — but &quot;when&quot; and &quot;in what blend” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Not for one unit/course but all units/courses across the institution </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Strategically applying technology to reach a broader pool of both teachers and learners. </li></ul></ul>The pedagogic environment :
  23. 27. Today’s Learners Throughout the World……… Expect Choice Multi-Taskers Networked Communicative Education Consumers Entrenched in Technology Interactive Gamers Seek Portability Creativity The Global Millennial Generation
  24. 28. The missing link A gap between potential affordances of the technologies (confusion over how they can be used) and The application of good pedagogical principles (Confusion over which school of thought to apply)
  25. 29. <ul><ul><li>How we organize, deliver and support the learning process to meet the changing needs and expectations of the student </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Not just managing, but ‘managing change’ </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Be flexible and responsive </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Need to be constantly monitoring and improving </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Interactive resources and new pedagogies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Education is about enriching the student experience </li></ul></ul>What does this mean in terms of the way we teach? Engage Re-think Adapt
  26. 30. Four E’s of the Evolving Classroom eLearning
  27. 31. <ul><li>Instructional Design </li></ul><ul><li>& </li></ul><ul><li>Individual Learning Styles in an Online Environment </li></ul>
  28. 32. Influence of Instructional Design : The Challenge <ul><li>Effective online instruction depends on learning experiences appropriately designed and facilitated by knowledgeable educators. </li></ul><ul><li>The biggest challenges technology-infused teaching have faced in the past are making activities meaningful, engaging, efficient and student centered. </li></ul><ul><li>In designing online courses, this can best accomplished by utilising multiple instructional strategies based on sound instructional theory . </li></ul>
  29. 33. Instructional Strategies <ul><li>Jonassen, Grabinger and Harris (1991) described instructional strategies as: </li></ul><ul><li>“ Instructional strategies operationalise pedagogical models which are in turn derived from learning theory” </li></ul><ul><li>“ The plans and techniques that the instructor/instructional designer uses to engage the learner and facilitate learning” </li></ul>
  30. 34. <ul><li>Best Practice 1: Problem-based Learning </li></ul><ul><li>Organize the course around the problem/theme and/or stages of the problem/theme- selectively reveal stages as the course progresses (Adaptive Release) </li></ul><ul><li>Present content from multiple perspectives, linking content with the course link creator. </li></ul><ul><li>Present and share a resource library of materials (or encourage students to build one) that is searchable based on customized keywords (through a blog or webpage) </li></ul><ul><li>Hold office hours in the lightweight chat space to answer questions and post transcripts for other students to review (A/V chat) </li></ul><ul><li>Encourage students to share progress and final projects in an open & creative environment (Blogs, wikis, ePortfolio) </li></ul>Enhancing Student and Teacher Learning Experience through Best Practice
  31. 35. <ul><li>Best Practices 2: Constructivist Learning </li></ul><ul><li>Utilise the Discussion Board & Adaptive Release functionality for student-centered discovery, research and reflection; include discussion moderation, peer assessment and grading </li></ul><ul><li>Facilitate synchronous discussion in the Virtual Classroom- students share documents, web sites and ideas in text/on the whiteboard </li></ul><ul><li>Encourage student collaboration through the use of ePortfolios- students share the progress of their learning for colleague commenting </li></ul><ul><li>Enable a “shared collection of materials” for student creation, management and discovery </li></ul><ul><li>Allow students to grade each other and themselves, although not necessarily in a group project. (Ratings on discussion board, class choice awards, etc.) </li></ul>Enhancing Student and Teacher Learning Experience through Best Practice & Blackboard
  32. 36. Example: Online Discussion Board <ul><ul><li>Messages are archived and available for review </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>100% participation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Gives “Voice” to silent students </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>More thoughtful, articulate responses because of increased time for reflection </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Increased time for discussion, not limited to space and time </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Supports additional peer learning </li></ul></ul>
  33. 37. Discussion Board Considerations <ul><li>Focus the discussion on the main topic in the readings </li></ul><ul><li>Require participation </li></ul><ul><li>Establish protocols </li></ul><ul><li>Use open-ended questions </li></ul><ul><li>Ask additional probing or follow-up questions as needed </li></ul><ul><li>Have students serve as moderators, critiquers, or summarizers </li></ul>
  34. 38. <ul><li>Best Practice 3: Fostering Learning Communities </li></ul><ul><li>Create a personalized, role-based experience for students upon entry into the online academic space (Personal blogs within Blackboard) </li></ul><ul><li>Foster the online presence of community sub-groups, like organizations or working/study groups (PASS etc.) </li></ul><ul><li>Allow and encourage key participants to directly manage their information and facilitate associated collaborative activities- encourage the delegation of responsibilities (think experts, guest lecturers, etc.) </li></ul><ul><li>Build a learning object catalog for all members of the community to contribute to and utilize (eg., ROSS learning module) </li></ul><ul><li>Provide mentoring opportunities for students by connecting them with the community in a central, focused location (Service Learning) </li></ul>Enhancing Student and Teacher Learning Experience through Best Practice & Blackboard
  35. 39. <ul><li>Best Practice 4: Measuring Learning Outcomes </li></ul><ul><li>Establishing a Matrix of Evaluation Components </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Quantitative (Student): Performance Report, Course Statistics, Gradebook </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Qualitative (Student): Discussion Boards, Chat Sessions, Assignments, Essay Exams, ePortfolios and in-class Activities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Map desired outcomes (Course) to activities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Create evaluation tools (Course) PRIOR to starting the course </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Designing & Sharing Expectations </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Present students with detailed process and outcome descriptions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Build activities that promote performance desired learning values </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Remember that Blackboard is a tool and should be treated as such; not a second instructor </li></ul></ul>Enhancing Student and Teacher Learning Experience through Best Practice & Blackboard
  36. 40. <ul><li>Strengths and Weaknesses of eLearning </li></ul>
  37. 41. Strengths & Weaknesses <ul><li>Harvard Business School reported that students not only learn better when traditional classrooms were supported by online sessions, but student interaction and satisfaction improved. </li></ul><ul><li>Thompson Learning and Netg released findings in 2003 that reported increased performance in real world tasks by people who experienced a blended strategy – faster than those who studied through eLearning alone. </li></ul>
  38. 42. Strengths <ul><li>Synergy </li></ul><ul><li>Student Centered </li></ul><ul><li>High Quality Dialogue – synthesis and reflection </li></ul><ul><li>Access to Additional Resources </li></ul><ul><li>Any time & Place </li></ul><ul><li>Any Pace – within reason </li></ul><ul><li>Level Playing Field - removal of discrimination factors </li></ul><ul><li>Creative Teaching </li></ul><ul><li>The facilitator </li></ul>
  39. 43. Weaknesses <ul><li>Access and Level of Technology skills </li></ul><ul><li>The Online Environment </li></ul><ul><li>The Curriculum </li></ul><ul><li>Administration </li></ul><ul><li>The Students </li></ul><ul><li>The facilitator </li></ul>
  40. 44. Technology Advantages Disadvantages Access to wealth of resources Information overload, quality issues New forms of dialogue Literacy skills issues New forms of community Learner identity and confusion Speed of access, immediacy Lack of permanency, shallow Virtual representations Lack of reality, real is fake
  41. 45. Technology Advantages Disadvantages Access to wealth of resources Information overload, quality issues New forms of dialogue Literacy skills issues New forms of community Learner identity and confusion Speed of access, immediacy Lack of permanency, surface Virtual representations Lack of reality, real is fake
  42. 46. <ul><li>Guidelines for Effective </li></ul><ul><li>Online Facilitation </li></ul>
  43. 47. What do we mean by Online Facilitation? <ul><li>The act of managing the learner and learning through an online medium. </li></ul><ul><li>The management of the ‘communication of others online’ (Coghlan 2001). </li></ul><ul><li>A pedagogical term that applies to student-centred approaches to teaching as apposed to teacher-driven – the teacher’s role moving from expert to one of facilitation – “sage on the stage” to guide on the side” (Kempe 2001) </li></ul><ul><li>In eLearning all three are inextricably entwined when it comes to online teaching </li></ul>
  44. 48. Why is effective Online Facilitation important? <ul><li>Online teaching is moving from an emphasis of simply making content available via the web to a more interactive environment which recognises the social and interactive elements of knowledge construction, and the pedagogical approaches that enable student centred experiences e.g. : </li></ul><ul><li>Problem based </li></ul><ul><li>Inquiry based </li></ul><ul><li>Discovery </li></ul><ul><li>Authentic based learning </li></ul><ul><li>(Janinski 2001, Ambrose 2001, Salmon 2000) </li></ul>
  45. 49. How do we define effective online facilitation? <ul><li>Effective online facilitation should engage, guide, and motivate learners, and provide a safe and conducive environment for learning and communication exchange for all learners regardless of their prior experience and predisposition or otherwise to online learning. </li></ul><ul><li>(Australian Flexible Learning Network 2003) </li></ul>
  46. 50. Challenges of Online Facilitation <ul><li>Achieving the right mix of online and offline activities – ‘blended’ </li></ul><ul><li>Keeping tabs on individual student progress </li></ul><ul><li>Catering for different learning styles and needs </li></ul><ul><li>Adopting student centered approaches and learning to become a ‘guide on the side’ instead of the ‘sage on the stage’ </li></ul><ul><li>Standing back and enabling students to direct group and self learning without stifling or dominating the discussion </li></ul><ul><li>Developing techniques for communicating and responding to achieve particular outcomes </li></ul><ul><li>Avoiding the dangers of misinterpretation of responses and assisting students to do the same </li></ul><ul><li>Dealing with silence and getting students to actively participate </li></ul><ul><li>Being an online facilitator means also that you fall into the trap of becoming a 24/7 teacher. </li></ul>
  47. 51. Guidelines for effective online facilitation <ul><li>Embed technology into the entire learning environment </li></ul><ul><li>Provide a safe and non threatening environment for online communication </li></ul><ul><li>Encourage students to take responsibility for themselves </li></ul><ul><li>Articulation of reasoning, knowledge and problem solving processes – assist students to become more aware of their own thinking and reasoning and encourage them to inquire into the thinking and reasoning of others </li></ul><ul><li>Use authentic activities when possible in preference to generic </li></ul><ul><li>Recognise the importance of the ‘social’ aspect of learning and not just the ‘learning task’ at hand </li></ul><ul><li>Encourage respecting and valuing multiple perspectives - first requires conscious thought of your own </li></ul><ul><li>Utilise probes and supportive comments to extend conversations </li></ul>
  48. 52. <ul><li>Utilise smaller group work / discussions to help keep students focussed and being overwhelmed by large group communications </li></ul><ul><li>Encourage “Co-construction” of meaning to break the student-teacher dependency model </li></ul><ul><li>Create spaces with parallel processing (not sequential) </li></ul><ul><li>Include random access to support/extension content/resources (through hypertext) </li></ul><ul><li>Recognise the need for instant gratification and regular reinforcement </li></ul><ul><li>Provide clear expectations and guidance for all assessment activities </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>- </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>Guidelines for effective online facilitation
  49. 53. <ul><li>&quot;Tell me, and I'll forget. Show me, and I may remember. Involve me, and I'll understand&quot; Chinese Proverb </li></ul><ul><li>&quot;Online you get to know your students' minds not just their faces.&quot; Harasim, L., Hiltz, S.R., Teles, L., and Turoff, M. in Learning Networks: A Field </li></ul>Guidelines towards effective online facilitation
  50. 54. What others are doing at QUT <ul><li>Example 1 (online) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Wikis for collaborative group work </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Example 2 (blended) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Online media used as triggers for tutorial discussions </li></ul></ul>
  51. 55. What others are doing at QUT <ul><li>Example 3 (online) </li></ul>
  52. 56. <ul><li>Concluding Comments </li></ul>
  53. 57. Concluding Recommendations: <ul><li>Lead with your academic and administrative strategies at all levels: institution, department, & course. </li></ul><ul><li>Plan your entire course, not just the technology-based components, based on your teaching values and practices, before building anything </li></ul><ul><li>Connect in-class and online activities directly; make students aware of why you chose each environment and technology tool(s) </li></ul><ul><li>Be aware of the various learning styles of your students and use appropriate learning strategies & technology to address the differences </li></ul><ul><li>Provide an environment that is built upon your existing strengths as an teacher and/or educational institution and that addresses changing learner needs. No two learning environments will look alike but we can learn from best practice. </li></ul>
  54. 58. Dialogue & Reflection
  55. 59. Most importantly, encourage a safe and supportive learning environment in which students can reflect, synthesise and collaborate with both their teachers and peers and are aware of their abilities as learners as well content and concept acquirers.
  56. 60. Parting thoughts…………… <ul><li>&quot;If we don't focus on the experience dimension of learning, we run the risk of mistaking the publishing of information for learning and training&quot; Elliott Masie </li></ul><ul><li>&quot;You can't teach people everything they need to know. The best you can do is position them where they can find what they need to know when they need to know it.&quot;  Seymour Papert </li></ul><ul><li>&quot;People love to learn but hate to be taught&quot; Michael Yacobian, internationally renowned trainer </li></ul>
  57. 61. This is NOT an online classroom! © Matt Groening