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Introduction dentistry.ppt


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Introduction dentistry.ppt

  1. 1. Introduction <ul><li>Pathology - a branch of medicine studying diseases </li></ul><ul><li>outer and inner factors causing diseases - etiology </li></ul><ul><li>(TB - caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis) </li></ul>
  2. 2. Introduction <ul><li>how and why - development - pathogenesis </li></ul><ul><li>(infectious endocarditis - thrombembolism - multiple abscesses) </li></ul><ul><li>related disciplines: anatomy, histology, microbiology, clinical chemistry, hematology, laboratory medicine </li></ul>
  3. 3. <ul><li>• autopsy </li></ul><ul><li>search for changes in dead patients, correlation with clinical symptoms - feed-back </li></ul><ul><li>educational role </li></ul><ul><li>chronic toxicity studies (pharmaceutic industry) </li></ul><ul><li>pathological autopsy is different from anatomic autopsy and forensic autopsy </li></ul><ul><li>gross examination, microscopy, special methods (cultivation, chemical tests, etc.) </li></ul>Methods used in pathology
  4. 4. <ul><li>biopsy (surgical pathology) </li></ul><ul><li>80% of workload </li></ul><ul><li>since 1950! </li></ul><ul><li>microscopical diagnostics, for living patients </li></ul><ul><li>histology, cytology (exfoliative-Pap test; fluids, fine needle aspiration cytology) </li></ul>Methods used in pathology
  5. 5. <ul><li>specimens: </li></ul><ul><li>fluids (physiological - urine; pathological - pus, ascites) </li></ul><ul><li>endoscopic samples (gastroscopy, colonoscopy, bronchoscopy, etc.) </li></ul><ul><li>tru-cut needle biopsy (liver, kidney, prostate) </li></ul><ul><li>diagnostic excisions (skin, breast, pancreas) </li></ul><ul><li>entire organs (hysterectomy, mastectomy, lung resection, colectomy) </li></ul><ul><li>pathological dx = golden standard (important for treatment) (A. Hailey: Final diagnosis) </li></ul>Methods used in pathology
  6. 6. How to handle specimen for histology <ul><li>fixation (×frozen section) </li></ul><ul><li>clinical information (identification!!!!; symptoms; preliminary diagnosis; what do you expect from pathologist) </li></ul>
  7. 7. History of pathology <ul><li>Vesalius </li></ul><ul><li>1475 - Sixtus IV. - permits to use cadavers in teaching of medical students </li></ul><ul><li>1485 - Clement VII. - the same </li></ul><ul><li>18th cent. - Jean Baptist Morgagni (1682-1772) - 700 autopsies - case reports - clinico-morphologic correlations - founder of modern pathology </li></ul><ul><li>19th cent. - Karl Rokitanski (Austria) - born 1804 in Hradec Králové, University of Vienna, 50 000 of autopsies - only gross examination </li></ul><ul><li>Rudolf Virchow - founder of modern pathology (classification of tumors, mitosis, apoptosis, causal relationships) - Berlin (Charité) </li></ul>
  8. 10. <ul><li>our country: </li></ul><ul><li>Jesenius 1600, 1605 - two public autopsies </li></ul><ul><li>Prof. Jaroslav Hlava - end of 198th cent. - his last pupil was Dr. Antonin Fingerland (1900-1999) </li></ul><ul><li>1928 - Dept. of Pathology in Hradec Králové - inspiration = Mayo Clinic (clinicopathologic conferences, close cooperation, continuous education) </li></ul>History of pathology
  9. 12. Organization of education <ul><li>general pathology - main principles </li></ul><ul><li>systemic pathology - diseases and pathologic processes in different organ systems </li></ul><ul><li>lectures - (Aleš Ryška, MD, PhD; Karel Dědič, MD, PhD) </li></ul><ul><li>practical classes - Karel Dědič, MD, PhD (excursion at the Department, autopsy, surgical pathology, microscopy) </li></ul>
  10. 13. <ul><li>textbooks: </li></ul><ul><li>Basic Pathology (Cumar, Cotran, Robbins) </li></ul><ul><li>Oral Pathology (van der Waal, van der Kwast) </li></ul><ul><li>you MUST know before start of your practical classes : normal anatomy, normal histology of most important organs, basic embryology, normal physiology) </li></ul>Organization of education
  11. 15. <ul><li>pay close attention to other disciplines!!! (pathophysiology, microbiology, biology, biochemistry) </li></ul><ul><li>credits - examination of histologic slides </li></ul><ul><li>exam - lectures, practicals, Robbins, van der Waal </li></ul><ul><li>49 583 3748 Dr. Ryška </li></ul><ul><li>49 583 2287 Dr. Dědič </li></ul><ul><li>49 583 2611 Mrs. Hejnová (secretary) </li></ul>Organization of education
  12. 16. Good luck !