Physical Geography: 9°25'N and 11°15'N latitude and between 123°13'E and 124°5'E 600 kilometers south of Manila Boundaries: East---Camotes Sea West---Tanon Strait North--Visayan Sea Southeast--Bohol Strait
L - 250 kilometers from North to South W - 45 kilometers across at its widest point 5,088 sq. kms. (508,839 has.) 1.7% of the total land area of the country
Table 1. Total Population of Top 10 by Sex: Cebu, 2000 Municipality Total Population Percent Male Female Cebu 2,377,588 100.00 1,194,700 1,182,888 Lapu lapu City (Opon) 217,019 9.13 106,099 110,920 Talisay City 148,110 6.23 71,309 76,801 Toledo City 141,174 5.94 71,719 69,455 Danao City 98,781 4.15 49,423 49,358 Carcar 89,199 3.75 45,276 43,923 Naga 80,189 3.37 40,332 39,857 Minglanilla 77,268 3.25 39,898 37,370 Daanbantayan 69,336 2.92 34,738 34,598 Bantayan 68,125 2.87 34,542 33,583 Liloan 64,970 2.73 32,619 32,351 Other Municipalities 1,303,417 55.66 668,745 654,672
Cities and municipalities : Alcantara Alcoy Alegría Aloguinsan Argao Asturias Badian Balamban Bantayan Barili Boljoon Borbon Carcar Carmen Catmon Compostela Consolación Cordova Daanbantayan Dalaguete Dumanjug Ginatilan Liloan Madridejos Malabuyoc Medellin Minglanilla Moalboal Oslob Pilar Pinamungahan Poro Ronda Samboan San Fernando San Francisco San Remigio Santa Fe Santander Sibonga Sogod Tabogon Tabuelan Tuburan Tudela Cebu City Danao City Lapu-Lapu City Mandaue City Talisay City Toledo City
The Cebuano speaking world Number of native speakers: Approximately a little more than 20 million…
What was the state of Cebu before 1521? When and where did Spanish Rule Begin in the Philippines? Why did Legazpi move the Capital of the Spanish Colonization from Cebu to Manila and what happened to Cebu after the Spaniards transferred their capital to Manila? When did Cebu finally re-emerge as a major city in the Philippines? What was Cebu’s involvement during the Philippine Revolution? What was the state of Cebu during the American Period? How did Cebu survive the ravages of WWII? How did Cebu emerge as the Queen City of the South? Where to Cebu?
We do not exactly know when Cebu was populated but some evidence point to the early metal age as the earliest. We are definite that it was through migration. Settlers from nearby islands. Fishing villages that eventually also became cultivators. Promontory ( Ilihan ) dwellers As to when the Cebuanos became seaport traders, that is not clear but definitely in the 9 th and 10 th centuries Cebu was already actively engaged in trade.
<ul><li>OTHER CRAFTS </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Red clay Pottery with blackened bottoms </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Weaving </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Back strap horizontal loom ( lompot ), most likely used with the evidence of cloth and nets </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>(also based on Pigafetta’s accounts and others) </li></ul></ul></ul>
LUTAWS? Semi-nomadic boat people drawn to the island because of its rich marine resources Peterson claims though that Cebuanos at the start of the contact period had already become promontory dwellers.
1521 was when the first contact between the Spanish forces and the inhabitants of Cebu happened
First Philippine Mass ni Carlos V. Francisco, undated http://www.seasite.niu.edu/Tagalog/Tagalog_Default_files/Philippine_Culture/spread_of_roman_catholicism_and_.htm Nag unsa man na sila diay? Unsa ni?
From Villa San Miguel to Ciudad del Santisimo Nombre de Jesus Spanish Fort City in Cebu was established on May 8, 1565 and named Villa San Miguel in honor of Sr. San Miguel June 4, 1565 Treaty between Spaniards and Cebuanos Periodic acts of hostility on both sides Occasional Portuguese attacks and food shortage Cebuanos were subsistence farmers 1569 Legazpi moved to the island of Panay 1570 Returned with 50 Spanish couples to settle in Cebu and renamed the settlement after the Holy Child 1571 Legazpi moved to Manila
Cebu in the Economic Backwaters for 200 years (+ -) Cebu’s role as regional trade center was undermined by the Galleon Trade based in Manila. The Galleon trade also did not carry much of Philippine products (only 10%) and the only product that were from Cebu were the lampotes (cotton gauze) Its traditional trade linkages with other Asian and SEAn traders was disrupted as traders began to by-pass the port of Cebu. 1594 Decree allowed Spanish citizens in Cebu to build and send one Galleon to New Mexico but the trade items that could be loaded were limited to products that did not necessarily have a high demand in New Mexico 1604 the Cebu based Galleon Trade closed…
Cebu in the Economic Backwaters for 200 years (+ -) 1611 the Spaniards tried to revive the Galleon Trade but were turned down. Spanish population declined as well as that of the Cebuanos in the port area. Cebu was reduced to being an outpost of Spanish Colonial Administration Inter-island trade also was disrupted by Moro raids and whatever little domestic trade activities existed, the Alcalde-Mayor monopolized this…
Cebu in the Economic Backwaters for 200 years (+ -) <ul><li>Introduction of the concept of land ownership </li></ul><ul><ul><li>In theory, the crown owned all of the lands… </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Changes in the landholding patterns. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Banilad Estate in Banilad and the Talisay-Minglanilla Estate of the Augustinians </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mandaue Estate of the Jesuits </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Chinese and Chinese mestizos also began acquiring land holdings </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Introduction of New Crops </li></ul><ul><ul><li>- corn - tobacco - cacao </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Took a while before the Cebuanos were able to adjust to these new crops… </li></ul></ul>
Conversions and Colonization in Cebu Beginnings of Missionary Work in Cebu 1565 Augustians and 2 Secular Priests 1592 Jesuits 1622 Recollects Became a diocese in 1592 that included all of the Visayas, Christian Mindanao, Palawan, the Carolines, Marianas and Palau islands until 1865 But Cebu was basically Augustinian territory as they owned the Banilad Estate, Talisay-Minglanilla Estate and the guardians of the Holy Cross and the Image of the Sto. Nino Jesuits also had a small estate in the North (Mandaue Estate) …
Conversions and Colonization in Cebu <ul><li>CONVERSION ISSUES </li></ul><ul><li>Not sweeping as we sometimes would like to believe </li></ul><ul><li>scarcity of missionaries </li></ul><ul><li>the few who where in Cebu concentrated their work in Cebu port area </li></ul><ul><li>visitas were rarely visited </li></ul><ul><li>accounts point to the widespread practice of pre-hispanic customs and beliefs and practices even after WWII </li></ul><ul><li>reducciones were not immediately successful as very few chose to live in the cabecera </li></ul><ul><li>accounts of some missionaries who wrote about their second thoughts as to whether they will ever succeed in their missionary endeavors… </li></ul>
1860 CEBU WAS OPENED TO WORLD TRADE When did Cebu finally re-emerge as a major city in the Philippines?
Along with the opening of Philippine ports to world and global demand for agricultural products, large plantations surfaced in the region, especially in the Visayas –Filipinos would come to call them "haciendas”
“… a time between times” <ul><li>1898-1906 - A highly disturbed period : </li></ul><ul><li>Health crisis, agricultural collapse </li></ul><ul><li>Period of relative stability, 1906-12 </li></ul><ul><li>Improvements in infrastructure, public education, health, sanitation and public order </li></ul><ul><li>Introduction of modern commercial farming, 1920s </li></ul><ul><li>Backdrop of agricultural products, 1930s </li></ul><ul><li>American colonialism strengthened economic forces already at work in the Spanish period… </li></ul>
CEBU OVERTAKES ILO-ILO CITY AS PREMIERE COMMERCIAL AND TRADING CENTER SOUTH OF MANILA
Cebu becomes the main base for the Philippines’ shipping industry .