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  • the speech about IRAQI people that they sell their sons , it's lying.. if u dont know the IRAQI culture ,, u should learn it better than be liar....
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  1. 1. Raccolta di articoli in inglese scritti dalla Classe 3 A Anno scolastico 2004 – 2005 Prof. Enrica Puppo PILLS
  3. 3. WAR IN IRAQ YLENIA ANGIOLINI <ul><li>Every day we hear about the war in Iraq. The Americans use bombs and tanks, but, a part of the people </li></ul><ul><li>who live in Iraq uses something different to fight against their enemies: terrorism. </li></ul><ul><li>Living in Iraq is very difficult and dangerous because, at any moment, it could explode a bomb </li></ul><ul><li>everywhere. Terrorists have killed thousand of innocent people in this horrible way. They use to put </li></ul><ul><li>some explosive on a person, a “kamikaze”. When he is in a very crowded place, he makes himself </li></ul><ul><li>burst, so he dies, with the most part of the people he has around. </li></ul><ul><li>Every kamikaze becomes a hero, because he sacrifices his life for his ideals and his family gets a sum </li></ul><ul><li>of money. Just for this reason, some poor families sell one of their children to the terrorists to earn </li></ul><ul><li>some money. </li></ul><ul><li>In this period also kidnappings are frequent: terrorists kidnap foreign people, and in the most part of </li></ul><ul><li>cases they kill them. Also Italians have been kidnapped. Some of them, like Fabrizio Quattrocchi and </li></ul><ul><li>Enzo Baldoni were killed; others were freed, like Simona Pari and Simona Torretta. </li></ul><ul><li>Everybody is in danger in Iraq, even if Americans and their allies are trying to make this state flourish </li></ul><ul><li>again. The problem is Iraqis do not want to be helped by foreigners, because they want to solve their </li></ul><ul><li>problems by themselves. They want the Americans and their allies to leave Iraq otherwise they kill </li></ul><ul><li>all the foreigners present in their country. </li></ul><ul><li>This war is, by now, a world problem: everybody must be worried for the future, because even if war is </li></ul><ul><li>over, there is lot of fighting, there are lots of damages and lots of houses to re-build, not to mention </li></ul><ul><li>that thousand people died and keep on dying. </li></ul>WAR IN IRAQ
  4. 4. SWOTS… WHAT A GREAT SENSE OF HUMOUR! CRISTINA ANNIBALI <ul><li>Three students of the MIT ( Massachusetts Institute of Technology) of Boston have </li></ul><ul><li>presented a real trick-research at the “World Mult-Conference on Systemics, </li></ul><ul><li>Cybernetics and Informatics”, a very serious congress in Orlando (Florida). The </li></ul><ul><li>paper, called “Rooter”: a Methodology for the typical Unification of Access Point </li></ul><ul><li>and Redundancy, is actually a whole paper of well-bound nonsense. With this </li></ul><ul><li>research, the boys have demonstrated the superficiality of some symposiums </li></ul><ul><li>promoted by highly rated researchers, who have immediately accepted their </li></ul><ul><li>incomprehensible academic presentation. The cleverest had created a software </li></ul><ul><li>able to write sentences using a scientific jargon, put together at random, just to </li></ul><ul><li>prepare their paper. </li></ul><ul><li>The software, launched online and baptised “SCIgen”, is actually the emblem of </li></ul><ul><li>an ethical claim, whose aim is to generate subscriptions to boycott the </li></ul><ul><li>congresses without any qualitative standard and organised only to raise money. </li></ul><ul><li>The organizers of the conference, furious for the bad publicity, declared to use </li></ul><ul><li>More rigorous methods of selection for the researches' admittance from that </li></ul><ul><li>moment on. </li></ul><ul><li>Moreover, to avoid other clamour, the invitations of the three boys to the congress </li></ul><ul><li>is not going to be retired. The students have already raised money in order to pay </li></ul><ul><li>for their travel to Orlando. They have already collected 2,000 dollars! </li></ul>
  5. 5. A BONE, A LOVE TOKEN FOR YOU CRISTINA ANNIBALI <ul><li>If you are so in love that you would donate a part of your body to your partner, go to </li></ul><ul><li>Britain! </li></ul><ul><li>A new English project is going to awaken the people about the engineering of our </li></ul><ul><li>internal bony fibres. The couples of lovers who want to exchange an original love token </li></ul><ul><li>have, first of all, to undergo an operation to extract some bony cells from their body. </li></ul><ul><li>These cells, with suitable treatments, are shaped as a ring thanks to a special ceramics </li></ul><ul><li>support. The rough ring will be, then, processed by some jewellers of the Royal College </li></ul><ul><li>of London that will decide, together with the lovers, the kind of ring to make. </li></ul><ul><li>Till now, no law forbids the creation of jewels made of bony fabric, even if the taking out </li></ul><ul><li>of the necessary substances can be done only in already foreseen operations. The young </li></ul><ul><li>lovers could, for example, extract their wisdom teeth. </li></ul><ul><li>At the moment, however, this initiative has only a demonstrative aim and not a </li></ul><ul><li>commercial development. So the days of goldsmiths and diamonds dealers are not yet </li></ul><ul><li>numbered! </li></ul>A Bone, a Love Token for You
  6. 6. THE LATEST FROM THE NET CRISTINA ANNIBALI <ul><li>For three months the browser master of Microsoft has been losing </li></ul><ul><li>clients in favour of its competing software, first of all Mozilla. In fact </li></ul><ul><li>since the end of 90’s Internet Explorer has been earning more an </li></ul><ul><li>more users. Its increase began in July 2004 when some information </li></ul><ul><li>attacks alarmed the users of Explorer about its security. According </li></ul><ul><li>to statistics it held the 95% of the online market in June. Noe has the </li></ul><ul><li>93% of it, which means that the 2% of the people who had Explorer </li></ul><ul><li>have passed to Mozilla or Firefox. Some say that this increase is not </li></ul><ul><li>dangerous, at the moment, but it could become during the years. </li></ul><ul><li>However the sudden popularity of Mozilla has exposed it to security </li></ul><ul><li>problems because it is becoming interesting for the online pirates. </li></ul><ul><li>So the “technicians” of this software have decided to pay the people </li></ul><ul><li>for helping them to discover its vulnerability. </li></ul>THE LATEST FROM THE NET
  7. 7. SEASONS OF THE ARTIC FOX SERENA BADARACCO <ul><li>Small fur balls with small ears, short muzzles and hairy feet, as </li></ul><ul><li>those of a bunny, live in Canada, where they spend their days hunting, </li></ul><ul><li>playing among each other and obviously paying attention to their own </li></ul><ul><li>lives. </li></ul><ul><li>Artic life is not a very simple one because there are many periods with </li></ul><ul><li>lack of food. In fact they eat above all lemmings, very small mice, </li></ul><ul><li>which do not appear every season; fortunately they can also eat seal’s </li></ul><ul><li>puppies. Thanks to their sense of smell, they can find the refuges of </li></ul><ul><li>seals within two kilometres of distance and they dig a hall to catch </li></ul><ul><li>them. In winter, the fur of the most part of artic foxes, changes from </li></ul><ul><li>blue-brown to white, because in winter there is very much snow and </li></ul><ul><li>they must camouflage with it and also because it is much heavier. </li></ul><ul><li>Fox puppies are very playful and full of energy, however during </li></ul><ul><li>their games they must pay attention to eagles and owls but also </li></ul><ul><li>to common foxes. </li></ul><ul><li>It would be sufficient to watch a photo of an artic fox to fall in </li></ul><ul><li>love with this sweet animal; unfortunately to meet it, it is </li></ul><ul><li>necessary to make a very long journey. </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul>SEASONS OF THE ARTIC FOX
  8. 8. A PARTICULAR MAMMAL THE KILLER WHALE SERENA BADARACCO <ul><li>It is strange that the word killer whale gives the name to an animal, </li></ul><ul><li>that looks like sweet. </li></ul><ul><li>Sea-lions are, for killer whales, a delicious piecemeal with moustache; </li></ul><ul><li>but not only them. In fact dolphins commit suicide, going on the cliffs </li></ul><ul><li>to escape from them. </li></ul><ul><li>Even if sharks are considered the kings of oceans, they are chosen by </li></ul><ul><li>killer whales and they already know their destiny: death. </li></ul><ul><li>Together with rays, sharks are the first source of food for killer whales. </li></ul><ul><li>This fact can happen because they move in the oceans in groups, so they </li></ul><ul><li>encircle their prey and kill it. </li></ul><ul><li>Researchers are able to recognize killer whales one by one thanks to the </li></ul><ul><li>dimension and the shape of their fin, particular scars and wounds, </li></ul><ul><li>different white spots on the fin itself. Through these details killer whale can </li></ul><ul><li>have a different name, which is formed by a number that follows a letter. </li></ul><ul><li>The letter depends on the place where they live, and the number depends </li></ul><ul><li>on the age, in relation to the group. It has been discovered very much </li></ul><ul><li>about these animals, but scientists and researchers continue their studies </li></ul><ul><li>to discover much more about them and to reach communication with them. </li></ul>THE KILLER WHALE
  9. 9. CLOUDS OR UFOS? LUDOVICA BRUNAMONTI <ul><li>They look like UFOs, but, instead, they are clouds and are </li></ul><ul><li>called “lenticolar clouds”, they are beautiful, oval and </li></ul><ul><li>perfectly designed, so that they have deceived a lot of </li></ul><ul><li>people. </li></ul><ul><li>In fact they exchanged them for extraterrestrial spaceships. </li></ul><ul><li>On the contrary they are clouds that in particular light </li></ul><ul><li>conditions take the shape of lens and look like UFOs. </li></ul><ul><li>By now scientists believe that life is possible on other planets </li></ul><ul><li>similar to the Earth, but till now there is no proof of the </li></ul><ul><li>landing of aliens on our planet. </li></ul><ul><li>All the extraterrestrial sighting of landing turned to be </li></ul><ul><li>something different, such as, for example, artificial </li></ul><ul><li>satellites, or unknown military planes. In other cases they </li></ul><ul><li>were space probes, meteorites or as in the case of the </li></ul><ul><li>Lenticolar clouds atmospheric phenomena. </li></ul>CLOUDS OR UFOS?
  10. 10. WHEN SCIENCE BECOMES A SHOW LUDOVICA BRUNAMONTI <ul><li>The Science Festival” of Genoa will start on October 28th and Genoa will be, for a while, the European </li></ul><ul><li>capital of scientific popularization. </li></ul><ul><li>Scientists are ready to stir people’s interest and to spread scientific concepts as easy as possible so that </li></ul><ul><li>not expert people can appreciate them. They hope to involve young people. In fact they are suspicious as </li></ul><ul><li>regard science and prefer to apply themselves to music, art or literature to express their creativity. </li></ul><ul><li>However science and technology are destined to change our future and our lives even if they are not part of </li></ul><ul><li>common culture yet. </li></ul><ul><li>During this festival many famous scientists will try to persuade everybody that science and society must </li></ul><ul><li>walk together without mistrusting each other. </li></ul><ul><li>The promoters hope to have a great success and that Genoa will become a permanent centre of scientific </li></ul><ul><li>research. </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul>WHEN SCIENCE BECOMES A SHOW
  11. 11. THE LATEST LITERARY CASE From the Authors of “SEX AND THE CITY” FRANCESCA BUTERA <ul><li>“ Have you been ditched by him? It’s better to laugh about it.”   </li></ul><ul><li>It has just been released, and in New York it’s already a cult. </li></ul><ul><li>We are talking about the new guide for women who are going through a bad patch because of love </li></ul><ul><li>Problems. </li></ul><ul><li>“ He’s Just Not into You: the No-excuses Guide to Understanding Guys” by Greg Behrendt and Liz </li></ul><ul><li>Tuccillo is a collection of the most popular excuses used by men just to avoid a tête -a-tête dinner they </li></ul><ul><li>don’t want to participate to, or a meeting with their girlfriend. </li></ul><ul><li>In the book we can read hackneyed stratagems, such as: “I don’t want our friendship to be ruined” </li></ul><ul><li>or “I’m not searching for a serious relation” and absolutely absurd ones, such as “I’m sorry but I have </li></ul><ul><li>just moved to Florida”. </li></ul><ul><li>However, the book suggests how to face liars interpreting their sentences in the right way, just not to </li></ul><ul><li>be hurt too late, but with a great humour, according to Behrendt and Tuccillo’s style: in fact , they are </li></ul><ul><li>the main creators of “Sex and the City”, the famous sitcom about the importance of love in a big </li></ul><ul><li>Metropolis such as New York.Many books about the difference between men and women have been </li></ul><ul><li>written: the most famous one is “Men are from Mars, Women Are from Venus” written in 1992 by John </li></ul><ul><li>Gray. Later in 1995 Ellen Fein wrote “The Rules”; and every time these books represent a great literary </li></ul><ul><li>case, in fact, “He’s Just Not into You” has already reached 440,000 copies in New York </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul>
  12. 12. DOGS DOUBLE SOUL JESSICA ERRE <ul><li>It is a common opinion that the dog is the man’s best friend. Every dog’s master thinks that </li></ul><ul><li>his dog counts more than many other friends. Dogs are able to save our life but also to tear us </li></ul><ul><li>into pieces, because they come from the same family as wolves and jackals. </li></ul><ul><li>In fact they have maintained many wild instincts, like aggressiveness and the ability of </li></ul><ul><li>fighting. They can still couple with them and have puppies, which are able to reproduce. </li></ul><ul><li>After many accidents in which children and adults have been wounded or torn into pieces, the </li></ul><ul><li>Ministry of Health has imposed the use of the muzzle and the leash in parks, streets and </li></ul><ul><li>restaurants. Some experts at the University of Belfast, in Northern Ireland, have proved that </li></ul><ul><li>dogs have also a particular behaviour. They become irritable and bark frequently when they </li></ul><ul><li>listen to rock music like “Metallica” or “Iron Maiden”, while they are relaxed and educated </li></ul><ul><li>when they listen to Bach or Mozart. </li></ul><ul><li>The barking of dogs is not a casual expression. Dogs are more expressive than wolves: they </li></ul><ul><li>have more variations, both in tones and barking. Dogs utter atonal sounds when they are </li></ul><ul><li>stressed, while when they feel good, they utter more musical ones. </li></ul><ul><li>Dogs have their own language but they understand also ours. Rico, a “Border Collie”, has </li></ul><ul><li>demonstrated of understanding the meaning of 200 words. In conclusion, dogs can </li></ul><ul><li>understand men better than monkeys which are a species much more similar to us. </li></ul>DOG’ S DOUBLE SOUL
  13. 13. ARS ELECTRONICA FESTIVAL JESSICA ERRE <ul><li>Every year in September the Ars Electronica Festival takes place in Linz (Austria). It is the most important </li></ul><ul><li>international appointment for the people who are interested in the relation between art and new technologies. </li></ul><ul><li>During this event the city of Linz changes into a virtual stage: squares, cafés, universities, museums become a </li></ul><ul><li>crossroad of artists, cyber-performers, scientists and searchers from all over the world. </li></ul><ul><li>The most attractive thing is the set: the contrast between the typical order of the Austrian province and the </li></ul><ul><li>presence of many technological apparatuses. </li></ul><ul><li>The artist director of “Ars Electronica Festival” is the forty-year-old Gefried Stocker, a media artist who in 1991 </li></ul><ul><li>gave birth to the X-space group composed by artists, musicians but also programmers and engineers. </li></ul><ul><li>Stocker will be in Genoa next year to explain the main features of his festival. </li></ul><ul><li>This manifestation has been taking place in Austria for 24 years just in Linz because the Austrian city was one </li></ul><ul><li>of the European capitals of steel. </li></ul><ul><li>In the 60s, after the crisis in iron and steel industries, Linz had to invent its own identity, so Leopold Seder, </li></ul><ul><li>One of the founders of Ars Electronica, understood that new technologies represented a great economic field. </li></ul><ul><li>It was important for them to be connected to society and culture: this is why it was called the festival of art, </li></ul><ul><li>New technologies and society. </li></ul><ul><li>Linz has also a slogan “Everything Starts Here”, and in fact it has changed very much in the latest years. Its </li></ul><ul><li>historical centre has been bettered and in 1996 a museum of the future was opened in a building made of glass </li></ul><ul><li>where people can experiment with virtual reality. For example they can transform themselves into superman </li></ul><ul><li>and fly over the houses of Linz. </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul>Ars Electronica Festival
  14. 14. APRIL FOOL’ S DAY JESSICA ERRE <ul><li>On the 1st of April, the strangest and most extravagant jokes happen again all over the world. In this day </li></ul><ul><li>people should pay much attention to what they read or listen to. </li></ul><ul><li>But why is the 1 st of April dedicated to jokes and why do people speak about “fish”? There is no univocal </li></ul><ul><li>explanation of this fact. </li></ul><ul><li>Somebody thinks that this custom may come from unfruitful spring fishing. In the first days of April some </li></ul><ul><li>fishermen ventured in the ocean hoping to find out good fish. But many times they did not find any prey </li></ul><ul><li>and, when they came back to the port, the other fishermen made fun of them for their useless wandering. </li></ul><ul><li>Moreover, until 1582 the festivities for the New Year’s Day began on the 25 th of March with ceremonies, </li></ul><ul><li>dances and presents.With the reform of the calendar by Gregorio XIII, the New year’s Day was moved to </li></ul><ul><li>the 1 st of January.The people who knew about the change began to make fun of the ones who did not </li></ul><ul><li>know. </li></ul><ul><li>Someone believes that “ April Fool’s Day “ derives from the trick that Cleopatra played on her lover Marco </li></ul><ul><li>Antonio. She challenged him to a fishing competition but soon discovered that he was trying to cheat. </li></ul><ul><li>So she decided to attach a false fish to his hook to punish him. </li></ul><ul><li>Since ancient time people have been inventing strange and ridiculous jokes on this day. In 1970, in </li></ul><ul><li>Naples, the daily “Sport Sud” published the news that the great football player, Pelè, was training with the </li></ul><ul><li>team of Naples. It caused the Stadium to be soon full of enthusiastic fans. </li></ul><ul><li>In 1974, in London, the radio spread the news that the Thames estuary was blocked by a dead whale that </li></ul><ul><li>would be eliminated with dynamite. For this reason there were many calls of protest. </li></ul><ul><li>In 1967, in Paris, every newspaper published the news that the French Government had decided to cancel </li></ul><ul><li>the punishment for the violations to the highway code, committed before 1966. The news was true but </li></ul><ul><li>nobody believed in it. What a pity! </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul>APRIL FOOL’ S DAY
  15. 15. THE MISTRESS OF PASHMINA JESSICA ERRE <ul><li>The word “pashmina” derives from “pashm”, which means internal: it is referred to the under hair of </li></ul><ul><li>Hircus-goats. </li></ul><ul><li>They are animals, which live on the Tibetan plateau, at 4800 metres of altitude and shelter themselves </li></ul><ul><li>from cold with this tick hair. </li></ul><ul><li>Gaynor Bongard, a Canadian from Toronto, runs in Genoa one of the greatest firms of “pashmina”, the </li></ul><ul><li>precious tie made of silk and cashmere. </li></ul><ul><li>Bongard began to import “pashmina” from Nepal, the greatest producer all over the world, for fun five </li></ul><ul><li>years ago. </li></ul><ul><li>In 1999 she made a bet with her two sisters Sara and Susan. They bought about one hundred pashmina </li></ul><ul><li>to verify if they would conquer the market. </li></ul><ul><li>Gaynor was very doubtful. She feared that in Genoa she could not make a big profit. </li></ul><ul><li>Now Gaynor Bongard imports every year 30.000 “pashmina” from Nepal, to sell them in Italy and all </li></ul><ul><li>over the world: from Naples to Como, and from Europe to the U.S.A. </li></ul><ul><li>In Nepal this commercial activity offers help to many people who are specialized in this old weaving. </li></ul><ul><li>Gaynor goes to Kathmandu twice a year to control the quality of their production, and she has also a </li></ul><ul><li>good relationship with the inhabitants. Nowadays many people, including VIPs such as Lilli Gruber, </li></ul><ul><li>Enrica Bonaccorti and Paolo Calissano wear Gaynor’s “pashmina”. </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul>THE MISTRESS OF PASHMINA
  16. 16. THE POWER OF COLOURS JESSICA ERRE <ul><li>Our eyes perceive six primary colours: blue, yellow, red, green, black and white. </li></ul><ul><li>Human’s mind interprets them in different ways according to the age and the place. </li></ul><ul><li>Blue is the Europeans’ favourite colour. </li></ul><ul><li>For ancient Romans, it was the colour of the barbaric populations such as the Gauls and the Gaels. </li></ul><ul><li>In fact, they had blue eyes and they used to dye their trousers and sometimes also their hair blue. </li></ul><ul><li>Blue was the colour of poor people, but since the reign of Louis IX of France (1214-1270) it has become </li></ul><ul><li>the European king’s colour. </li></ul><ul><li>Noble people say even to have blue blood! </li></ul><ul><li>Red is connected to blood and fire and it is considered both good and evil. People can get warm with </li></ul><ul><li>fire but they could also burn themselves. </li></ul><ul><li>For Christians, blood is the symbol of life and remission of sins if it is given, but it is the symbol of </li></ul><ul><li>death and fault if it is shed. </li></ul><ul><li>Yellow is connected to wealth and prosperity. </li></ul><ul><li>In Christian symbology it represents traitors but also the Jews, who had been thought of being Christ’s </li></ul><ul><li>enemies for a long time. </li></ul><ul><li>In the Middle Ages yellow meant madness and eccentricity. </li></ul><ul><li>In fact, the king’s jester used to wear yellow clothes. </li></ul><ul><li>Nowadays this colour excites melancholy when it reminds the autumnal leaves or the old photos. </li></ul><ul><li>Green is the colour of nature. </li></ul><ul><li>In the Middle Age it was associated to chance and fate but also to spring and youth. </li></ul><ul><li>Nowadays green is the colour of hope and welfare. </li></ul><ul><li>Black represents sin whereas white is the colour of purity, innocence and peace. </li></ul>THE POWER OF COLOURS
  17. 17. T SHIRT JESSICA ERRE <ul><li>T-shirts are the most simple and common clothes but they are also useful to express our personality. </li></ul><ul><li>Some people wear T-shirts where there are printed phrases dealing with peace, crime, sex and drug. </li></ul><ul><li>Others wear them to express a political or a religious identity. </li></ul><ul><li>Anyway a T-shirt is the most immediate form of communication able to exceed every linguistic and </li></ul><ul><li>cultural barrier and its myth is expanding all over the world. </li></ul><ul><li>It was invented in 1900, but it was asserted later in 1942, when the U.S. Navy obliged its soldiers to put </li></ul><ul><li>it on as a uniform. </li></ul><ul><li>It was called T-shirt for its shape, similar to the letter “ T “. </li></ul><ul><li>Once, every T-shirt was white, made of cotton, with short sleeves and a round neckline. </li></ul><ul><li>In 1955 James Dean, a famous actor of that time, turned the T-shirt from a symbol into a life style. </li></ul><ul><li>Young people tried to imitate both his behaviour and his way of dressing: a white T-shirt, cigarettes </li></ul><ul><li>and a rebellious temper. </li></ul><ul><li>Nowadays many people speak through a T-shirt to stimulate a reflection, and there are also the ones </li></ul><ul><li>who put it on their own dog! </li></ul><ul><li>T-shirts fit everybody. Young and old, thin and fat, tall and short, ordinary people and VIPs. </li></ul><ul><li>T-shirts are also sold in bookshops, with poems by famous writers written on. A shirt has to be never </li></ul><ul><li>thrown. The older it is, the more it turns into an object for collection. </li></ul>T SHIRTS
  18. 18. WHY DO ENGLISH PEOPLE DRIVE ON THE LEFT? JESSICA ERRE <ul><li>Once, people carried a sword on their right. They walked on the left to be ready to fight </li></ul><ul><li>people approaching from the opposite direction. </li></ul><ul><li>The tradition of walking on the left became a law when in 1300 a. D. Pope Benefice issued </li></ul><ul><li>the Papal Edict, telling the pilgrims to walk on the left. </li></ul><ul><li>France was a Catholic country, so the French aristocrats obeyed Pope Benefice and </li></ul><ul><li>drove their carriages very quickly on the left. </li></ul><ul><li>But the peasants continued walking on the right because it was safer. </li></ul><ul><li>During the French revolution, the aristocrats walked on the right so that they could seem </li></ul><ul><li>peasants. </li></ul><ul><li>In 1794 the French government introduced the rule for everybody to walk on the right. </li></ul><ul><li>All the countries of the French empire kept to the right on the roads, whereas the ones </li></ul><ul><li>under the British rule kept to the left. </li></ul><ul><li>Americans chose to walk on the right as a gesture of independence from Great Britain. </li></ul><ul><li>In 1850 Japan started driving on the left. </li></ul><ul><li>Now Britain is in the European Union, they should drive on the right but they probably </li></ul><ul><li>will never do. </li></ul><ul><li>There are so many cars on the road that it would be too complicated and expensive to </li></ul><ul><li>change. </li></ul>
  19. 19. GLOBAL WARMING MARTA MURGIA <ul><li>The earth is naturally warmed by the sunrays, which pass through the earth’ s atmosphere and are reflected back out to space again. </li></ul><ul><li>The atmosphere is made up of layers of gases, some of which are called “greenhouse gases”; they are mostly natural and make up a kind of thermal blanket over the earth. </li></ul><ul><li>This lets some of the rays back out of the atmosphere, keeping the right temperature for animals, plants and humans to survive (60°F/16°C). </li></ul><ul><li>So some global warming is good; but if extra greenhouse gases are made, the thermal blanket gets thicker and too much heat is kept in the atmosphere. That’s when global warming is bad. </li></ul><ul><li>If earth gets hotter, some important changes can take place: </li></ul><ul><li>         Water expands when heated and the oceans absorb heat more than land, so sea levels rise; </li></ul><ul><li>         Sea levels rise due to the melting of the glaciers and sea ice </li></ul><ul><li>         Cities on coasts flood </li></ul><ul><li>         Places that usually get lots of rain and snowfall get hotter and drier </li></ul><ul><li>         Lakes and rivers dry up </li></ul><ul><li>         There is more droughts making crops hard to grow </li></ul><ul><li>         Less water is available for drinking, showers and swimming pools </li></ul><ul><li>         Some plants and animals may become extinct because of the heat </li></ul><ul><li>       Hurricanes, tornados and other storms which are caused by changes in heat </li></ul><ul><li> and water evaporation may get more common </li></ul><ul><li>For these reasons we must protect our earth, to have a safe future. </li></ul>GLOBAL WARMING
  20. 20. HOW TO FEED OURSELVES MARTA MURGIA <ul><li>In vast areas of the world, still today, people suffer from hunger and </li></ul><ul><li>Diseases caused by food shortages. In richer countries people eat too </li></ul><ul><li>much, and, as a consequence, suffer from diseases caused by food in </li></ul><ul><li>excess. In Italy people eat a lot (3.500 calories per person, instead of </li></ul><ul><li>the advised 2.500 calories). They eat too many fats and too many </li></ul><ul><li>animal proteins compared with vegetables proteins. </li></ul><ul><li>Also bad habits, such as eating too quickly, together with inadequate </li></ul><ul><li>chewing, cause diseases in the digestive tract. </li></ul><ul><li>Preference for pre-packed and pre-cooked food, full of additives, </li></ul><ul><li>preservatives, and artificial colouring has changed people’s attitudes </li></ul><ul><li>towards food and eating. The busy pace of modern life, the lack of </li></ul><ul><li>time to cook and the constant “bombardment” of advertisements, </li></ul><ul><li>play a fundamental role in today’s attitudes towards food. </li></ul>HOW TO FEED OURSELVES
  21. 21. THR ASIAN TSUNAMI MARTA MURGIA <ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>Earthquakes happen when the plates that make up the Earth’s surface suddenly </li></ul><ul><li>move against each other. </li></ul><ul><li>On the 26 December 2004 the biggest earthquake for 40 years has occurred between </li></ul><ul><li>the Australian and Eurasian plates in the Indian Ocean. </li></ul><ul><li>The quake triggered a Tsunami, a series of large waves, that spread thousands of </li></ul><ul><li>kilometers over several hours. </li></ul><ul><li>The earthquake caused the sea floor to brake along the fault line north of the epicenter, causing a giant </li></ul><ul><li>wave, which carved a path of destruction across the 4,500 km, wide Indian Ocean over 7 hours. </li></ul><ul><li>The Tsunami formed when energy from the earthquake vertically jolted the seabed by several meters, </li></ul><ul><li>displacing hundreds of cubic kilometers of water. Large waves began moving through the ocean, away </li></ul><ul><li>from the earthquake’s epicentre. The Tsunami’s journey had begun. </li></ul><ul><li>In deep water it moved at up to 800 km/h. When it reached the shallow water near costal areas, the </li></ul><ul><li>Tsunami slowed but increased in height. </li></ul><ul><li>Coastal areas like the Sri Lankan tourist resorts of Kaluatra, had almost no warning of the approaching </li></ul><ul><li>Tsunami. The only sing came just before the tsunami struck when the waterline suddenly retreated, </li></ul><ul><li>exposing hundreds of meters of beach and seabed. </li></ul><ul><li>The several waves of the tsunami came at intervals of between 5 and 40 minutes. In Kaluatra the water </li></ul><ul><li>reached at least 1 km inland, causing widespread destruction. </li></ul>THE ASIAN TSUNAMI
  22. 22. BOLLYWOOD MARTA MURGIA <ul><li>Bollywood is the nickname given to the Indian film industry; it is a pun on the word </li></ul><ul><li>Hollywood. The B comes from Bombay, a big city in India. </li></ul><ul><li>Bollywood is massive, it makes up to 800 films a year, twice as many as Hollywood, and </li></ul><ul><li>about 14 million Indian people go to the cinema everyday. </li></ul><ul><li>Films are made so fast that sometimes actors on set shoot scenes for four different films </li></ul><ul><li>at a time; and sometimes scripts are even hand-written. </li></ul><ul><li>In 1899 the first Indian short film was screened, and Bollywood was born. Just like in </li></ul><ul><li>Hollywood, films were silent at the beginning, and then in 1930 they became “talkies”. </li></ul><ul><li>Bollywood ’s biggest audience outside India is in Britain; in 2002 a season of Indian films was shown </li></ul><ul><li>on television when India and England played in a big cricket tournament. </li></ul><ul><li>A department store devoted a summer to Indian fashion, and shops everywhere were full of colourful </li></ul><ul><li>clothes. </li></ul><ul><li>“ Bombay Dreams”, a new West End musical, was a sell out; special cinemas also showed Bollywood </li></ul><ul><li>classic films and had exhibitions featuring Bollywood film posters. </li></ul><ul><li>Lagaan, a huge Bollywood hit, was nominated for an Oscar; Bollywood films have managed to cross </li></ul><ul><li>over and now it is not just Indian families watching them, they are being shown in big cinemas across </li></ul><ul><li>the UK. They are really colourful, crammed with singing, dancing, loads of costume changes. </li></ul><ul><li>The future looks even brighter for Bollywood, big US film companies such as Warner Bros, and the </li></ul><ul><li>Twentieth Century Fox, are setting up offices in India. </li></ul><ul><li>Where Indian filmmakers have found it difficult to compete with Hollywood ’s special effects, this is </li></ul><ul><li>seen as the next big area for Bollywood to develop. </li></ul>BOLLYWOOD
  23. 23. ANOREXIA MARTA MURGIA <ul><li>Anorexia is a common modern disease among young people. It means </li></ul><ul><li>starving the body. A person does not feed his body adequately and often </li></ul><ul><li>vomits after eating. </li></ul><ul><li>Most experts agree with the fact that causes are above all cultural and </li></ul><ul><li>psychological; but why is anorexia a disease of young people, especially </li></ul><ul><li>girls? Because adolescents are more susceptible to mass media messages </li></ul><ul><li>concerning the beauty and the shape of their bodies. Models of physically </li></ul><ul><li>perfect women are continuously catching their attention. That is why some </li></ul><ul><li>Of them, particularly the ones who think their parents do not understand them </li></ul><ul><li>or feel the burden of solitude, begin to refuse food or vomit after eating. </li></ul><ul><li>Can a remedy be found? First of all prevention, by accepting one’s body, and </li></ul><ul><li>if people really need to diet they must ask a doctor’s advice. Young girls </li></ul><ul><li>should talk to their parents, and they should try to listen to their children. </li></ul><ul><li>Moreover young people should remember it is more important to be beautiful </li></ul><ul><li>inside than physically </li></ul>ANOREXIA
  24. 24. <ul><li>AIDS stands for the Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome. It is a serious condition which attacks the </li></ul><ul><li>immune system (That stops your body from getting ill). </li></ul><ul><li>People with AIDS can die after developing different kinds of diseases, which the body would normally </li></ul><ul><li>fight off by itself. </li></ul><ul><li>It can be passed on through blood and other body fluids (through not saliva); it is spread through </li></ul><ul><li>having unprotected sex with an infected partner or by injecting drugs if infected drug addicts share </li></ul><ul><li>needles. </li></ul><ul><li>Before 1983 there were some cases of people catching AIDS from blood transfusions, but this is </li></ul><ul><li>virtually impossible now, because blood is screened. </li></ul><ul><li>Pregnant women with AIDS can pass the virus on to their babies at birth or through their breast milk. </li></ul><ul><li>This is the main way that children, especially in Africa, get AIDS. </li></ul><ul><li>Millions of people around the world die of AIDS-related illnesses every year: In Africa more people die </li></ul><ul><li>from AIDS than any other disease, 25 millions people there, have the HIV virus. Eastern Europe, </li></ul><ul><li>especially Russia, has the fastest growing HIV epidemic in the world. </li></ul><ul><li>New cases of HIV are at all-time high in the UK, with 3.435 new cases found in 2000. It is thought that </li></ul><ul><li>by the end of 2006 around the world, 2.700 millions of children, under the age of 15 will have AIDS. </li></ul><ul><li>There is no cure for Aids, but there are medicines that can slow down the HIV virus, and the damage to </li></ul><ul><li>the immune system. But there is no way to get all the HIV virus out of your body. Scientists are hopeful </li></ul><ul><li>that a vaccine against HIV will be found in the near future. </li></ul>WHAT IS AIDS? MARTA MURGIA WHAT IS AIDS?
  25. 25. KILLED IN COLD BLOOD FEDERICA ODONE <ul><li>On last Thursday a fourteen-year-old boy, Raffaele Marrone, murdered </li></ul><ul><li>Stefano, in cold blood. </li></ul><ul><li>Stefano was trying to steal one of Raffaele’s friend’s motorbikes. Biagio, the </li></ul><ul><li>owner of the bike, noticed that Stefano was stealing his motorbike and called </li></ul><ul><li>his friends: ten boys on three cars and two motorbikes. All of them followed </li></ul><ul><li>him at high speed. When the chase stopped and Stefano fell down, nine out </li></ul><ul><li>of the ten guys badly hit two friends of Stefano’s. Raffaele, the eldest of the </li></ul><ul><li>ten guys, approached Stefano and, making fun of him, told him that he was a </li></ul><ul><li>nobody because of his toy-gun while he had got a real one. At that very </li></ul><ul><li>moment he suddenly took it out of his pocket and shot Stefano. </li></ul><ul><li>None of the boys confessed the crime when they were arrested but, anyway,they </li></ul><ul><li>have all been incriminated even the sixteen and the seventeen ones. </li></ul><ul><li>Out of the police station a group of people clapped to the police and the minister </li></ul><ul><li>Pisanu said they were the honest people of Naples. </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul>Killed in Cold Blood
  26. 26. WHEN SHALL I HAVE A BABY FEDERICA ODONE <ul><li>In England searchers found out that the best age to have a child is thirty-four. At that age </li></ul><ul><li>a woman has got fewer possibilities to get ill, because it is the top of her physical wealth </li></ul><ul><li>which begins when a woman is twenty-two years old and reaches its top at thirty-four. </li></ul><ul><li>These are good news for career women, because they can work till they reach that age, </li></ul><ul><li>they get their economical and social autonomy and then they can have enough time and </li></ul><ul><li>energy to think of having children and a family. At that age they are mature and </li></ul><ul><li>responsible enough and they can take care of their children and educate them better. </li></ul><ul><li>The negative side, of having a child too late, is that a woman is less fertile when she </li></ul><ul><li>becomes older. This is a problem because a lot of women can have only one child </li></ul><ul><li>because it is too late and it is more difficult to succeed in having a baby. They can also </li></ul><ul><li>have only one child, because of economical problems and this is a very sad problem. </li></ul><ul><li>A pregnancy can, at any age, make a woman feel better and younger and it is an </li></ul><ul><li>experience that every woman should prove. </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul>When Shall I Have A Baby?
  27. 27. THE NEW HEIR TO THE THRONE FEDERICA ODONE <ul><li>Letizia, the wife of Felipe, prince of Spain, was thought to be anorexic </li></ul><ul><li>but a few days ago the news of her pregnancy denied it. </li></ul><ul><li>In November she will give birth to her child who will be the heir to the throne </li></ul><ul><li>of Felipe VI even if the baby will be a female one. </li></ul><ul><li>The government Zapatero is ready to pass a constitutional reformation. This </li></ul><ul><li>rule will however let Felipe rule even if there is an older female heir to Juan </li></ul><ul><li>Carlo’s throne, Elena. </li></ul><ul><li>Letizia will probably give birth to her child in the exclusive Madrilenian clinic </li></ul><ul><li>Ruber International. If the baby is a boy he will probably be called Pelayo, like </li></ul><ul><li>the first Asturian king and if the baby is a girl Letizia would like to call her </li></ul><ul><li>Covadonga, like the Virgin patron of the Asturians. However Letizia and </li></ul><ul><li>Felipe will have to consult the king and the queen of Spain for the choice of </li></ul><ul><li>the name they will give to their child. </li></ul>The New Heir To The Throne
  28. 28. A RECORD HOTEL CORINNA OLIVERI <ul><li>In Lapland, at Jukkasjärvi, a little village on the banks of the River Torne, 200 km north of the Artic </li></ul><ul><li>Circle, 12 km from Kiruna airport, it is possible to have an interesting, incredible experience, the most </li></ul><ul><li>“ thrilling” and “chilling” of one’s life: staying at the Icehotel. </li></ul><ul><li>The Icehotel is a wonderful, extraordinary hotel made up only of the ice drawn from the River Torne, </li></ul><ul><li>the water of which is clear and fast flowing, which lets the Icehotel be crystal-clear. </li></ul><ul><li>Fourteen years ago, in 1990, a Japanese artist had the idea of the Icehotel, bet with his Swedish friends </li></ul><ul><li>on its setting up and won the bet. </li></ul><ul><li>The construction of the Icehotel begins in October and in Mid-December it is over, and so it is possible </li></ul><ul><li>to stay there. Its building calls for 35 workers, apart from the sculptors who make the rooms more </li></ul><ul><li>refined and beautiful. </li></ul><ul><li>The Icehotel normally melts down in Mid-April or May, it depends on the weather. Since it melts down </li></ul><ul><li>every year, the hotel is different every winter. </li></ul><ul><li>The fist Icehotel was just like an igloo, little and uncomfortable. Then, the Icehotel has become bigger </li></ul><ul><li>and bigger, wider and wider, more and more comfortable and refined. </li></ul><ul><li>Last year the Icehotel was 5.000m 2 and included 60 double rooms, 25 suites, an ice bar, an ice church, a </li></ul><ul><li>pillared hall and warm toilets. The temperature in the rooms of the Icehotel is around –6° or –5°, and so </li></ul><ul><li>its guests have to wear special warm clothes, provided by the hotel staff. </li></ul><ul><li>Staying at the Icehotel is a wonderful, unique experience. From December 2004 the people who can </li></ul><ul><li>not afford to go or do not feel like spending there their holidays because it is too cold, can watch the </li></ul><ul><li>building of the hotel on Discovery Channel and they will be swallowed up by the magic of that fantastic </li></ul><ul><li>place. </li></ul>A RECORD HOTEL
  29. 29. ANTS’ SECRETS CORINNA OLIVERI <ul><li>The journalists of an important and well-known Italian magazine have recently made a report; it was about the </li></ul><ul><li>“ top-ten” creatures that have been living on the Earth for the greatest amount of years. </li></ul><ul><li>On top, there are some “special” creatures that are always exposed to our view and we sometimes hardly notice or </li></ul><ul><li>by which we are “obsessed”: ANTS. </li></ul><ul><li>We frequently spray the insecticide against them and then we feel relief, without knowing anything about them, </li></ul><ul><li>their lives, their homes and so on. </li></ul><ul><li>Ants have been living on the Earth for more than 100 million years, are considered one of the most long-lived </li></ul><ul><li>species (even if an ant can live only about 45 - 60 days), and are divided in more than 20,000 different kinds. </li></ul><ul><li>They are known all over the world as well-organised creatures (because of the tale “The Cicada and the Ant”, for </li></ul><ul><li>example), and also thanks to their extraordinary strength (in fact they weigh only few milligrams but can lift 20 </li></ul><ul><li>times more than their own weight). </li></ul><ul><li>Their body is divided in three main parts: the head, the trunk and the rear; the head consists of jaws, eyes (made </li></ul><ul><li>up of many little lenses, like lots of other eyes) and antennas, that are used as special organs of smell, taste and </li></ul><ul><li>“ contact” for them (in fact they communicate through their antennas); their six legs are attached to the trunk. </li></ul><ul><li>They are very sociable insects and live in large colonies or groups that consist of millions of ants. There are three </li></ul><ul><li>kinds of ants in each group, a kind of hierarchy: the queen (or queens), the task of which is to lay eggs; the male </li></ul><ul><li>ants, which have only to mate with the queen; the workers, sterile female ants, which have to look for food and to </li></ul><ul><li>protect their anthills from unwanted visitors. </li></ul><ul><li>Ants live in anthills, haunts of sand or dirt or something like that, divided in a lot of tunnels and chambers. </li></ul><ul><li>Experts do not know why ants have been living for such a long time on the Earth and in every place. </li></ul><ul><li>There are some suppositions about it, but the most reliable (and also the most beautiful) is that their strength is </li></ul><ul><li>their unity: after all, “Unity is strength”! </li></ul>Ants' Secrets
  30. 30. <ul><li>At last they will get married. After more than 30 years of love, always at the centre of gossip, scandals and </li></ul><ul><li>criticism, on the 8 th of April, Prince Charles, the heir to the throne of England, and Camilla Parker Bowles </li></ul><ul><li>will marry, even if, they say, she will never become the Queen of Britain. Their love story seems to be a </li></ul><ul><li>fairy story. They met, for the first time, during a polo match in 1970. Camilla Shand was not are fined, elegant </li></ul><ul><li>woman, she was not particularly beautiful, she did not come from high social standing, on the contrary, she </li></ul><ul><li>was bold and simple. These features made a deep impression on the seventeen year-old firstborn child of the </li></ul><ul><li>Queen of Britain. Nine months later, Charles was sent to West Indies and when he came back, he discovered </li></ul><ul><li>that Camilla had married a friend of hers, Andrew Parker-Bowles. </li></ul><ul><li>Afterwards, also Charles got married to Diana Spencer , a young woman who seemed perfect for the throne </li></ul><ul><li>and who succeeded in winning the affection of the English. The rest is known by everybody: their </li></ul><ul><li>troubled marriage, the infidelities of both Charles and Diana, their divorce and, eventually, Diana’s </li></ul><ul><li>death. In spite of everything, Charles and Camilla’s relationship has kept on, they continued to </li></ul><ul><li>meet. Their first public appearance took place in 1999. Immediately, controversies aroused. Queen </li></ul><ul><li>Elizabeth II reaffirmed her opposition to their love and their wedding. After 6 years, since they have </li></ul><ul><li>not changed their mind, the Queen has given her approval to their wedding, in order to avoid a </li></ul><ul><li>regrettable situation when Charles will become king. In spite of this, a lot of the English do not </li></ul><ul><li>like Camilla; according to a recent survey, 58% of them agree with their marriage, 5% do not want </li></ul><ul><li>her to come to the throne, 49% think that their marriage will weaken the English monarchy and </li></ul><ul><li>41% think that, when Charles has the possibility to ascend the throne, he shall have to abdicate in </li></ul><ul><li>favour of his son, William. This matter will surely be discussed again and a lot of controversies </li></ul><ul><li>will be aroused but, at least, there is a consolation for the romantics: love triumphs over anything </li></ul>A ROYAL LOVESTORY CORINNA OLIVERI A Royal...Love Story
  31. 31. AIDS THE NEW PLAGUE CORINNA OLIVERI <ul><li>According to a recent survey, the HIV positive persons in Italy are 120,000 and a lot of them live in Liguria, which is classed third with 2,809 persons who </li></ul><ul><li>have contracted HIV. This survey shows a great problem, in fact, even if during the last years many efforts have been made to awaken people, especially </li></ul><ul><li>teenagers, to the problem of HIV and AIDS, there are more and more persons who contract HIV. The origins of that terrible disease are still uncertain; it is </li></ul><ul><li>thought that it arises from a particular species of chimpanzee, just like the Plague, that is a mice’s disease in origin The virus has existed in the USA, Haiti </li></ul><ul><li>and Africa since 1977-1978, when diseases like pneumonia and cancer were found in persons with weak immune systems. In 1982 the Centers for Disease </li></ul><ul><li>Control and Prevention (CDC) recognised the new disease, called AIDS; two years later it was discovered that the virus responsible for AIDS is HIV. </li></ul><ul><li>HIV means “Human Immune-deficiency Virus”, that is to say a virus that infects only human beings and causes the inability of the body immune system to </li></ul><ul><li>work properly. Instead AIDS means “Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome», a disease that is contracted from someone who is already ill and that </li></ul><ul><li>affects the body immune system and makes it deficient, unable to work properly, so that it is easier to fall ill with pneumonia, cancer, and so on, that are </li></ul><ul><li>difficult to defeat. The spread of HIV, and then AIDS, is due to the ignorance of a lot of persons about the way to catch HIV. The most known way to </li></ul><ul><li>transmit HIV is the one from an infected person to another by blood (including menstrual blood), semen, and vaginal secretion. These are the only ways to </li></ul><ul><li>be infected by HIV through the contact with other persons and so reactions like avoiding to shaking hands with infected persons and to kissing them are </li></ul><ul><li>unwarranted. In fact also French kisses are generally harmless: the mouth is an inhospitable environment for HIV and so the risk to get it through the </li></ul><ul><li>throat, gums and oral membranes is really low; this is the reason why also oral sex is considered to be not really dangerous. </li></ul><ul><li>Anyway, the best way not to risk to be infected is to follow the “ABC’s” of AIDS prevention: </li></ul><ul><li>A = Abstain </li></ul><ul><li>B = Be Faithful </li></ul><ul><li>C = Use Condoms </li></ul><ul><li>In plain words, this ABC says that the best way to avoid infecting is to abstain from sex, otherwise, if you choose to have sex, it could be better for you to </li></ul><ul><li>be monogamous, to limit the possibility to get in touch with HIV. Finally, using condoms is a good advice, especially for the ones who are involved in not </li></ul><ul><li>monogamous relationships. In these cases, however, it would be better to take preventative measures against infection and have the test regularly, also to </li></ul><ul><li>prevent from infecting somebody else. Recently the most terrible fact about AIDS is the spread of the virus among children: in fact, in addiction to </li></ul><ul><li>unprotected sexual contact, direct blood contact, including injection drug needles, blood transfusion, accidents in health care setting or certain blood </li></ul><ul><li>products, it is also possible to be infected through breast milk if the mother is HIV positive. Nowadays there are about 13 million children worldwide, </li></ul><ul><li>especially in Africa and Asia, who have been orphaned by the AIDS-related deaths of their parents, and a lot of them are infected as well. </li></ul><ul><li>If persons were more informed about AIDS, they would not run the risk to get HIV so easily. </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul>AIDS: The New Plague
  32. 32. HYDROGEN REALITY OR DREAM? CORINNA OLIVERI <ul><li>As a consequence of the rise in the prices of oil, people think about new sources of energy in order to </li></ul><ul><li>replace, sooner or later, the so-called “Black Gold”. </li></ul><ul><li>For example, to carburet a car, avoiding also pollution, we could use electro motors, compressed air motors </li></ul><ul><li>or hydrogen motors. </li></ul><ul><li>The agencies that work with energy have bet on hydrogen, since they believe that, in our future, it will have </li></ul><ul><li>an important role. </li></ul><ul><li>Hydrogen is really favourable and it could reduce air and noise pollution and if it was really used as a fuel, </li></ul><ul><li>car would emit only steam into the atmosphere: in short, the cities would be more liveable and the quality of </li></ul><ul><li>life would increase. </li></ul><ul><li>Unluckily, it is not so easy to have hydrogen ready for use, even if it is very diffused. </li></ul><ul><li>Nowadays there are two ways to get hydrogen: we have to resort to hydrocarbons, with a process called </li></ul><ul><li>reforming , but it has some defects, since oil and its derivates are needed to do it. Besides, through </li></ul><ul><li>reforming , a lot of carbon dioxide is produced and it is bad since it causes the greenhouse effect. The latter </li></ul><ul><li>way to get hydrogen is called electrolysis , a process that does not produce pollution but needs a lot of </li></ul><ul><li>energy and so it is uneconomical.Other methods to get hydrogen are being tested but they do not </li></ul><ul><li>Solve great problems. </li></ul><ul><li>How can we store it? It is really difficult: either we keep it at –253 degrees in a liquid state or we can </li></ul><ul><li>compress it in a gas state, at 300/400 atm. </li></ul><ul><li>And then, where can we store it? We should build expensive infrastructures. </li></ul><ul><li>Hydrogen is still difficult to obtain but our necessity to have another type of fuel, different from oil, will </li></ul><ul><li>motivate us to invest money in further research in this field…also because Black Gold is not unlimited. </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul>Hydrogen: Reality or Dream?
  33. 33. TERRI SCHIAVO, AN AMERICAN TRAGEDY CORINNA OLIVERI <ul><li>The fate of Terri Schiavo, an American woman, kept both the Americans and many people all over the world in suspense. </li></ul><ul><li>Theresa Marie Schindler Schiavo, or simply Terri Schiavo, as she was known all over the world, was a 41-year-old woman from Pinellas </li></ul><ul><li>Park, Florida. Since 1990, when she was 26 years old, she had been in a Persistent Vegetative State, due to a heart attack that caused a </li></ul><ul><li>permanent brain damage. In plain words, she was unable to speak, think, respond to stimuli, eat, swallow and take care of herself. </li></ul><ul><li>Her story interested a lot of people because she was at the centre of a legal conflict between her husband and her parents. </li></ul><ul><li>Her husband, Michael Schiavo, wanted euthanasia to be practised on her, in fact he was convinced that she would have never liked to </li></ul><ul><li>live in a vegetative state; unluckily he had no Terri’s living will which confirmed his statement. </li></ul><ul><li>Bob and Mary Schindler, her parents, thought that their daughter, who had been deeply catholic as they were, would have never agreed </li></ul><ul><li>with the idea of killing someone who was still alive even if he could not be self-conscious and independent and would have never </li></ul><ul><li>accepted to have euthanasia made on her. Besides they are still sure that their daughter’s situation was not as bad as the doctors said </li></ul><ul><li>and Michael thought: according to them she was able to respond to some stimuli and their opinion was backed by an illegal video tape </li></ul><ul><li>in which they showed that Terri could interact. </li></ul><ul><li>That story had aroused passion and controversies in America and all over the world because both the two parties seemed to be right: </li></ul><ul><li>Michael, who wanted her to stop suffering, and Bob and Mary, who did not want to give up all hopes. </li></ul><ul><li>Since they had not come to an agreement, they both had consulted a lawyer and had come before the court to have their opinion </li></ul><ul><li>confirmed and legally accepted. </li></ul><ul><li>The last acts of Terri’s tragedy took place few days ago: on the 18 th of March, after a sentence passed by a judge, Terri’s feeding tube </li></ul><ul><li>was removed. It was like a sentence to death, starvation. On the 20 th of March George W. Bush, the President of USA, interrupted his </li></ul><ul><li>holiday in Texas in order to sign a document to keep Terri alive, the so-called “Save-Terri” document. </li></ul><ul><li>It aroused hopes in Terri’s parents, who applied to a federal judge to have Terri’s feeding tube replaced as soon as possible, and also </li></ul><ul><li>controversies from Michael and a lot of other people, who thought that politicians should not interfere with common people’s lives. </li></ul><ul><li>On the 22 nd of March the judge called by her parents, James Whittemore, decided to deny the replacement of Terri’s feeding tube. </li></ul><ul><li>Also the judge of Atlanta, with whom the Schindlers had lodged a petition, agreed with Whittemore. </li></ul><ul><li>Eventually, on the 31 st of March, Terri died after 13 days without eating anything and it left sadness in everybody, from both the two </li></ul><ul><li>different lines-up. </li></ul>Terri Schiavo: an American Tragedy
  34. 34. MOUNTAINS OF PLASTERS CORINNA OLIVERI <ul><li>For some months, in Italy, there have been liquid plasters, the new, waterproof, transparent, American </li></ul><ul><li>invention for little scratches, cuts, and so on. </li></ul><ul><li>They appeared for the first time in 1920s in the United States of America, invented by Earle Dickinson, </li></ul><ul><li>an employee of Johson&Johnson, whose wife was very awkward and always got scratches and cuts. </li></ul><ul><li>Just to hide his wife’s little wounds, Dickinson invented the first plaster. Dickinson’s chief liked the </li></ul><ul><li>idea and so he started up their production. </li></ul><ul><li>Plasters were launched in 1920 as “Band Air”. Since that moment, about 100 milliard plasters have </li></ul><ul><li>been sold. </li></ul><ul><li>Only in Italy, about 20 million boxes of plasters a year are sold. Especially children, for whom plasters </li></ul><ul><li>have been enriched with colours and drawings, use them. </li></ul><ul><li>Normally, plasters consist of a little adhesive made up of textile fibres or plastics, in the middle of </li></ul><ul><li>which there is a little piece of gauze. </li></ul><ul><li>Lately, a lot of different, strange plasters have been invented: the sterile strips, plasters used by </li></ul><ul><li>surgeons instead of stitches to avoid scars; plasters used to give medicines, “hormone” plasters, for </li></ul><ul><li>women who are in menopause, contraceptive plasters, plasters against rheumatic pains, nicotine </li></ul><ul><li>plasters to stop smoking, plasters to remove comedoes, to straighten noses, to protect skin, to stop </li></ul><ul><li>snoring, and so on. </li></ul><ul><li>How will new plasters be? Nobody knows, but, at present, two kinds of new plasters are being </li></ul><ul><li>examined: at the University of Rochester a “clever” plaster, that informs the person wearing it if his </li></ul><ul><li>wound is infecting by changing its colour; and, finally, a Sheffield firm is testing a special plaster </li></ul><ul><li>consisting also of the cells of the patient that wears it. </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul>Mountains of Plasters
  35. 35. SHOULD DRUGS BE LEGALIZED? FRANCESCA PAMPALONI <ul><li>From a survey among Americans about the big problem of legalising drugs, the population is divided in </li></ul><ul><li>two halves. In fact there are pros and cons of legalising drugs. </li></ul><ul><li>If drugs were legalised, drug barons and drug dealers would go out of business. </li></ul><ul><li>Illegality drives prices upwards: in the 20’s, when alcohol was illegal, it’s production and sale </li></ul><ul><li>became a huge and violent criminal business. </li></ul><ul><li>In 11 States in U.S.A that decriminalised the possession of marijuana, in the 70’s, the rates of </li></ul><ul><li>consumption are no different than in States that did not decriminalise. There is the idea that legalisation </li></ul><ul><li>would increase the use of drugs. </li></ul><ul><li>In the Netherlands, where cannabis was decriminalised in 1976, consumption among young people has </li></ul><ul><li>actually decreased. </li></ul><ul><li>If drugs are legalised the government would be able to regulate their sale. </li></ul><ul><li>It could put a tax on drugs as on alcohol and cigarettes. The money saved on law could be used for drug </li></ul><ul><li>treatment and prevention. </li></ul><ul><li>There are also cons. </li></ul><ul><li>Drugs have destroyed the lives of millions of people. If drugs were legal, millions of law-abiding citizens </li></ul><ul><li>would be lured into drug addiction. People could easily obtain and try a dangerous drug out of naïve </li></ul><ul><li>curiosity. Shops would give young people the impression that drugs were harmless, because they are </li></ul><ul><li>approved by the government. </li></ul><ul><li>Legalising drugs would not make the drug dealer disappear. The dealers would simply benefit from </li></ul><ul><li>The increased market, and they would provide more potent drugs than the government shops. </li></ul>Should Drugs Be Legalised?
  36. 36. A STRANGE WEDDING FRANCESCA PAMPALONI <ul><li>With the marriage between Carlo and Camilla, the inhabitants of Windsor thought that they had hosted the wedding of the year. But they were wrong. In the next December Elton John, 58 years old, and David Furnish, 42, will be married. </li></ul><ul><li>In fact the English pop star and his life-companion have not decided to marry now spiting the Pope and his condemnation of homosexuality. But for another reason: from the 7 th of December 2005 in Great Britain will become effective “the civil union” among the citizen of the same sex”. </li></ul><ul><li>“ Marriage&quot; is not the right word: Great Britain does not consent the homosexual wedding, but has approved a law, passed by Parliament, that has legalized and homosexual relationships. The law will be in force from the 7 th of December 2005. </li></ul><ul><li>The media have done some calculation and they plan the date for the celebration around the 21 st of December. </li></ul>A Strange Wedding
  37. 37. KOIZUMI AND JINTAO TRY TO COOL THE DIPLOMATIC CRISIS BETWEEN THE TWO ASIAN DRAGONS GIULIO PARODI <ul><li>The Japanese premier, the Liberal democratic Junichiro Koizumi and the Chinese leader, the Communist Hu Jintao </li></ul><ul><li>met on the 23rd of April 2005 in Jakarta, where an Asiatic summit was held, to try to de-fuse the diplomatic bomb </li></ul><ul><li>between China and Japan. The causes of this crisis are numerous. Not only are Chinese people demonstrating </li></ul><ul><li>against the Japanese school books which would hide the crimes made by Japanese soldiers during the first part of </li></ul><ul><li>the last century. China does not like the Japanese candidature for a permanent seat at the UN. Furthermore Japan </li></ul><ul><li>has begun researches of natural gas in the Eastern Chinese Sea, in a zone claimed by Peking. Moreover the </li></ul><ul><li>problem of Taiwan continues to divide the two powers. The old Japanese colony is threatened by a severe Chinese </li></ul><ul><li>law considered dangerous by Japan. In fact this law would allow China to declare war to Taiwan in case of declared </li></ul><ul><li>independence from the “rebel province”. All these problems made thousand of people to demonstrate against </li></ul><ul><li>Japan through the streets of Peking, Shanghai, Hangzhou, Tianjin, Guangzhou and Chongqing. Although Chinese </li></ul><ul><li>Government has, till now, tolerated these anti-Japan demonstrations, China has nothing to earn from this crisis. </li></ul><ul><li>Firm relationships between Japan and China are indispensable for the peace and prosperity of the Asian-Pacific </li></ul><ul><li>region. China and Japan have, indeed, a commercial relation of 137 billions € pro year and both countries are </li></ul><ul><li>interested in maintaining this business. China has begun to forbid these demonstrations also because among the </li></ul><ul><li>badges that showed burnt Japanese flags or inscriptions such as “No Japan” or “Boycott Japanese Goods”, some </li></ul><ul><li>people asked for an increase in salary! Nationalistic spirits increase both in Peking and in Tokyo but the behaviours </li></ul><ul><li>of the two political leaders seem contradictory. Koizumi expressed public excuses to all the Asian countries that </li></ul><ul><li>suffered the Japanese imperialism in the past (Nanchino Massacre in 1937, when Japanese occupation </li></ul><ul><li>Soldiers killed 300,000 people), but Koizumi himself has always visited the memorial of Yasukumi where also 1,000 </li></ul><ul><li>Japanese generals charged with war crimes are honoured. Recently 80 Japanese deputies of all parties renovated </li></ul><ul><li>their visit to Yasukumi, causing severe protests from China and South Korea. On the other hand, China has </li></ul><ul><li>expressed a severe admonition for everybody who would promote other demonstrations and this also stresses the </li></ul><ul><li>complete power of the Communist regime onto Chinese people. Let’s hope that the next Olympic games can help </li></ul><ul><li>China to reach a higher level in democracy and human rights and to find firm and peaceful relations. The world </li></ul><ul><li>cannot have an area of permanent crisis between these two Asian dragons. </li></ul>Koizumi and Jintao Try to Cool the Diplomatic Crisis between the Two Asian Dragons
  38. 38. THE MOST IMPORTANT DAY IN SIENA GIULIA PARTESANA <ul><li>At eight o’clock in the morning, the big bell of Mangia ’s tower called Sunto announces to the town of Siena and the tourists that a very </li></ul><ul><li>important day is beginning; in fact this bell tolls only few times a year. In Piazza del Campo the jockeys, the captains and their companions, </li></ul><ul><li>take part in the jockeys mass, celebrated by the archbishop of Siena, who asks the Virgin for protection for men, horses and the race. </li></ul><ul><li>After the mass, the sixth trial called “ provaccia” , takes place, because none of the jockeys will ever be so fool to really try his horse only ten </li></ul><ul><li>hours before the final race. After the sixth trial, each jockey is officially assigned to a “ contrada” and from now on, neither the jockey nor the </li></ul><ul><li>horse can be replaced. The assignment takes place in the medieval town hall where the Mayor, the Captains and the jockeys, gather to read </li></ul><ul><li>the most important rules of the “ Palio” . Then the management of the “ contrade” and the jockeys negotiate with the people who could disturb </li></ul><ul><li>the horses and jockeys of the opposite “ contrade” during the race. Especially the jockey who is at a run, the one who starts at the ropes called </li></ul><ul><li>canapi” and the one who decides when the race starts, are proposed to be given big sums of money to favour or to hamper a “ contrada” . </li></ul><ul><li>Meanwhile a crowd of old, young and very young people, parade through the streets singing the hymn of their “ contrada” and predicting every </li></ul><ul><li>kind of troubles for the rivals. In this day, the Sienese usually do not eat lunch at home but they eat something in Piazza del Campo . </li></ul><ul><li>Early in the afternoon, the Santo bell informs the “ contradaioli&quot; that they must go to wear the rich costumes to take part in the historical </li></ul><ul><li>parade. It is a very big honour for a boy to wear the “ mantra” and it is a sign of confidence that the management places on him. </li></ul><ul><li>Then there is a moment full of emotion, the blessing of the horses in the oratory of each “ contrada” : The invocation of the friar, who says to the </li></ul><ul><li>horse: “Go and return winner!” stirs deep in the heart of the “ contradaioli” and the management. The “ comparse” , that is to say the group of </li></ul><ul><li>young boys and girls who take part in the historical parade, the waving of the coloured handkerchiefs of each “ contradict” and the sound of the </li></ul><ul><li>Sunto bell that accompanies all the manifestation, give emotions hardly felt in other parts of the world. In this moment everyone can perceive </li></ul><ul><li>that the feast is not built for the tourists but deeply and strongly felt by the Sienese. Finally the “ Carroccio” , a kind of carriage with the “ Palio” </li></ul><ul><li>on, enters Piazza del Campo. A last glance at the small flag of Mangia ’s Tower that, for somebody, does not move in the direction of the wind </li></ul><ul><li>but in the direction of the part of the city which will win the “ Palio” , and then there is the flag display. A silence full of waiting falls on the </li></ul><ul><li>square. The Sunto bell does not ring any more. The Sienese hold their breath and the last formality seems to be eternal. Then both horses </li></ul><ul><li>and jockeys come out of the “ Entrone”. In the square everyone looks at the same direction while the horses go slowly to the “ canapi” The </li></ul><ul><li>order of entrance in the “ canapi” is drawn with a device that guarantees secrecy and correctness. At last the race begins. In a bit more then a </li></ul><ul><li>minute, everything is over: the winners, embrace all together, run to “ Provenzano” or the “ Duomo” to sing a “ Te Deum” , maybe ramshackled </li></ul><ul><li>but alive and grateful. For all the others the feast is really over. They must wait for another “ Palio”. Anyway in Siena it is always the season of </li></ul><ul><li>the “ Palio” as it takes hopes, faith, sacrifice, fight and friendship. </li></ul>THE MOST IMPORTANT DAY IN SIENA
  39. 39. TOURIST ANIMATION GIULIA PARTESANA <ul><li>The entertainers of holiday villages are a crowd of young Italians between 20 and 30. </li></ul><ul><li>They live in the most beautiful resorts of the world, but their work is not really a holiday…In-fact they do not </li></ul><ul><li>get much sleep (they have to rehearse the performances late in the night, when the tourists go to sleep), </li></ul><ul><li>they live far from home for many months a year and they are not well paid. </li></ul><ul><li>Even if they know about a thousand people a season, the entertainers have problems in creating a </li></ul><ul><li>permanent relation and can use some psychological tricks to convince the tourists to take part in the </li></ul><ul><li>activities. There are some curious rules to follow. For example, never speak to a guest wearing a pair of sun </li></ul><ul><li>glasses because if a person can not see in the eyes of the one he has in front of him, he would not perceive </li></ul><ul><li>the speakers as a sociable person: and so, before speaking with a client, the sun-glasses have to be put on </li></ul><ul><li>The head. </li></ul><ul><li>The first meeting between an entertainer and a client often takes place on the beach. When the entertainers </li></ul><ul><li>speak with a lying person they must crouch down near him for two reasons: first not to cast their shadow </li></ul><ul><li>on him and then because being overhang can be very irritating, especially for old people. </li></ul><ul><li>The entertainers must be polite to everybody and they eat lunch and dinner with the guests. After dinner, </li></ul><ul><li>when children and old people go to bed, they must go to the disco until about two o’clock. Every village has </li></ul><ul><li>its disco. They should not have relations with the tourists and when a client falls in love with an entertainer </li></ul><ul><li>the only solution is to dedicate him or her the less time possible, telling that it is not a good thing for the </li></ul><ul><li>Other guests. </li></ul><ul><li>Some people think that entertainers live on holiday but when they return home, they need a holiday far from </li></ul><ul><li>a tourist village! </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul>TOURIST ANIMATION
  40. 40. ABSENT-MINDEDNESS ELENA PASTORINO <ul><li>Who has never lost anything? Everybody has lost keys, a mobile phone or a wallet; it is not unusual for absent-minded </li></ul><ul><li>people, but it can also happen to the attentive ones. In 1901 Sigmund Freud, the father of psychoanalysis, wrote that behind </li></ul><ul><li>forgetfulness there is an unconscious refusal of what the lost thing represents: work, family, responsibility... </li></ul><ul><li>There are many examples of carelessness; some of them are very funny and strange: </li></ul><ul><li>-          Australia, 1979 . The police opened a closed door in the town hall of Hõchst. They found Andreas Mihauecz, a young boy who had been left there for eighteen days without food and water. He had been taken there after a car incident. </li></ul><ul><li>-          France, 1993 . An Italian beach hunter found a Jewish candelabrum made of gold, rubies and topazes under the sea-sand. </li></ul><ul><li>-          Switzerland, 2000 . A group of students found some wads; they thought they were facsimile ones but they were real money (about 13000$). </li></ul><ul><li>-          London, 2000 . A security agent lost his PC in a taxi. When he lost it he was probably drunk. MI6 (the English secret service) offered a great sum of money to the person who would find the PC. </li></ul><ul><li>-          USA, 2003 . The keys of a chemical laboratory were lost. The rule forced to change all the locks of the laboratory. (1,5 millions $). </li></ul><ul><li>-          California, 2004 . A taxi driver found an old violoncello. He carried it away and used it as record-rack. Some days later he heard from the TV that a very precious violoncello made by Stradivari had been lost. It was priced 3,5 millions $. The musician Peter Strumf (Los Angeles Orchestra) had left it in front of his house a week before. </li></ul><ul><li>Studies about lost things have always charmed many people. Renaissance poets thought that lost things would go to the </li></ul><ul><li>Moon. Jorge Luis Borges, a very famous writer (1899-1986), in his book called “Lo Zahir”, wrote the story of a man who paid </li></ul><ul><li>a little coin called Zahir for a coffee. After that moment he was hunted by the idea of finding the coin again. The story </li></ul><ul><li>reminds us of an Islamic legend; it tells about “an object that is impossible to lose”. </li></ul><ul><li>Finding your lost things on the Moon is impossible, but you can find them at an auction where you can understand how </li></ul><ul><li>absent-minded people are. They lose everything: suitcases, dynamite, prosthesis and dentures. </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul>ABSENT-MINDEDNESS
  41. 41. GRAVITATIONAL SPORTS ELENA PASTORINO <ul><li>According to tradition, Isaac Newton, discovered the force of gravity thanks to an apple. A little apple </li></ul><ul><li>fell from a tree... but the people who were in Australia three years ago saw something bigger that fell </li></ul><ul><li>from the sky. It was a parachutist who jumped from 40,000 meters. Do you think it is impossible? It is </li></ul><ul><li>true; Rodd Millner flew on an airship and jumped: he wanted to land in the middle of Australia. </li></ul><ul><li>The force of gravity is the force that holds us on the ground, but there are many people who use it to </li></ul><ul><li>do foolish actions. For example gravitational sports or “speed down”. The most famous sports are the </li></ul><ul><li>ones practised with little cars without any engine, they move only thanks to the force of gravity. </li></ul><ul><li>Originally these cars were packing boxes for soap. They were used by many boys in the 30s to build </li></ul><ul><li>little cars and they took part in the “Soap-box Derby” in America. After the First World War this </li></ul><ul><li>competition spread also in Europe. The boxes became handcarts. Today in Italy, a similar competition, </li></ul><ul><li>“ Newton Trophy” takes place every year. </li></ul><ul><li>The most important part of gravitational sports are told to be extreme sports. Inline skates, </li></ul><ul><li>skateboards, bikes, sleds and so on these are only some examples of gravitational sports. In South </li></ul><ul><li>America people run on cars made of wood to give lorry-drivers food and spare parts. They do these </li></ul><ul><li>foolish actions out of necessity but there are many people who do them because of their own fun. </li></ul><ul><li>If the means of transport is a skateboard, the speciality is called “downhill skate”, but it exists also the </li></ul><ul><li>“ inline skate downhill”. </li></ul><ul><li>The strangest means of transport is a special tack-suit endowed with many wheels. Thanks to this </li></ul><ul><li>tracksuit it is possible to skate in more than twenty positions! </li></ul><ul><li>It is true that gravitational sports are very dangerous, but there are many people who make them their </li></ul><ul><li>reason of life! </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul>Gravitational Sports
  42. 42. HOT PEPPER ELENA PASTORINO <ul><li>Hot pepper is one of the most diffused spices in the world. Somebody cultivates it; somebody </li></ul><ul><li>studies it at University; somebody uses it in aerosol bombs for self-defence or for beauty care. Hot </li></ul><ul><li>pepper comes from America; Diego Alvarez Chanca of Siviglia brought it to Europe for the first time </li></ul><ul><li>after the discovery of America. Hot pepper is called “Indian pepper” because it was so called by </li></ul><ul><li>European conquerors. There are many recipes made with hot pepper, for example Gulasch, </li></ul><ul><li>Guacamole, Chili, and the most famous Italian recipe: spaghetti with garlic, oil and hot pepper. It is </li></ul><ul><li>very known and some music bands have used the word “pepper “in their names; Red Hot Chili </li></ul><ul><li>Pepper is a very famous Californian band; there is also Jalapeno, a band from Spain, its name </li></ul><ul><li>comes from the name of a kind of hot pepper. </li></ul><ul><li>Especially in Italy, hot pepper is loved and every year a strange competition takes place. </li></ul><ul><li>Competitors must eat the biggest quantity of hot pepper they can. The holder of the record is a </li></ul><ul><li>Friulian farmer who ate 729 g of hot pepper and won the Italia Championship of hot pepper eaters. </li></ul><ul><li>Even if hot pepper is not DOC, some very important names of international cooking have used it </li></ul><ul><li>and it is coupled with others ingredients like chocolates or vodka. For example Armani Dolci has </li></ul><ul><li>created a new collection of chocolate sweets, hot pepper and tequila. The Swedish Absolut has </li></ul><ul><li>created a piquant vodka called “Absolut Pepper”. Even a beauty big firm, “Aquolina”, has used hot </li></ul><ul><li>pepper in its products. So hot pepper is becoming very popular and experts say </li></ul><ul><li>that it could be the elixir of life. </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul>HOT PEPPER
  43. 43. A LESSON IN NATURE ELENA PASTORINO <ul><li>On The 8th of October some classes of “G.Deledda” High School went to Antola Park for a fieldtrip. </li></ul><ul><li>Antola is a resort near Genoa bathed in nature where the air is not polluted and there is no traffic in the </li></ul><ul><li>streets; it is a perfect place to stay in close contact with nature and have a different kind of school </li></ul><ul><li>lesson. We arrived there by bus soon in the morning. A young woman took us to a new little building </li></ul><ul><li>in the wood where she began to show us and comment a very interesting power point presentation </li></ul><ul><li>about rivers. While she was speaking we took notes about rivers, living and non-living organisms, the </li></ul><ul><li>classification of rivers, fish and so on. After the power point presentation we could see some typical </li></ul><ul><li>fish of Ligurian rivers in their tanks in the aquarium. </li></ul><ul><li>After a short break, we went to the Brevenna River and there, divided into groups, we began to do </li></ul><ul><li>some experiments. Helped by two biologists and some technical instruments we took samples of water </li></ul><ul><li>and examined it. With a magnifying glass we could observe macro-organisms in the river under stones </li></ul><ul><li>and in bits of wood. Those small animals disgusted some students but the experience was very </li></ul><ul><li>interesting also because some of us had never seen a macro-organism. We also found a blood </li></ul><ul><li>sucker!!! </li></ul><ul><li>After all our experiments we returned to Genoa. Some of us were bored or disgusted by the experience </li></ul><ul><li>but most of us think it was a unique experience especially for students who live in a big city and have </li></ul><ul><li>no possibility to be in touch with nature. It has been a different but amusing way of learning! </li></ul>A Lesson in Nature
  44. 44. ANIMALS’ RIGHTS ELENA PASTORINO <ul><li>In 1992, the Farm Animal Welfare Council of Britain pronounced five important </li></ul><ul><li>animals’ liberties: </li></ul><ul><li>Freedom from hunger, thirst and malnutrition. </li></ul><ul><li>Freedom from being obliged to live in uncomfortable places </li></ul><ul><li>Freedom from suffering and sickness </li></ul><ul><li>Freedom of behaving in a normal way </li></ul><ul><li>Freedom from fear and stress </li></ul><ul><li>From then on, many European countries have issued laws for animals’ tutorship. Also in Italy, on the 1 st of </li></ul><ul><li>August, a new law was issued (law n°189); it punishes the people who abandon, maltreat, and kill animals. </li></ul><ul><li>the Civil Code punished once these conducts because they were considered injurious for the animals. </li></ul><ul><li>Many people think that we should not think about animals when there are many other problems in the world; </li></ul><ul><li>but they cannot be neglected. </li></ul><ul><li>7 millions dogs, 7,5 millions cats, 12 millions birds and 500000 rodents live in Italian houses. Many scientists, </li></ul><ul><li>like Irene Peppemberg, Cinzia Moss, Roger Fouts, Jane Goodall, who have shown that animals can feel </li></ul><ul><li>anguish, depression and stress, help all these pets also. Many animals are able to share joy or suffering with </li></ul><ul><li>their owners. Some of them are able to “think” in a very primitive way. A lot of scientists think that the </li></ul><ul><li>differences between animals and persons are more quantitative than qualitative. </li></ul><ul><li>Together with many examples of maltreatments of animals, we have many examples of unlimited love. In </li></ul><ul><li>Canada, for example, Jim and Linda Sauer live with a very big bison; in New York an “upper class” dog </li></ul><ul><li>travels by a limousine; in a cemetery there is the tombstone of a dog and in New York there is even a whole </li></ul><ul><li>cemetery for animals! The “painter” Asuka is a monkey, her works are exposed in an art gallery of Tokyo. </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul>Animals' Rights
  45. 45. GOLD, SYMBOL OF RICHNESS ELENA PASTORINO <ul><li>Gold is the most precious metal. Gold has provoked dreams of richness and power. Why is it so </li></ul><ul><li>precious? Because it is unalterable and rare, it is also very malleable and for this reason every kind of </li></ul><ul><li>jewel can be made of gold. </li></ul><ul><li>For the Egyptians the flesh of Pharaohs was made of gold; in the Bible the Ark of Alliance is covered </li></ul><ul><li>with gold; king’s crowns are made of gold; Henry VIII of England used to wear gold dresses and very </li></ul><ul><li>heavy gold necklaces. These are only some examples of the role that gold has had for centuries. Gold </li></ul><ul><li>is the symbol of omnipotence because it can buy everything. But there is another face of gold: the </li></ul><ul><li>longing of possession. King Mida’s legend is the symbol of the richness obsession. He could turn </li></ul><ul><li>everything into gold, for this reason he could not eat because everything he wanted to eat was turned </li></ul><ul><li>into gold by his touch. </li></ul><ul><li>In the middle Ages it was thought that gold was linked to the devil who used it to seduce men and to </li></ul><ul><li>obtain their souls. </li></ul><ul><li>Gold has always stirred up “fevers”. “Conquistadores” began to look for gold in America. Somebody </li></ul><ul><li>tried to find a place where a king called “El Dorado” reigned, and where there was a big quantity of </li></ul><ul><li>gold. Gold has always been very important but probably the populations of Africa </li></ul><ul><li>during the colonization did not think so; they preferred salt which was necessary </li></ul><ul><li>and they were happy to exchange gold with It. </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul>Gold: Symbol of Richness
  46. 46. MIXED SPORTS ELENA PASTORINO <ul><li>The underwater Marathon race of Lloyd Scott will not become an Olympic discipline, but it is very original: </li></ul><ul><li>Scott run 42,195 km of the real Marathon in twelve days, on the ground of Loch Ness lake, in Scotland, in </li></ul><ul><li>a driving-dress and without meeting any monster! </li></ul><ul><li>Too extreme? If you are looking for something different from usual sports, there are many alternatives. </li></ul><ul><li>The method is simple: you must only combine a sport with another one, and create a new discipline. </li></ul><ul><li>These are the most famous examples: </li></ul><ul><li>  Football-tennis: it is composed by football and tennis. It is played in rectangular playing fields divided by a tennis net. Instead of tennis rackets, they use feet and everything that is allowed in a football match. The players “serve” from the base line with feet and the ball rebounds in the other field. Football-tennis can be played “doubles”, “single” or in teams of three players. </li></ul><ul><li>  Wave ski: it is composed by surf and kayak. The athlete is sat on a surf table with a paddle and challenges waves as if he was on a real surf. Originally this method was used by bathing-attendants in Australia and South Africa to help bathers who were in difficulty. Now it allows to “fly” on the water. </li></ul><ul><li>Underwater hockey: it is composed by hockey and swimming. It is played in teams of six players. They alternate to breathe every 15/20 seconds. With short bats, the players push the disc. It is a quick play: two matches of 15 minutes. </li></ul><ul><li>Ultimate: it is composed by Frisbee and American football. It is played in a beach divided in two fields. The Frisbee is thrown to the opposing try. The World Cup of Ultimate took place in April 2004, in Rimini. </li></ul><ul><li>But why are mixed sports so loved? Stefano Tamorri, the president of the Italian association of sport </li></ul><ul><li>psychology, says that the reason is that mixed sports are very similar to games, for their creativity. </li></ul><ul><li>Elements from different sports are taken and mixed together: as children do. Moreover in a new sport </li></ul><ul><li>there are few competitors and there are more possibilities to win. </li></ul>Mixed Sports
  47. 47. A HUNDRED BILLION PLASTERS ELENA PASTORINO <ul><li>Using a plaster is the most common way to cure a little hurt. Plasters were invented by </li></ul><ul><li>an American worker of “Johnson and Johnson”. In about 1920 Earle Dickinson wanted </li></ul><ul><li>to help his careless wife, Josephine, who used to get little hurts during her housework. </li></ul><ul><li>So Dickinson put little pieces of gauze behind self-sticking stripes; when Josephine </li></ul><ul><li>needed one of them, she could take off one and put it on her hurt. The chairman of </li></ul><ul><li>“ Johnson and Johnson” liked this invention and decided to begin the production. </li></ul><ul><li>From then on, a hundred billion plasters have been made. </li></ul><ul><li>Nowadays children are the people who use plasters more than anyone else. Since </li></ul><ul><li>1956, plasters for children have been made; they are coloured and some of them </li></ul><ul><li>are drawn (there is even the plaster with Harry Potter on!). There are many </li></ul><ul><li>kinds of plasters: round, coloured, liquid ones, and they are used for different </li></ul><ul><li>problems. There is the plaster that is used as a contraceptive, the one that straightens </li></ul><ul><li>babies’ nose, the one for snoring people. There are even plasters for dogs. It does not </li></ul><ul><li>allow them to lick it; when they try to lick it, the plaster gives a little electric discharge. </li></ul><ul><li>We often think that plasters are the simplest treatments for little hurts. It is true, but we </li></ul><ul><li>must also think that they represent an important step of technology. This simple but </li></ul><ul><li>important invention is improving. Scientists are studying an “alive” plaster made by </li></ul><ul><li>human cells. It is put on the hurt and when the hurt has recovered, it comes off like </li></ul><ul><li>a pellicle. These are only some of the steps that technology is making in this field </li></ul><ul><li>but we hope that they are only the first of a long line. </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul>A Hundred Billion Plasters
  48. 48. STRANGE THINGS OF OLIMPIC GAMES ELENA PASTORINO <ul><li>When we speak about Olympic games, we often say that the important thing is to </li></ul><ul><li>participate. We speak about them because they are the most important international </li></ul><ul><li>sport event. The Olympic games of Athens 2004 are just over. But from the first edition </li></ul><ul><li>(Athens 1896) to the last one (Athens 2004) the whole world has seen all kinds of </li></ul><ul><li>Olympic champions, of Olympic competitors and of strange things. </li></ul><ul><li>-         Athens 1896: there were no Italian competitors but Carlo Airoldi tried to take part in the Marathon going on foot from Milan to Athens. </li></ul><ul><li>-         Paris 1900: Ernst Hoppenberg, a German, won 200 metres back stroke but at the end of the competition he was saved by some people because his dental plate was choking him. </li></ul><ul><li>-        St. Louis 1904: the water polo competition took place in a small and muddy lake. After those Olympic games, three competitors died of typhus. </li></ul><ul><li>-          London 1908: Forrest Smithson had to run on Sunday and so he ran with a Bible in his hands. </li></ul><ul><li>-     Amsterdam 1928: Bobby Pearce won the boat race but he stopped during the competition to let a family of ducks cross. </li></ul><ul><li>-          Rome 1960: the gymnast Larissa Latynina won six medals; she was pregnant. </li></ul><ul><li>These are only some strange things of Olympic games that make them more and more </li></ul><ul><li>charming. We are waiting for Pecking 2008 to see the new ones. </li></ul>STRANGE THINGS OF OLIMPIC GAMES
  49. 49. THE LEGEND OF HARLEY-DAVIDSON ELENA PASTORINO <ul><li>The legend of the Harley-Davidson was born 1903 in Milwaukee when William Harley and </li></ul><ul><li>Arthur Davidson built a motorised bicycle. They were helped by Davidson’s brothers to go </li></ul><ul><li>into business. The production grew rapidly and in 1920 the company succeeded in selling </li></ul><ul><li>28,000 models and it became the most important motorbike manufacturer. Even if there </li></ul><ul><li>have been crisis periods, the myth of the Harley Davidson is still alive. </li></ul><ul><li>One of the worst periods is the Great Depression in the 1930s, when there was the advent </li></ul><ul><li>of the mass produced car. Just for the fact that the Harley-Davidson is not a trend but </li></ul><ul><li>a passion, no other business has a costumer base like theirs. The Harley-Davidson motorcycle has become a </li></ul><ul><li>global icon for a certain way of living based on freedom and righteousness. If in recent years the bike has </li></ul><ul><li>been associated with films like Easy Rider, in the Second World War it was used as a vehicle. When the War </li></ul><ul><li>came to end, its production fell off again. In 1953 the main rival of Harley-Davidson, Indian, went out of </li></ul><ul><li>business; it is the same year as the first cult motorbike movie: “The Wild One”. Marlon Brando drove a </li></ul><ul><li>British motorbike and it worsened the bad state of the American industry. “The Wild One” was the precursor </li></ul><ul><li>of the Hell’s Angels motorbike gangs. </li></ul><ul><li>However it is said that the Hell’s Angels were already around. The Angels rode Harley-Davidsons. Luckily </li></ul><ul><li>this fact did not damage the company’s image. </li></ul><ul><li>Harley-Davidson fans tend to see themselves as belonging to an almost religious </li></ul><ul><li>Organisation and it can explain their great love of getting together in order to share their </li></ul><ul><li>enthusiasm. “The Harley-Davidson Owners Group” gathers every year. In 2003 it was </li></ul><ul><li>called “home run”, just for the fact that they met in Milwaukee. </li></ul><ul><li>Another important event is the Sturgis Rally in the Black Hills of South Dakota. </li></ul>The Legend of the Harley-Davidson
  50. 50. VIDEOGAMES STIMULATE THE BRAIN ROSA PINASCO <ul><li>Scientists working in a project about the possibilities of growing up </li></ul><ul><li>of an adult brain say that videogames can be the right spur for the mind. </li></ul><ul><li>The last search, taken up by some experts, consists in a test </li></ul><ul><li>proposed to a group of players from 18 to 23. This search shows how </li></ul><ul><li>videogames can be useful for an increment of quick reflexes and </li></ul><ul><li>visual concentration. </li></ul><ul><li>Teachers and parents often think that videogames are dangerous and </li></ul><ul><li>that, if children play this kind of games, they will not be interested in </li></ul><ul><li>reading books. </li></ul><ul><li>This is wrong because videogames, particularly the ones in which </li></ul><ul><li>you have to pay attention to more than one element, can be precious </li></ul><ul><li>for the growing up of the brain. </li></ul><ul><li>At the same time the excessive use of videogames can be very </li></ul><ul><li>dangerous. They can cause Alzheimer or epilepsy and then there are </li></ul><ul><li>some particular games that can disturb the balance of the mind. The </li></ul><ul><li>most famous is Video Poker. This kind of game can bring to </li></ul><ul><li>dependence. </li></ul><ul><li>Videogames can be useful only if used responsibly . </li></ul>Videogames Can Stimulate the Brain.
  51. 51. A HEAP OF MEMORIES VIRNA TACCONE <ul><li>Otto Bettman was a German bookseller who liked to collect photos. In 1935 he escaped </li></ul><ul><li>from Nazi Germans to protect himself living in New York. He prepared two trunks to </li></ul><ul><li>transport all of his photos. In America this collection became bigger and bigger. It </li></ul><ul><li>included any kinds of subjects. This is an important cultural document because it covers </li></ul><ul><li>a large period of time. Unfortunately some of the photos have been lost in recent time </li></ul><ul><li>due to newspapers, life “Time”, “Life” and “Newsweek”, eager to have some of the </li></ul><ul><li>famous photos. </li></ul><ul><li>Eventually, in 1995, Bill Gates bought the whole collection to save its photos from </li></ul><ul><li>destroying by time and people. He decided to put all of the photos under ground (-70 m) </li></ul><ul><li>in a mine, in Pennsylvania. Here there is a good temperature (20° C) and a proper </li></ul><ul><li>humidity (35%) to keep them in their original state. The collection includes more than 11 </li></ul><ul><li>millions of black and white photos, coloured snaps, and slides… </li></ul><ul><li>They are about different matters. People can see famous myths or everyday- pictures. </li></ul><ul><li>This is the reason why Bill Gates’ s mine is called the “Mine of Memories”. In fact, it </li></ul><ul><li>contains an important cultural an historical testimony. There are a lot of files to collect </li></ul><ul><li>photos about the World War, Queen Elizabeth II Windsor, Fidel Castro, cowboys, </li></ul><ul><li>baseball players, Maoris, families of the 50s… </li></ul>A HEAP OF MEMORIES!
  52. 52. DRAGONS VIRNA TACCONE <ul><li>Dragons. Which are the origins of dragons? These strange animals were born in ancient times and grew up in </li></ul><ul><li>the human fantastic world. Dragons were enormous reptiles with a mixture of features of different animals: </li></ul><ul><li>crocodiles, bats, dogs, birds, snakes… </li></ul><ul><li>Nowadays, it is not certain how dragons were born. There are many tales about their real origins. These </li></ul><ul><li>fantastic creatures are presented in many myths and legends and had a particular behaviour; linked to the </li></ul><ul><li>time and place they lived in. </li></ul><ul><li>In Europe, the fire- breathing dragons were very horrible and frightful; killed preys in a very cruel way, with a </li></ul><ul><li>kind of relish. </li></ul><ul><li>On the contrary, Asiatic dragons were peaceful and powerful: just the opposite of European dragons. </li></ul><ul><li>In old Christian and knightly legends dragons were, very often, in the role of an evil incarnation, which </li></ul><ul><li>gave them a negative aspect. </li></ul><ul><li>In the North of Europe people were afraid of dragons. In fact Nidhogg, from the northern countries, was </li></ul><ul><li>a wild dragon whose work was destroying the whole world. </li></ul><ul><li>During the Middle Ages monks and scholars wrote down different kinds of poems. Some tales were crowded </li></ul><ul><li>with cruel and ferocious dragons. They often fought against knights and Christian characters and their fights </li></ul><ul><li>were the symbol of the conflict between “Good and Evil”. </li></ul><ul><li>Nowadays these animals are very often a source of inspiration for many films, TV- directors and writers. </li></ul><ul><li>Dragons have a new look: they are not so frightful, often have feelings like humans and are </li></ul><ul><li>also nice characters loved by children who see them in cartoons. </li></ul><ul><li>In the East dragons are very important, in fact Eastern culture considers them messengers of </li></ul><ul><li>beneficial rains. The dragon is also the emblem of the emperor and his power and is the most </li></ul><ul><li>diffused animal - figure of Chinese art. </li></ul>Dragons...?
  53. 53. NOT ONLY BREAD AND BEER VIRNA TACCONE <ul><li>In ancient Egypt there were various diets. People from all of the classes could choose among </li></ul><ul><li>many tasty dishes. Edda Bresciani, the teacher of Egyptology at the University of Pisa,