ECE1006  Health in Early Childhood Lyn Bower - Toowoomba Lindy Austin & Di Small - Wide Bay
COMMONWEALTH OF AUSTRALIA Copyright Regulations 1969 WARNING This material has been copied and communicated to you by or o...
Teeth have three main purposes... <ul><li>eating </li></ul><ul><li>speech </li></ul><ul><li>appearance </li></ul>
Oral hygiene -  we keep our mouths healthy by... <ul><li>cleaning every surface at least twice a day </li></ul><ul><li>usi...
Dental care… <ul><li>starts before pregnancy and continues </li></ul><ul><li>considerations - morning sickness, hunger,  x...
Healthy teeth…
Plaque... <ul><li>is full of bacteria and can contribute to bad breath </li></ul><ul><li>contributes to dental caries </li...
Calculus... <ul><li>calcification of plaque if plaque is not removed from teeth </li></ul><ul><li>forms most commonly arou...
Gingivitis... <ul><li>if teeth are not cleaned daily plaque forms around the gum margins and acts as an irritant - resulti...
Periodontal disease.. <ul><li>gingivitis left untreated may progress to periodontal disease </li></ul><ul><li>the bone and...
Dental caries/dental decay... <ul><li>is preventable </li></ul><ul><li>sugar or starchy products increases the frequency o...
Oral health for babies…avoid <ul><li>giving babies dummies with honey or other substances </li></ul><ul><li>don’t use a bo...
Teething... <ul><li>teeth form while the baby is developing in the uterus </li></ul><ul><li>normally erupt about 6 months ...
Teething... <ul><li>at six permanent of second teeth appear </li></ul><ul><li>by 13 years 28 teeth (not including wisdom t...
Structure... <ul><li>central core or pulp containing blood vessels and nerves </li></ul><ul><li>dentine bulk of the tooth ...
Signs of teething... <ul><li>dribbling, pulling ears </li></ul><ul><li>flushed cheeks, raised temperature </li></ul><ul><l...
Easing teething pain... <ul><li>teething rings, rusks etc </li></ul><ul><li>rubbing teeth and gums with clean finger </li>...
Do... <ul><li>start cleaning as soon as teeth appear </li></ul><ul><li>start dental visits between 18-24 months </li></ul>...
Why are baby teeth so important... <ul><li>help the face and jaw develop properly </li></ul><ul><li>teeth are needed for e...
Tips etc... <ul><li>brush all five surfaces </li></ul><ul><li>apples and carrots do not necessarily clean teeth - milk and...
Dummies and thumbs... <ul><li>sucking is a normal development  </li></ul><ul><li>do not dip in sugary foods or honey </li>...
 
 
 
 
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  • Dental care for children should begin before they are born. It is essential that expectant mothers eat a diet based on a variety of nutritious foods including an adequate supply of vitamins and minerals. This type of diet helps to ensure an optimal status during pregnancy and strengthens the unborn infants teeth which begin to form at about the sixteenth week. The type of hygiene and care children receive, along with diet and heredity, will determine dental health throughout life. Teeth begin to develop long before they appear in the mouth: the first stages in the development of primary, or first teeth take place before birth. A child&apos;s first tooth usually appears when they are about six months old although this varies from child to child. The first teeth to appear are incisors, followed by the primary molars and canines. A child at 21/2 years usually has all 20 primary teeth. When a child is about six years old his permanent, or second teeth begin to appear. The first permanent molars develop in line behind the primary teeth. A child normally has a set of 28 permanent teeth (not including their wisdom teeth) by the time they are 13 years old. Both primary and permanent teeth have the same basic structure, although primary teeth are smaller and more widely spaced than permanent teeth and may also be whiter. Each tooth has a central core, or pulp, containing blood vessels and nerves. This is surrounded by a hard material, dentine, which forms the bulk of each tooth. The dentine forming the crown of each tooth is covered by a layer of enamel. Enamel is even harder than dentine and, unlike it, has no nerve supply. The roots of the teeth are covered with a bone-like material. Tooth decay is caused by plaque - a jelly-like coating of carbohydrate debris which clings to the teeth. This coating forms an ideal medium for bacteria, because it provides food, warmth, and moisture. Bacteria plus plaque produce acid, and this attacks the tooth enamel - it gradually dissolves the hard enamel, eventually penetrating to the pulp (inner core of the tooth) where the nerve endings are. There is no pain toll the nerve endings are exposed. Once there is a hold, bacteria can get into the pulp and may cause an abscess. Usually the tooth has to be removed when it reaches this stage. Children should be taught to brush straight after eating, using a small soft brush and fluoride toothpaste. Cleaning teeth and gums can be started as soon as teeth start to emerge. A baby&apos;s gums and teeth can be gently wiped with cotton-wool or gauze at first, and a soft brush introduced when teething is complete. The child can start handling a toothbrush early., and watching others brush, but it is recommended that children either brush under adult supervision of have their teeth brushed for them (or “finished off”) until 7 -10 years, depending on the child&apos;s manual dexterity, thoroughness, and attitudes to cleaning. When an baby is teething, at first the tooth forms a small pale bump in the gum. Soon, the gum over the emerging tooth may be red and sore, the corresponding cheek may be flushed and the baby may dribble more than usual. Sometimes an emerging tooth is covered for a short time with a small bluish swelling, caused by blood, or less often, by fluid collecting in the gum tissues. Many babies are also fretful or irritable when they are teething. There is no medical evidence that problems like diarrhoea or bronchitis, vomiting, rashes or fever are caused by teething. Thumb sucking, dummies/soothers may cause problems for some children. Sugar and teeth • Natural sugars such as honey and syrup are just as harmful to teeth as refined sugar. • Sticky sweets are particularly harmful as they stay on teeth for longer periods of time. • Eating a sweet all at once is better then eating one for a long time or often e.g. eating mints at regular intervals. • Sticky fruits e.g. raisins, dates, should be eaten with a meal. • Frequent snacking is not particularly good as teeth are attacked by decay process through out the day. • Never put baby to bed with bottle milk, formula, juice or sweetened liquid - sugar stays on teeth for a long time and can cause serious decay.
  • ECE1006504.ppt

    1. 1. ECE1006 Health in Early Childhood Lyn Bower - Toowoomba Lindy Austin & Di Small - Wide Bay
    2. 2. COMMONWEALTH OF AUSTRALIA Copyright Regulations 1969 WARNING This material has been copied and communicated to you by or on behalf of The University of Southern Queensland pursuant to Part VA of the Copyright Act 1968 (the Act). The material in this communication may be subject to copyright under the Act. Any further copying or communication of this material by you may be the subject of copyright protection under the Act. Do not remove this notice.
    3. 3. Teeth have three main purposes... <ul><li>eating </li></ul><ul><li>speech </li></ul><ul><li>appearance </li></ul>
    4. 4. Oral hygiene - we keep our mouths healthy by... <ul><li>cleaning every surface at least twice a day </li></ul><ul><li>using a soft bristle toothbrush and fluoride </li></ul><ul><li>using dental floss </li></ul><ul><li>maintaining a sensible diet </li></ul><ul><li>having regular check up with the dentist </li></ul>
    5. 5. Dental care… <ul><li>starts before pregnancy and continues </li></ul><ul><li>considerations - morning sickness, hunger, x-rays, hormones, lack of ‘routines’ and self care </li></ul><ul><li>mediation - permanent discoloration of baby teeth </li></ul>
    6. 6. Healthy teeth…
    7. 7. Plaque... <ul><li>is full of bacteria and can contribute to bad breath </li></ul><ul><li>contributes to dental caries </li></ul><ul><li>see page 2 of Building healthy teeth for life </li></ul>
    8. 8. Calculus... <ul><li>calcification of plaque if plaque is not removed from teeth </li></ul><ul><li>forms most commonly around saliva ducts </li></ul><ul><li>usually found behind lower front teeth </li></ul><ul><li>usually white/cream colour - black if very formed under the gum margins </li></ul>
    9. 9. Gingivitis... <ul><li>if teeth are not cleaned daily plaque forms around the gum margins and acts as an irritant - resulting in gingivitis </li></ul><ul><li>characteristic - swollen or puffy red </li></ul><ul><li>will bleed easily </li></ul><ul><li>is reversible - needs regular brushing </li></ul>
    10. 10. Periodontal disease.. <ul><li>gingivitis left untreated may progress to periodontal disease </li></ul><ul><li>the bone and gingiva have receded and will not grow back </li></ul><ul><li>is not reversible </li></ul>
    11. 11. Dental caries/dental decay... <ul><li>is preventable </li></ul><ul><li>sugar or starchy products increases the frequency of teeth being exposed to acidic saliva </li></ul><ul><li>prime sites are the grooves on the biting surfaces of the back teeth </li></ul>
    12. 12. Oral health for babies…avoid <ul><li>giving babies dummies with honey or other substances </li></ul><ul><li>don’t use a bottle as a comforter </li></ul><ul><li>avoid giving babies juice - use water </li></ul><ul><li>bacteria is easily transferred - kissing, blowing on food, bottle or dummy in mouth first </li></ul><ul><li>• don’t share food or drinks with babies </li></ul>
    13. 13. Teething... <ul><li>teeth form while the baby is developing in the uterus </li></ul><ul><li>normally erupt about 6 months </li></ul><ul><li>first teeth are incisors followed by molars and canines </li></ul><ul><li>a 2 1 / 2 year old usually has 20 teeth </li></ul>
    14. 14. Teething... <ul><li>at six permanent of second teeth appear </li></ul><ul><li>by 13 years 28 teeth (not including wisdom teeth) </li></ul><ul><li>primary and permanent teeth have same basic structure </li></ul><ul><li>primary teeth whiter and more widely spaced </li></ul>
    15. 15. Structure... <ul><li>central core or pulp containing blood vessels and nerves </li></ul><ul><li>dentine bulk of the tooth and covers core or pulp </li></ul><ul><li>dentine is covered by enamel - harder than dentine - no nerve supply </li></ul><ul><li>roots of teeth covered with bone-like material </li></ul>
    16. 16. Signs of teething... <ul><li>dribbling, pulling ears </li></ul><ul><li>flushed cheeks, raised temperature </li></ul><ul><li>cranky baby, irritability </li></ul><ul><li>pain, discomfort in mouth </li></ul><ul><li>swollen red gums </li></ul><ul><li>chews on everything </li></ul><ul><li>restless by day, sleepless at night </li></ul><ul><li>loose bowel motions </li></ul>
    17. 17. Easing teething pain... <ul><li>teething rings, rusks etc </li></ul><ul><li>rubbing teeth and gums with clean finger </li></ul><ul><li>teething gel (children over 4 months) </li></ul><ul><li>paracetamol if needed </li></ul><ul><li>seek medical advice if... </li></ul>
    18. 18. Do... <ul><li>start cleaning as soon as teeth appear </li></ul><ul><li>start dental visits between 18-24 months </li></ul><ul><li>give water instead of sweet drinks </li></ul><ul><li>introduce a cup asap </li></ul><ul><li>establish a healthy diet </li></ul><ul><li>avoid comforters </li></ul>
    19. 19. Why are baby teeth so important... <ul><li>help the face and jaw develop properly </li></ul><ul><li>teeth are needed for eating </li></ul><ul><li>speech formation </li></ul><ul><li>hold space for permanent teeth </li></ul>
    20. 20. Tips etc... <ul><li>brush all five surfaces </li></ul><ul><li>apples and carrots do not necessarily clean teeth - milk and cheese act as buffers </li></ul><ul><li>fluoride tablets not needed </li></ul><ul><li>children under 6 should use low fluoride toothpaste </li></ul><ul><li>use soft brushes - model and be consistent </li></ul>
    21. 21. Dummies and thumbs... <ul><li>sucking is a normal development </li></ul><ul><li>do not dip in sugary foods or honey </li></ul><ul><li>always have two - cleanliness </li></ul><ul><li>remove when sleeping </li></ul><ul><li>don’t clean by putting in adults mouth </li></ul><ul><li>both thumb and dummies can cause problems with jaw development </li></ul>

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